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  1. 1. March 7, 2014
  2. 2.  Who are Dyslexic Students?  What are Strategies for Teaching Dyslexic Students?  What Policies have the State of Texas Enacted Regarding Dyslexia?
  3. 3.  Can you read the letters in the word, “cat”?  Can you tell me the phonemes in the word, “cat”?  Can you put the phonemes together and read the word       “cat”? Can you read the word, “cat” silently in your head? Can you tell me the meaning of the word, “cat”? Can you tell me the visual and verbal schema you have for the word, “cat”? Can you close your eyes and see the spelling of the word, “cat”? With your eyes closed, can you tell me where the letter “a” falls in the word “cat”? Can you tell me where the letter “c” falls in the word “independence”?
  4. 4. These steps demonstrate what the human brain has to process in order to read text. Fortunately, for most humans these steps become automatic with words we encounter frequently. However, the human brain is not hard-wired to learn to read. We are hardwired for visual memory/visual perception, auditory processing, working memory, and language acquisition.
  5. 5.  Neurological research has discovered individuals with dyslexia have structural differences in their brain (left side and center) that effect their visual perception and auditory processing abilities.  Individuals with dyslexia have visual perceptual instability—especially unsteady binocular fixation. This means letters appear to move around and cross over each other, and it is difficult for them to maintain a visual focus. However, it is also easier for them to see the whole picture at once which increases their ability to problem solve in “creative” ways.
  6. 6.  Individuals with dyslexia are extremely sensitive to      visual motion, which makes it difficult for them to see “fixed” images like text and effects their orthographic skill. Sometimes covering one eye can help someone with dyslexia focus on print text because it reduces their unsteady binocular fixation. Individuals with dyslexia also have phonological processing difficulties (sight-sound connection). They have difficulties differentiating changes in sound frequency. They also have difficulties using “inner speech” to “sound out” words. There is a high correlation between being dyslexic and having ADD/ADHD.
  7. 7. Even with these difficulties, dyslexic students can still attain high levels of literacy!
  8. 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhygmurIgG0 What stands out to you about dyslexia from this video?
  9. 9.  Briana is severely dyslexic.  She is also extremely creative and gifted in the visual arts.  In third grade Briana was reading at a beginning first grade level.  She has been in several reading intervention programs such as Lindamood Bell, the Scottish Rite Dyslexia Center, and the California State University Los Angeles Reading Clinic.  In fifth grade Briana was home schooled because neither public nor private schools could adequately help her with reading and she needed intensive instruction to progress.  Briana is in the sixth grade and now attends a special private school designed for students like her where she is excelling.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8m1fCz3ohMw  http://www.westmarkschool.org/about/index.aspx
  10. 10.  Time: Extra time to decode print text that appears in movable, three-dimensional forms.  Visual Memory: Strategies that help students retain the visual memory of words.  Text Selection: Reading material that is interesting to help motivate the student to undertake the laborious task of decoding print.  Focus: Cues to help students maintain their visual focus as they’re reading (e.g., marking their place with their finger).
  11. 11.          Look at the word, cover it, and write it in the air. Spell words with three dimensional letter blocks. Use sign language to spell words. Ask students to visualize what a word looks like in their mind. Ask students to visualize each letter of a word and identify its position in the word (e.g., what is the third letter in the word “dog”). Ask students to “chunk” words into smaller patterns. (“Where would you break this word?”) Ask students to draw pictures for everything (e.g., vocabulary, concepts). Cartoons and graphic novels are important scaffolds. Writing instruction needs to be formulaic, concrete, structured and consistent. Imagine two strings coming out of your ears and extending to a point behind your head. Pull this point through your forehead and use it to zero in on text you are reading. Focus on this point as you read.
  12. 12. (1) Dyslexia results in difficulty with phonological and visual memory of words, confusion of vowels, and graphophonemic knowledge (spelling patterns) (2) Dyslexia applies to all languages (3) Regular Classroom teachers:  Need to allow additional time to decipher words on tests,  Should not count off for spelling, and  Should give students word banks for tests and worksheets
  13. 13. (1) Explicit/direct instruction in how language functions (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (assume no prior knowledge) Cumulative, systematic format with lots of repetition (e.g., logic of word structure, phonemic awareness) Sequential presentation (i.e., letters, syllables, words, sentences) Small increments of new learning Intensive, highly concentrated instruction Meaning based (the ultimate goal is comprehension) Multisensory (the use of two or more sensory modalities simultaneously to take in or express information) Work on fluent, automatic reading with lots of repeated reading
  14. 14. How is dyslexia defined in the state of Texas? “Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity” (p. 8).
  15. 15. What are literacy behaviors of students 4th-12th grade that may signal to teachers a student has dyslexia?  Has a history of reading and spelling difficulties  Avoids reading aloud  Reads most materials slowly; oral reading is labored, not fluent  Avoids reading for pleasure  May have an inadequate vocabulary  Has difficulty spelling; may resort to using less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell (p. 10)
  16. 16. How is a student formally assessed with dyslexia? Step One: Districts and charter schools must collect information about the student (i.e., repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals –progress monitoring) (p. 12). District or charter school recommends assessment for dyslexia if the student demonstrates the following: (1) Poor performance in one or more areas of reading and/or the related area of spelling that is unexpected for the student’s age/grade (2) Characteristics of dyslexia Step Two: Formal assessment by a licensed diagnostician
  17. 17. Based on what we have discussed in class today, what kind of instruction do students with dyslexia benefit from in high school content area classes?