Impact Evaluation as Learning and Accountability Tool for Agricultural Extension Programs: Challenges and Prospects  HAILE...
Outline  <ul><li>Introduction and Objectives  </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discus...
Introduction and Objectives…  <ul><li>Agricultural extension has long been recognized as an important factor in promoting ...
Introduction and Objectives… <ul><li>The difficulty of tracing the casual relationship between extension input and its imp...
Materials and Methods <ul><li>Review of some impact evaluation reports on agricultural extension programs in SSA. </li></u...
Results and Discussions   <ul><li>Agricultural Production and Productivity  </li></ul><ul><li>Most literatures agree that ...
Results and Discussions... <ul><li>Agricultural Extension Impact Evaluation Results  </li></ul><ul><li>15(71%) impact eval...
Results and Discussions... <ul><li>Contradictions   </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity trends..low technological ...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs  <ul><li>Impact evaluation is about attribution . it is difficult to a...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Comparable Control Group:  difficult to establish control gro...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Other sources of information and technology:  There are sourc...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Methodological Factors  </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators used to ...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Impact Evaluation Designs :  impact evaluations in SSA have s...
Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Lack of baseline and reliable data </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage...
Conclusions and Recommendations  <ul><li>Conclusions   </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity is disappointing.  </li...
 
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Impact evaluation as a learning and accountability tool for agricultural extension programs: challenges and prospects.

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Impact evaluation as a learning and accountability tool for agricultural extension programs: challenges and prospects.

  1. 1. Impact Evaluation as Learning and Accountability Tool for Agricultural Extension Programs: Challenges and Prospects HAILEMICHAEL TAYE BEYENE INTERNATONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUE (ILRI)
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction and Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Future Prospects of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction and Objectives… <ul><li>Agricultural extension has long been recognized as an important factor in promoting agricultural development (Birkhaeuser et al., 1991; and Anderson and Feder, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries have been implementing various agricultural extension programs to improve agricultural production and productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact evaluation is an attempt to establish a casual relationship between an intervention and change in outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>If impact evaluations are not conducted appropriately, could lead to wrong conclusions which may lead to wrong decisions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction and Objectives… <ul><li>The difficulty of tracing the casual relationship between extension input and its impact is appreciated by various authors (Anandajayasekeram et al., 2008; Davis. K, 2008; Anderson, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Several evaluations have been conducted on agricultural extension programs in SSA by various parties. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper, based on analysis of some impact evaluation studies conducted in SSA attempts to identify challenges and future prospects of impact evaluation of agricultural extension programs in the region. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Materials and Methods <ul><li>Review of some impact evaluation reports on agricultural extension programs in SSA. </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 21 impact evaluation results from 10 countries were collected from various websites for the analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity trends reported by various authors are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly based on qualitative analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The quantitative data are analyzed using simple descriptive statistics mainly percentages. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Results and Discussions <ul><li>Agricultural Production and Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Most literatures agree that the performance of the agricultural sector in SSA has been disappointing. </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita agricultural production was deteriorating in Africa during the past 45 years (Steven H and Peter B. R. H, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Due to this the continent has turned from a food exporter to a net food importer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yields per ha is stagnant, particularly for cereals, in contrast to substantial yield increases in other regions of the world in the years from 1960 to 2005 ( Staatz. JM & Dembele NN, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Yield per ha is stagnant shows that the yield production growth is due to mostly area expansion (limited technological change ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results and Discussions... <ul><li>Agricultural Extension Impact Evaluation Results </li></ul><ul><li>15(71%) impact evaluation studies reported positive significant impact. </li></ul><ul><li>6 (29%) reported non significant impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the impact evaluation studies also contradict each other. For instance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindlish & Evenson (1997) vs Gautam & Anderson (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ayele et al (2005) and IFPRI (2008) vs EEA/EEPRI (2006) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Results and Discussions... <ul><li>Contradictions </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity trends..low technological change. </li></ul><ul><li>The IE results themselves. </li></ul><ul><li> Such exaggerations and contradictions lead to skepticism on the results (Davis, K. 2008). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs <ul><li>Impact evaluation is about attribution . it is difficult to attribute a change in outcomes to a specific intervention since there are so many different factors involved. Two challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the extraneous effects and design effects for estimating the net impact. </li></ul><ul><li>The other inherent challenge in impact evaluation is estimating the counterfactual . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Comparable Control Group: difficult to establish control groups both from operational and ethical considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection bias: People involvement in agricultural extension programs is based on interest and resource availability. Additionally, trying new technology requires the capacity to take risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Endogeneity in extension-farmer interaction: Extension contact which plays central role for success of extension programs is highly affected by farmers’ characteristics and actions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Other sources of information and technology: There are sources of information and technology other than the extension program. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension to be effective needs other support services. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture especially in the Sub-Saharan African countries is highly dependent on nature and it is complex, diverse and risk prone. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Methodological Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators used to measure outcomes: This is related to the definition of impact evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Impact’ as the final level of the causal chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference in the indicator of interest (Y) with the intervention (Y1) and without the intervention (Y0). That is, impact = Y1 – Y0. It is about attribution by identifying the counterfactual value of Y (Y0) in a rigorous manner. </li></ul><ul><li>The two definitions could overlap if Y is an outcome indicator. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Impact Evaluation Designs : impact evaluations in SSA have shortfall in employing appropriate evaluation designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling: The sample should not only be large enough but also random so that it can represent the population and provide adequate statistical power. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis: Regression techniques are preferred for analysis in impact evaluations so that the effects of confounding factors could be controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Design and Implementation: In SSA due to lack of skilled manpower, budget, time and logistics evaluations are done in tight schedule and in a hurry. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges of IE of Agricultural Extension Programs… <ul><li>Lack of baseline and reliable data </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of Skilled Manpower to Conduct Rigorous Impact Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor M&E system </li></ul><ul><li>Budget constraints for Impact Evaluation Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Future Prospects of IE in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift in agricultural research and extension calls for review the linear M&E approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating casual relationships between interventions and outcomes will not be easy due to the complex, dynamic and institutional pluralism. </li></ul><ul><li>More focus on learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from proving to improving impact. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions and Recommendations <ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity is disappointing. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of IE reported positivity results. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases contradictory results. </li></ul><ul><li>There are methodological, data and capacity related factors that affect the results of IEs. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Building evaluation capacity, establishing appropriate M&E systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Employing easy, less costly ,flexible, participatory, and learning focused tools. </li></ul><ul><li>From proving to improving impact. </li></ul>

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