Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. Imperialism<br />
  2. 2. Essential Question<br />How did American imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century put the U.S. at the forefront of world powers?<br />
  3. 3. Section 1<br />Imperialism and America<br />
  4. 4. American Expansionism<br />Belief in manifest destiny<br />Three factors fueled the new American imperialism:<br />Desire for Military Strength<br />Alfred T. Mahan<br />wanted to build up U.S. Navy<br />Built 9 steel-hulled cruisers<br />Transformed into world’s 3rd largest naval power<br />Thirst for new Markets<br />Need raw materials for factories<br />Need new markets for agricultural and manufactured goods<br />Belief in Cultural Superiority<br />Combine Social Darwinism and racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons<br />Responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”.<br />
  5. 5. The United States Acquires Alaska<br />William Seward<br />Secretary of State under presidents Lincoln and Johnson.<br />1867 - Arranged for U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.<br />“Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s folly”<br />
  6. 6. The United States Takes Hawaii<br />Midway Islands<br />1867 – took over<br />0 population, not much attention<br />Hawaii<br />Since 1790’s stop on way to China and East India<br />1820s – Yankee missionaries founded Christian schools and churches<br />The Cry for Annexation<br />Sugar Plantations – ¾ of islands’ wealth<br />By 1900, foreigners and laborers outnumber native Hawaiians 3 to 1<br />1875, US import Hawaiian sugar duty-free = production growth<br />McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated the duty-free status = crisis – competition in the American market.<br />Military – naval base at Pearl Harbor<br />kingdom’s best port<br />Use as a refueling station for American ships<br />
  7. 7. The United States Takes Hawaii<br />The End of a Monarchy<br />Forced king to change constitution to grant voting rights only to wealthy land owners.<br />1891 – Queen Liliuokalani came to power<br />“Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda<br />Proposed removing property-owning qualifications<br />Business group and Ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution.<br />Help of marines, overthrew the queen and set up a government headed by Sanford B. Dole.<br />President Cleveland<br />restore queen to power<br />Formally recognized the Republic of Hawaii<br />Refused annexation, unless Hawaiian majority<br />Dole<br />Refused to surrender power<br />President McKinley<br />Favored annexation<br />August 12, 1898 – Hawaii an American territory, Hawaiians never voted<br />
  8. 8. U.S. Policies for Overseas Expansion<br />
  9. 9. Declined With Thanks<br />United States expansionist policies<br />
  10. 10. Section 2<br />Spanish American War<br />
  11. 11. Factors that Contribute to US Declaration of War<br />Cuban rebels deliberately attack US sugar plantations in Cuba<br />Cuban rebels led by Jose Marti (poet and journalist)<br />Launch revolution against Spain in 1895<br />Did so to provoke US into helping the rebels achieve independence from Spain<br />Yellow Journalism<br />William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer engage in this to sell newspapers<br />Exaggerate news to lure and enrage readers<br />
  12. 12. Contributing Factors Continued<br />DeLome Letter<br />Letter intercepted and leaked to press<br />Criticized President McKinley (weak)<br />Enraged Americans<br />Sinking of the USS Maine<br />Sent to Cuba to bring home American citizens<br />Ship blew up in Havana Harbor<br />American newspapers blamed Spain <br />
  13. 13. War is Declared!<br />April 20, 1898<br />First battle: Philippine Islands<br />Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet at Manila Bay<br />Naval blockade of Cuba<br />Naval superiority<br />Army<br />Inexperienced volunteers<br />Rough Riders = volunteer cavalry<br />
  14. 14. Rough Riders<br />Under command of Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood<br />Famous land battle near Santiago, Cuba<br />San Juan Hill<br />Theodore Roosevelt declared a hero of this battle<br />
  15. 15. Treaty of Paris of 1898<br />Ends Spanish American War<br />Grants Cuba independenc<br />US acquires Guam and Puerto Rico<br />Spain sells Philippines to US for $20 million<br />
  16. 16. Section 3<br />Acquiring New Lands<br />
  17. 17. Ruling Puerto Rico<br />US made no promises to Puerto Rico regarding independence or statehood<br />Strategically important to US<br />Presence in the Caribbean<br />Protecting future canal US wanted to build<br />1900 Congress passed Foracker Act<br />
  18. 18. What was significance of Foracker Act?<br />Ended military rule in Puerto Rico<br />Set up civil government<br />US President could appoint governor<br />Upper House of legislature<br />Puerto Ricans select lower house of legislature<br />1901 Insular Cases<br />Supreme Court said Constitution did not automatically apply to people in acquired territories<br />
  19. 19. Cuba and the United States<br />Treaty of Paris guaranteed Cuba independence<br />American troops occupied Cuba<br />Same officials under Spain, remained in office<br />Military government provided food, clothing, etc.<br />1900 Cuba wrote Constitution<br />1901 US insisted they add the Platt Amendment<br />
  20. 20. What did the Platt Amendment state?<br />Cuba could not make treaties with foreign governments that limit its independence<br />US could intervene in Cuba<br />Cuba could not go into debt<br />US could buy or lease land for naval stations<br />US army would not withdraw until they added the Platt Amendment: becomes a protectorate<br />
  21. 21. What is a protectorate?<br />A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.<br />
  22. 22. Why?<br />Most important reasons for US to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba was to protect American businesses that had invested in Cuba: sugar, tobacco, mining<br />
  23. 23. Filipinos Rebel<br />Philippine-American War<br />February 1899<br />US assumed same role that Spain had played<br />Forced to live in designated zones<br />3 years to put down the rebellion<br />20,000 Filipinos died<br />4,000 Americans<br />$400 million – 20 times the price US paid to purchase<br />
  24. 24. Why did Filipinos feel betrayed?<br />Felt that US had promised them independence<br />
  25. 25. Foreign Influence In China<br />France, Germany, Britain, Japan and Russia established “spheres of influence”<br />Areas where each nation claimed special rights and economic privileges<br />Why did western powers seek to establish spheres of influence in China?<br />Vast potential market<br />Had already established prosperous settlements along coast of China<br />
  26. 26. Who was John Hay?<br />US Secretary of State<br />What were the Open Door Notes?<br />Series of policy statements he issued in 1899<br />Afraid US traders would be shut out of China<br />Letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing they share trading rights with US<br />Creating an “open door”<br />No nation would have a monopoly on trade in China<br />
  27. 27. Boxer RebellionWhat were causes?<br />Europeans dominated most large cities<br />Chinese resentment grew<br />Secret societies to rid county of “foreign devils” (Boxers)<br />Consequences<br />Killed hundreds of missionaries and foreigners<br />International force put down rebellion<br />
  28. 28. Open Door Policy Reflects American Beliefs<br />Growth of US economy depended on exports<br />US had right to intervene to protect foreign markets<br />Feared closing of an area to America threatened US survival<br />
  29. 29. Athletic Contest<br />(1915), Max Weber<br />
  30. 30. Section 4<br />America as a World Power<br />
  31. 31. U.S. Foreign Policy Under Roosevelt<br />Russo-Japanese War<br />Russia declares war on Japan over Korea<br />Roosevelt mediates peace negotiations between Japan and Russia (Treaty of Portsmouth)<br />Won him Nobel Peace Prize and enhanced US position in the world<br />Wanted US to be prominent power in Caribbean and Central America<br />Used Monroe Doctrine <br />1823, issued by Pres. James Monroe- stay out of Latin America<br />
  32. 32. Panama Canal<br />How did US gain control of land needed to build the canal?<br />Supported a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia<br />Paid $10 million + annual rent to Panama for land across Panama<br />What 2 possible locations had US considered?<br />Nicaragua<br />Panama<br />
  33. 33. US Achieved Foreign Policy Goals in Early 20th Century<br />Expanded access to foreign markets to ensure continued growth of domestic economy<br />Built a modern navy to protect its interests<br />Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America<br />
  34. 34. Strategic importance<br />Reduce travel time for commercial and military ships between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans<br />Who was first country to attempt to build canal?<br />France<br />
  35. 35. Panama Canal<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. US Intervenes in Latin America, 1890<br />
  38. 38. US Trade with Central America, 1913-1920<br />
  39. 39. “Big Stick”<br />Latin American foreign policy<br />Roosevelt Corollary added to Monroe Doctrine 1904<br />US could use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America.<br />Justified American intervention<br />Expanded US role in Caribbean and Central America<br />
  40. 40. US Foreign Policy Under Taft<br />Dollar Diplomacy<br />US government guarantees loans made to foreign countries by American business people<br />US use force if necessary to protect its interests (Roosevelt Corollary)<br />Marines sent to Central American countries to protect our interests<br />Supported private investment overseas<br />Expansion of US influence in the world<br />
  41. 41. US Foreign Policy Under Wilson<br />Missionary Diplomacy<br />US had moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to US interests<br />Pressured nations in Western Hemisphere to establish democratic governments<br />Put to test in Mexico<br />1911 Mexican Revolution<br />1914 came close to war with Mexico<br />