Impact of a video’s in reinforcing use of hyphaena crinite fruits in improving fish quality and mitigating deforestation


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Presentation by Andrew Saukani, Communications and Outreach Officer, Department of Fisheries, Malawi College of Fisheries
Session: ICTs, Aquaculture and Fisheries Sector
on 5 Nov 2013
ICT4Ag, Kigali, Rwanda

Published in: Technology, Business
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Impact of a video’s in reinforcing use of hyphaena crinite fruits in improving fish quality and mitigating deforestation

  1. 1. IMPACT OF A VIDEO’s IN REINFORCING USE OF HYPHAENA CRINITE FRUITS IN IMPROVING FISH QUALITY AND MITIGATING DEFORESTATION STREAM 1; Emerging Innovations in ICTs supporting ARD Andrew Saukani Malawi College of Fisheries, Presented at the International conference on ICT4 Ag 5 November 2013, SERENA HOTEL – KIGALI, RWANDA
  2. 2. Introduction • Malawi is an agro – based country. 80 percent of workforce is in agriculture & contributes over 80 % of foreign exchange earnings (GOM- 2012) • Fisheries employs over 460,000 people, provides 70 % of dietary animal protein, 4 % GDP • Fisheries sector is encountering challenges; overfishing, use of illegal gears, environmental degradation, and post harvest loses • Efforts and interventions (projects and initiatives) are being made to mitigate the impacts and stay course in line with DOFs mission statement, MGDS 2, and NEPAD on economic development
  3. 3. Common fish species in Malawi Usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) Clarius gariepinus (African catfish ) Utaka (Copadichromis) Oreochromis Karongae /Tilapia Diplotaxodon limnothrissa (Ndunduma)
  4. 4. Fish processing in Malawi • Fish is processed depending on; size, type and quantity of species, distance to the market, consumer preference and knowledge of the processing methodology Processing methodologies includes; Sun drying – commonly to species like kambuzi and matemba Smoking - applicable to relatively bigger species like chambo and mlamba Para-boiling and pan roasting - for usipa and utaka Freezing (icing) - applies to all to enable instant
  5. 5. Processing methods
  6. 6. • Where 80 percent of fish catches in Malawi water bodies are dominated by Kambuzi and Matemba, it means that sun drying and smoking are the main mode of processing to meet long distant supply and longer shelf life across the country
  7. 7. Traditional fish processing methods results in an average 10 % percent post-harvest losses • Fish smoking has contributed to; deforestation, soil erosion and silting up of potential fish breeding grounds Malawi’s Forests are declining at a very alarming rate of 2.6 per cent per annum (FRIM 2008) Firewood consumption, currently estimated at 7.5million tons per annum exceeds sustainable supply by 3.7 million tons, leading to an annual
  8. 8. Fisheries Department; mission statement “to provide framework conditions and excellent services for the maximization of socio-economic benefits through sustainable utilization and management of capture fisheries and increased aquaculture production”
  9. 9. Research /study Objectives • assess viability of utilizing palm tree fruits (Hyphaena crinite) locally known as Zikunda in reducing the amount of firewood used in fish smoking, improving quality of fish products • ascertain benefits of such innovation to environmental rehabilitation and community income generation • how to present innovations in a friendly user package inspire mass adoption without much ado or technical
  10. 10. Study sites • Chapola (Lake Malombe) & Kadango (Lake Malawi) • High population, dependent on fisheries and agriculture (declining fish catches, deforestation and soil erosion) • Usipa and Kambuzi are the common fish species in the two sites • Smoking & sun drying techniques most practiced and the study focused on smoking applied on Kambuzi, Chambo
  11. 11. Experimental trials • Two sets of experimental trials were made and results compared • 1st trial, big palm sized Mcheni fish species were smoked in trays using an all palm fruits (zikunda) fired kiln. This was replicated with a mixture of different species using the same heat source • 2nd trial involved smoking big palm sized Mcheni using a 3;1 mixture of zikunda and some fire wood
  12. 12. • Results of each set up analyzed, appropriate recommendations made and translated into an appropriate media for transmission to rural masses
  13. 13. Results 1; Smoking with 100 percent palm1fruit) to smoke the fish. Time • Less time (max; hour could vary depending on tray load per time & fish size • • • • High heat emission (kill microbes, removes excess water and fat ) No browning effect on the fish surface as coconut fruits were smokeless Final fish outlook; clear and dry - not attractive to the eye Such has a likelihood to reduce shelf life, easy attacked by pests (moth) if stored for long
  14. 14. Results 2; Combining palm fruits and firewood percent ratio combination of palm fruits • 75; 25 % (3;1) with natural wood • Palm fruits provided heat. Smoke from firewood provided desired tar coating to the fish to produce an appealing browning outlook • Efficiency achieved as the tar from wood vs palm fruit combination sealed off the fish skin from further entry of microbes • Less ash was produced
  15. 15. For more efficient results; • More time is required (1.5 - 2 hours) Gradual regulation of smoking process how the fire is burning to generate appropriate amount of heat. Right combination ratios of dry palm fruits and natural wood • This combination is advantageous less firewood used, high quality fish produced (high prices), less spending on firewood hence directly minimizing deforestation rates • Other factors of consideration; species size, fat content and tray load per time
  16. 16. Dissemination; Use of video documentary for mass adoption • Any new innovation is useless until it is transferred, adopted and improves masses old way of doing things (C. Jones - 1998) • After the experiments, How to transfer the innovation to a wider user communities for adoption became an issue? • Consultatively, use of a video documentary as a tool to disseminate the innovation was suggested • A 45 minute video documentary; Kasamalidwe ndi Kakonzedwe ka Nsomba (Fish Processing and Handling Practices) was produced
  17. 17. Documentary complemented a series of training session with fish processors, traders and fishermen in the two sites and was shown to distant fishing communities through mobile cinema units
  18. 18. • Communities appreciated seeing each step, followed easily, assured of doing the same hence the documentary contributed to massive adoption (70 %) of the innovation, high quality and prices – (2012) Extended benefits; it opened a window of opportunity for women & children in the study sites to start collecting palm fruits for sale thus generating an income • consequent reduction in pressure on natural forests and possibly allowing communities direct efforts towards natural resources rehabilitation (agro- forestry) • by laws have been enacted restraining cutting down of palm
  19. 19. Smoked fish products on display at national agriculture fair
  20. 20. Conclusion • There are multiple benefits from integrated fish smoking methods which needs to be promoted • Simple innovations, if packaged, delivered in a user friendly manner can inspire mass adoption for positive changes • Support to mobile units, agriculture TV / radio main stream media and home ownership of video sets to disseminate the innovation further • Areas of further research; coping rates, shelf life, market performance and nutritive aspects in improving the innovation
  21. 21. Acknowledgement MCF - for the research on the innovation • CIDA – SFFS - for generously funding the research and costs of documentary production • COU crew and fisheries extension staff - for excellent coordination of events • CTA, organizers, sponsors and host government (Rwanda) - for providing platform for this presentation and wonderful hospitality • Fellow presenters and participants – You are all
  22. 22. • Thanks & End