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Imperialism

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Imperialism

  1. 1. Imperialism<br />
  2. 2. Essential Question<br />How did American imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century put the U.S. at the forefront of world powers?<br />
  3. 3. Section 1<br />Imperialism and America<br />
  4. 4. American Expansionism<br />Belief in manifest destiny<br />Three factors fueled the new American imperialism:<br />Desire for Military Strength<br />Alfred T. Mahan<br />wanted to build up U.S. Navy<br />Built 9 steel-hulled cruisers<br />Transformed into world’s 3rd largest naval power<br />Thirst for new Markets<br />Need raw materials for factories<br />Need new markets for agricultural and manufactured goods<br />Belief in Cultural Superiority<br />Combine Social Darwinism and racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons<br />Responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”.<br />
  5. 5. The United States Acquires Alaska<br />William Seward<br />Secretary of State under presidents Lincoln and Johnson.<br />1867 - Arranged for U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.<br />“Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s folly”<br />
  6. 6. The United States Takes Hawaii<br />Midway Islands<br />1867 – took over<br />0 population, not much attention<br />Hawaii<br />Since 1790’s stop on way to China and East India<br />1820s – Yankee missionaries founded Christian schools and churches<br />The Cry for Annexation<br />Sugar Plantations – ¾ of islands’ wealth<br />By 1900, foreigners and laborers outnumber native Hawaiians 3 to 1<br />1875, US import Hawaiian sugar duty-free = production growth<br />McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated the duty-free status = crisis – competition in the American market.<br />Military – naval base at Pearl Harbor<br />kingdom’s best port<br />Use as a refueling station for American ships<br />
  7. 7. The United States Takes Hawaii<br />The End of a Monarchy<br />Forced king to change constitution to grant voting rights only to wealthy land owners.<br />1891 – Queen Liliuokalani came to power<br />“Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda<br />Proposed removing property-owning qualifications<br />Business group and Ambassador John L. Stevens organized a revolution.<br />Help of marines, overthrew the queen and set up a government headed by Sanford B. Dole.<br />President Cleveland<br />restore queen to power<br />Formally recognized the Republic of Hawaii<br />Refused annexation, unless Hawaiian majority<br />Dole<br />Refused to surrender power<br />President McKinley<br />Favored annexation<br />August 12, 1898 – Hawaii an American territory, Hawaiians never voted<br />
  8. 8. U.S. Policies for Overseas Expansion<br />
  9. 9. Declined With Thanks<br />United States expansionist policies<br />
  10. 10. Section 2<br />Spanish American War<br />
  11. 11. Factors that Contribute to US Declaration of War<br />Cuban rebels deliberately attack US sugar plantations in Cuba<br />Cuban rebels led by Jose Marti (poet and journalist)<br />Launch revolution against Spain in 1895<br />Did so to provoke US into helping the rebels achieve independence from Spain<br />Yellow Journalism<br />William Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer engage in this to sell newspapers<br />Exaggerate news to lure and enrage readers<br />
  12. 12. Contributing Factors Continued<br />DeLome Letter<br />Letter intercepted and leaked to press<br />Criticized President McKinley (weak)<br />Enraged Americans<br />Sinking of the USS Maine<br />Sent to Cuba to bring home American citizens<br />Ship blew up in Havana Harbor<br />American newspapers blamed Spain <br />
  13. 13. War is Declared!<br />April 20, 1898<br />First battle: Philippine Islands<br />Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet at Manila Bay<br />Naval blockade of Cuba<br />Naval superiority<br />Army<br />Inexperienced volunteers<br />Rough Riders = volunteer cavalry<br />
  14. 14. Rough Riders<br />Under command of Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood<br />Famous land battle near Santiago, Cuba<br />San Juan Hill<br />Theodore Roosevelt declared a hero of this battle<br />
  15. 15. Treaty of Paris of 1898<br />Ends Spanish American War<br />Grants Cuba independenc<br />US acquires Guam and Puerto Rico<br />Spain sells Philippines to US for $20 million<br />
  16. 16. Section 3<br />Acquiring New Lands<br />
  17. 17. Ruling Puerto Rico<br />US made no promises to Puerto Rico regarding independence or statehood<br />Strategically important to US<br />Presence in the Caribbean<br />Protecting future canal US wanted to build<br />1900 Congress passed Foracker Act<br />
  18. 18. What was significance of Foracker Act?<br />Ended military rule in Puerto Rico<br />Set up civil government<br />US President could appoint governor<br />Upper House of legislature<br />Puerto Ricans select lower house of legislature<br />1901 Insular Cases<br />Supreme Court said Constitution did not automatically apply to people in acquired territories<br />
  19. 19. Cuba and the United States<br />Treaty of Paris guaranteed Cuba independence<br />American troops occupied Cuba<br />Same officials under Spain, remained in office<br />Military government provided food, clothing, etc.<br />1900 Cuba wrote Constitution<br />1901 US insisted they add the Platt Amendment<br />
  20. 20. What did the Platt Amendment state?<br />Cuba could not make treaties with foreign governments that limit its independence<br />US could intervene in Cuba<br />Cuba could not go into debt<br />US could buy or lease land for naval stations<br />US army would not withdraw until they added the Platt Amendment: becomes a protectorate<br />
  21. 21. What is a protectorate?<br />A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.<br />
  22. 22. Why?<br />Most important reasons for US to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba was to protect American businesses that had invested in Cuba: sugar, tobacco, mining<br />
  23. 23. Filipinos Rebel<br />Philippine-American War<br />February 1899<br />US assumed same role that Spain had played<br />Forced to live in designated zones<br />3 years to put down the rebellion<br />20,000 Filipinos died<br />4,000 Americans<br />$400 million – 20 times the price US paid to purchase<br />
  24. 24. Why did Filipinos feel betrayed?<br />Felt that US had promised them independence<br />
  25. 25. Foreign Influence In China<br />France, Germany, Britain, Japan and Russia established “spheres of influence”<br />Areas where each nation claimed special rights and economic privileges<br />Why did western powers seek to establish spheres of influence in China?<br />Vast potential market<br />Had already established prosperous settlements along coast of China<br />
  26. 26. Who was John Hay?<br />US Secretary of State<br />What were the Open Door Notes?<br />Series of policy statements he issued in 1899<br />Afraid US traders would be shut out of China<br />Letters addressed to leaders of imperialist nations proposing they share trading rights with US<br />Creating an “open door”<br />No nation would have a monopoly on trade in China<br />
  27. 27. Boxer RebellionWhat were causes?<br />Europeans dominated most large cities<br />Chinese resentment grew<br />Secret societies to rid county of “foreign devils” (Boxers)<br />Consequences<br />Killed hundreds of missionaries and foreigners<br />International force put down rebellion<br />
  28. 28. Open Door Policy Reflects American Beliefs<br />Growth of US economy depended on exports<br />US had right to intervene to protect foreign markets<br />Feared closing of an area to America threatened US survival<br />
  29. 29. Athletic Contest<br />(1915), Max Weber<br />
  30. 30. Section 4<br />America as a World Power<br />
  31. 31. U.S. Foreign Policy Under Roosevelt<br />Russo-Japanese War<br />Russia declares war on Japan over Korea<br />Roosevelt mediates peace negotiations between Japan and Russia (Treaty of Portsmouth)<br />Won him Nobel Peace Prize and enhanced US position in the world<br />Wanted US to be prominent power in Caribbean and Central America<br />Used Monroe Doctrine <br />1823, issued by Pres. James Monroe- stay out of Latin America<br />
  32. 32. Panama Canal<br />How did US gain control of land needed to build the canal?<br />Supported a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia<br />Paid $10 million + annual rent to Panama for land across Panama<br />What 2 possible locations had US considered?<br />Nicaragua<br />Panama<br />
  33. 33. US Achieved Foreign Policy Goals in Early 20th Century<br />Expanded access to foreign markets to ensure continued growth of domestic economy<br />Built a modern navy to protect its interests<br />Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America<br />
  34. 34. Strategic importance<br />Reduce travel time for commercial and military ships between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans<br />Who was first country to attempt to build canal?<br />France<br />
  35. 35. Panama Canal<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. US Intervenes in Latin America, 1890<br />
  38. 38. US Trade with Central America, 1913-1920<br />
  39. 39. “Big Stick”<br />Latin American foreign policy<br />Roosevelt Corollary added to Monroe Doctrine 1904<br />US could use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America.<br />Justified American intervention<br />Expanded US role in Caribbean and Central America<br />
  40. 40. US Foreign Policy Under Taft<br />Dollar Diplomacy<br />US government guarantees loans made to foreign countries by American business people<br />US use force if necessary to protect its interests (Roosevelt Corollary)<br />Marines sent to Central American countries to protect our interests<br />Supported private investment overseas<br />Expansion of US influence in the world<br />
  41. 41. US Foreign Policy Under Wilson<br />Missionary Diplomacy<br />US had moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to US interests<br />Pressured nations in Western Hemisphere to establish democratic governments<br />Put to test in Mexico<br />1911 Mexican Revolution<br />1914 came close to war with Mexico<br />

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