Aligning The Curriculum


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Aligning The Curriculum

  1. 1. Greg Hardham Educational Designer – Division of Learning & Teaching Services School of Community Health School of Environmental Sciences Albury/Thurgoona
  2. 2. To what extent do the To what extent does instructional the assessment activities fit the measure the objectives? objectives? (Content validity) Is what we are teaching being tested? Are we teaching what is being tested? Anderson (2002)
  3. 3. Bloom’s taxonomy of Educational Objectives Knowledge Recall data or information. Comprehension Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words. Application Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. Analysis Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. Synthesis Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Evaluation Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Adapted from Bloom et al (1956)
  4. 4. John Biggs (2002, 2003): “constructive alignment” of the curriculum “Constructive” = the learner constructs meaning through learning activities “Alignment” = learning activities & assessments appropriate to achieve learning outcomes Hierarchy of verbs that may be used to form curriculum objectives
  5. 5. Anderson & Krathwohl (2001)
  6. 6. Anderson & Krathwohl (2001)
  7. 7. How can curriculum alignment be measured? Analysis using the taxonomy table: Each objective is placed in its appropriate cell of the table; Each instructional activity is classified; Each assessment task is classified; The three completed tables are compared for alignment. Why conduct this form of analysis? To gauge the degree of spread of objectives, activities and assessment across the cognitive dimensions. Are higher-order demands being made of students? To gauge the extent of alignment of the curriculum. Is the spread of objectives, activities and assessment similar, or for example, are higher level objectives being assessed by lower level tasks?
  8. 8. 1. have a general understanding of the structure and function of the organs in the body; 2. apply the principles and techniques of statistics and modelling; 3. demonstrate knowledge of the more significant organisational reforms in policing; 4. be able to critically reflect on their own process as a pastoral counsellor
  9. 9. Look for key words in tasks and assessment criteria Task Assessment criteria include Reflectively critique your Critical reflective analysis of the application of evidence-based contribution of own experience to practice in the management of a decision-making client you have treated. Clear implications for own practice as a result of reflection
  10. 10. objectives activities assessment
  11. 11. objectives activities assessment
  12. 12. To what extent does the assessment measure the To what extent do objectives? (Content the instructional validity) activities fit the objectives? Is what we are teaching being tested? Are we teaching what is being tested? Anderson (2002)
  13. 13. What makes a “good” learning objective? How do we write effective learning objectives? Do we need to re-visit our subjects’ objectives? We need to choose assessments and learning activities that are outcome-appropriate (Airasian & Miranda) How best to developing curriculum for alignment? Biggs (2002) suggests Objectives Assessment Activities Regularly remind students of the connection between the three components of the aligned curriculum to assist learning (McMahon & Thakore)
  14. 14. Airasian, P. W., & Miranda, H. (2002). The Role of Assessment in the Revised Taxonomy. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 249. Anderson, L. W. (2002). Curricular Alignment: A Re-Examination. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 255. Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing. A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Addison Wesley Longman. Biggs, J. (2002). Aligning the curriculum to promote good learning. Paper presented at the Constructive Alignment in Action: Imaginative Curriculum Symposium. Biggs, J. B. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press. Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, F. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain (New York, David McKay). Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212. McMahon, T., & Thakore, H. (2006). Achieving constructive alignment: putting outcomes first. The Quality of Higher Education(3).