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  1. 1. The Middle AgesBy Wout, Daniel, Kimi and Filip
  2. 2. Castles In the middle ages, people built Castles to protect the kings and queens. Most castles were surrounded by channels filled with water called moats. Castles were build close to rivers for washing, drinking water, and to fill up the moats The castles that didn’t have moats were built on a steep hill or mountain. The walls didn’t absorb heat, so the inside of the castle was cold
  3. 3. Castles The castles were built more for safety, not for comfort. A keep was a watch tower for enemies The peasants built a moat by hand First, people built wooden castles, but when enemies started burning down castles, people started building stone castles It took years to build a wooden castle Stone castles were more expensive
  4. 4. Castles Castles were designed to defend enemies. Enemies would attack a castle with Catapults and Flaming Arrows
  5. 5. Castles A drawbridge let people in and out of the castle The lady made sure supplies were ordered and bills were paid The most important part of the castle was The Great Hall In the great Hall, the Lord ate, slept, and entertained himself The Great Hall was the only room in the Castles of the Early Middle Ages
  6. 6. Castles Towns were build around the castle, so if an enemy was spotted, the people in the towns would get a warning. The Keep was the strongest part of the Castle The castle windows were small, so little fresh air came in The castles did not have comfortable furniture Food was cooked in big kettles in the fireplaces The walls had big rugs on them
  7. 7. Castles The floors were covered with twigs and bits of wood Candles and torches were used to light the walls Usually, a curtain separated the sleeping area from the rest of the Great Hall By the 1100s, the lord, lady, and their children had a private room called a Solar The Solar had little furniture
  8. 8. Castles A fireplace in the Solar kept the royal family warm Toilets in the Middle Ages were called Garderobes The toilet channel emptied out dirt in a pit underneath the ground There was no toilet paper, so people used handfuls of hay, straw, or torn bits of cloth. Lords and ladies bathed in a wooden bathtub shaped like a barrel
  9. 9. Castles The tub had a wooden seat padded with cloth for comfort During winter, the tub was placed in the lord’s or lady’s Solar; during Summer, the bath took place in a garden Servants poured hot water into the tub that was heated in the kitchen By the late 1300s, feudalism ended and European nobles lost their control, meanwhile kings got more powerful
  10. 10. Castles Many castles fell into ruin or were destroyed by war The rocks from castles were used to build new homes Some castles were turned into huge houses passed from generation to generation
  11. 11. Castles Around the 1400s, kings and other wealthy men built homes that looked like castles These modern castles didnt have any furniture at all These castles didn’t have defensive walls, instead they were surrounded by fountains and gardens
  12. 12. Kings and Queens By Wout It was the king’s duty to create laws for his people The king had to defend his people from outside enemies’ kingdoms A king was crowned in an extravagant ceremony called a coronation Kings ruled over large territories called kingdoms The pope placed the crown on the king’s head Queens came from very powerful families and were daughters of other kings or great lords Queens offered their husbands advice on how to rule the kingdom
  13. 13. KnightsKnights protected lords, queens, and vassals.Knights wore chainmail for armor. Chainmail was little round iron circles.Knights’ weapons were spears and swords. The newer weapons were called crossbows and longbows.Knights were brave and strong.Knights wore stronger and better armor.
  14. 14. Townspeople By Wout
  15. 15. Townspeople By the 1100s, new inventions, such as better plows, made it easier to farm Peasants grew more crops than they needed to feed their families and to pay their lord They began to hold weekly or monthly markets at crossroads to trade their products for goods from other manors
  16. 16. Townspeople2I. Boys in the middle ages started to learn a craft or trade when they were about seven years oldII. They worked as apprentices, or unpaid assistants, to masters, who were experts at the craft or trade
  17. 17. Townspeople3 In the late middle ages, some cities had indoor markets where merchants sold goods of all kinds Craftspeople and merchants who made or sold the same kinds of goods belonged to organizations called guilds Guilds decided how much their members could charge for their goods
  18. 18. Townspeople4 In Medieval towns, people were mostly of two classes They were either laborers who were technically serfs, but did not live on manorial estates, or they were members of the middle class
  19. 19. Merchants BY DANIEL.DI. Merchants were people who sold stuffII. They sold food, weapons and other stuffIII. Merchants were poor and they had to work a lotIV. Merchants were weavers, goldsmiths, and food and beverage sellersV. These people owned shops and earned money by selling goods, not by fighting or farmingVI. Boys in the Middle Ages learned a craft or trade when they were 7 years oldVII. Guilds decided how much the product would cost, and made sure the products were of high quality
  20. 20. Merchants 2By Daniel.D Merchants were still ruled by the lord They couldn’t do whatever they wanted to do Merchants werent free and they werent that lucky They could be killed if the lord told his vassal or his knights to kill the merchants
  21. 21. THIS IS THE END OF THE PRESENTATION !!!!Hope you loved it! Thank you for coming!!!!