Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Stephenson C


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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Stephenson C

  1. 1. Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Cynthia Stephenson BA in Psychology, 2011
  2. 2. Personal Statement Personal Statement Diversity and change have been a consistent part of my life. A first memory of change was back on a summer evening, when I heard the yelling and argument of my parents. This led to their divorce and the change from a two parent family to a single parent family with my dad raising us. At the age of five we moved all over the wonderful State of Nevada. At least every year it was time to move due to my father’s job. Until I was ten years old then we stayed in Elko, Nevada. As a consequence of growing up with no contact from my mother, I have developed a strong commitment to family balanced with a fierce independence. After high school graduation, I left the ‘cowboy poetry’ town to go to college in the ‘biggest little city’ of Reno. My interest and goal for graduation was elementary education. Three years later, I had to leave college and move back home to help my family. I immediately started working in the juvenile justice system spending one and a half years at juvenile lock-up, and then a year at Nevada Youth Training Center as a group counselor. NYTC is a penal facility for adolescent boys. After learning from a doctor that the cold winter weather was taking a toll on my spine that had been damaged in a car accident I moved to ‘sin city’ Las Vegas to absorb the heat.
  3. 3. Personal Statement Cont. <ul><li>Personal Statement Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the first week, I obtained a position as a manager in a distribution center grocery store. It was there that I went through the best and worst times of my life. It was a dreary windy day, with gusts up to 80 miles an hour. One of the gusts blew roofing material from the building on to the electrical transformer taking out the lights in the store. Our emergency generators clicked on at the same time three young men dressed in long trench coats walked in. My assistant manger asked them to stay where they were and he would get the items that they needed and bring them to the register. Within minutes a gun was to my head and we were being robbed. Grace and mercy being bestowed upon us, we survived the incident. The experience left me wondering why people do these types of acts, and curious about the psychological behavior of people. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best times was when I meet my husband, who is my best friend. We accepted a position as youth pastors for our church for five years. The work was invigorating and so fulfilling to be able to see these young people grow and change their lives. This experience spurred me to inquire about colleges so that I could pursue the study of psychology. However, another change diverted this desire when we moved to Elko. A career change took place and I pursued a position in the insurance industry for ten years. This led to another move to Carson City to take a management assistants position in this field. </li></ul><ul><li>Although this was pleasurable job experience, I felt something was missing. My husband was working as a life coach counselor for a boy’s facility and was away from home most of the time. We needed a change to keep my husband from being away from home. It was then that we opened up our home as a therapeutic group home for children and youth. I have been a qualified behavioral aid for the last six years, while working as an insurance agent. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2009, the insurance company I worked for closed their office in Reno. At this moment in time I was devastated, the career I thought I would have until retirement was gone. It was then that I looked back at everything that I have done and it all revolved around children and their families. My heart’s desire came </li></ul>
  4. 4. Personal Statement Cont. <ul><li>Personal Statement Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>to the surface and I knew I needed to go back to college and get my bachelors degree in psychology at Argosy University. Upon graduation, I will seek out a position in the child welfare system. The reason for this area is I currently work and communicate well with the social service agencies in the state and the parents of the children. The other choice is to work as a psychosocial rehabilitation worker with one of the local counseling agencies that I currently am involved with. </li></ul><ul><li>While at Argosy University, I have especially enjoyed my classes in counseling theories, cognition and learning, psychological testing, personality theories, interpersonal effectiveness and adolescent development. I have been able to use what I do on a daily basis and integrate it in with my classes, giving me the opportunity to gain more knowledge. The experience and learning environment at Argosy University is wonderfully challenging and helping me change the way I view things. Ethics in Psychology is interesting and can be complex as there is no black and white in certain areas. My current grade point average is 3.65. I am looking forward to obtaining my Bachelors Degree in Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>My goal after graduation is to further my education in psychology and get my masters degree in counseling psychology. The college that I need to look at has to be approved by the State for Nevada. I will be doing my internship once approved by the college and the State of Nevada under the requirements of the board of examiners for Marriage and Family Therapists and Clinical Professional Counselors, in order to get my MFT license. I believe having all the changes in my life has prepared me to be adaptable without compromising what is vital to me, yet learning from each experience. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Resume <ul><li>RESUME </li></ul><ul><li>CYNTHIA A. STEPHENSON </li></ul><ul><li>10810 Rushing Flume Dr </li></ul><ul><li>Reno, NV 89521 </li></ul><ul><li>7758818249 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor of Arts/ Psychology, Argosy University , Chicago, IL, </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated Graduation Date: Dec. 5, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>GPA at Argosy University 3.65 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>­ Associates of Arts, Great Basin College, Elko, NV, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Resume Cont. <ul><li>RESUME CONT. </li></ul><ul><li>PROFESSIONAL SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution skills Life skills counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills Crisis management skills </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening skills Empathy skills </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making skills </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYMENT </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>INSURANCE AGENT/OFFICE MANAGER ,  Nevada Partners Insurance , Reno, NV, 2/2010 - Present </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Agent selling all lines of insurance and customer service. Manage office and responsible for office and agents having proper licensing, and maintain confidential files. Responsible for knowing all carrier underwriting guidelines and state regulations. Knowledge of AMS 360 computer systems. Will have Certified Insurance Counselor Designation in Sept. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>­ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Resume Cont. <ul><li>RESUME CONT. </li></ul><ul><li>QUALIFIED BEHAVIORAL AID/THERAPEUTIC GROUP HOME ,  Koinonia Foster , Reno, NV, 9/2005 - Present </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Behavior Aid - teach a variety of issues including anger and stress management, goal-setting and daily living skills. Deal with children with diagnoses of ODD, ADHD, Bipolar, RAD, PTSD, and FAS. Involved with foster child placement, permanency court hearings, and meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>­ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL LINES SALES MANAGER ,  Mike Menath Insurance , Reno, NV, 12/2006 - 2/2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance Agent sold all lines of insurance. Trained all account managers on carrier requirements, and on the AMS 360 system. Dealt with all clients’ complaints and services problems, handled all new business phone calls. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Resume Cont. <ul><li>RESUME CONT. </li></ul><ul><li>AOA/INSURANCE AGENT ,  COUNTRY Insurance & Financial Services , Elko, NV & Carson City, NV, 10/2000 - 12/2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Office Assistant & Agent - assistant to agency manager handling all of her duties and office manager for agency office. Handled all daily activities, training of all new agents and assistants, responsible for company rules and state laws. Handled all agency complaints and customer service problems regarding agents and service issues. </li></ul><ul><li>­ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CREDENTIALS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>­ Licensed Foster Parent/Treatment Level </li></ul><ul><li>-CPR & First Aid Certified </li></ul><ul><li>­­ Insurance Agent License NV, CA, ID, AZ & WA , OR </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>­ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Resume Cont. <ul><li>RESUME CONT. </li></ul><ul><li>REFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy Arguillo, MA, MFT, Associate Executive Director/Clinical Director </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Koinonia Family Services </li></ul><ul><li>1355 Airmotive Way </li></ul><ul><li>Reno, NV 89502 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lynam, Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance Family Services </li></ul><ul><li>1101 W. Moana Ln #14 </li></ul><ul><li>Reno, NV 89509 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Anita Smith, LSW </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Koinonia Family Services </li></ul><ul><li>1050 Bible Way </li></ul><ul><li>Reno, NV 89502 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reflection <ul><li> Reflection on My Experience at Argosy </li></ul><ul><li>The strengths I have are working with children and having the love and devotion that is needed to want to see a change in the child. I believe I am a motivated, patient and creative individual and can mentor these abilities. Other strengths are the ability to work through diversity and cultural awareness. I can demonstrate critical thinking, and the understanding of psychological principals and theories. Many of these skills were developed and fine tuned with the help of my Professors and Argosy students. </li></ul><ul><li>One of my weaknesses is that sometimes I think the learning process to change should happen quicker. Realizing my weakness helps me to understand that everyone is so different and that is what makes them unique. My attendance at Argosy helped me understand my weaknesses and not look at them as bad, but as a way to improve myself and expectations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Table of Contents <ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Research Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills: Oral and Written </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Diversity Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Effectiveness </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking <ul><li>  Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Cognation & Learning: A Case of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. <ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognation & Learning: A Case of Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>This case study will involve a 9-year-old boy, by the name of Dallis. Dallis is in the 4th grade and attending Sarah Elementary School; he has been attending this school for 2 years now. The teachers have been trying to deal with Dallis’s behaviors during these two years, but have not been very successful. Watching Dallis, his classroom, and his teachers interact was interesting. At first, it was very evident that he has oppositional defiant disorder and fetal alcohol syndrome. After meeting with the teachers, we determined which behaviors were going to be the first to deal with. </li></ul><ul><li>The top three behaviors that were going to be concentrated on are blurting out, out of seat, and defiance when doing work. The issue of blurting out disrupts the entire classroom and starts to affect the others by getting them off task. Dallis continually getting out of his seat causes a security problem. As I have observed him getting up and running out of the classroom and then out of the school. The last is his defiance to doing his class work when he does not feel like it, which usually ends up in a tantrum. All of these behaviors have a detrimental effect on the class and one of the teachers. </li></ul><ul><li> Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>The first approach that is used is the social learning theory. I want all of his teachers, especially one to take a class on new ideas of how to deal with ODD and FAS. This one particular teacher seems to escalate him instead of deescalate him. Once the teachers have gone through this training, they can model the type of behavior that they want from Dallis. Right now teacher X, has an argument battle with Dallis, this technique is not working. Teacher X needs to be firm and let him know exactly what she wants him to do, and not reward him for negative behavior to get him to behave. What he has learned so far from Teacher X is it is okay to act out, because he gets a reward anyway (Seligman, 2006). The teachers need to be calm and direct, they need to be mentors showing Dallis the behavior they want (Argosy, 2011). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. <ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>The next approach will be operant conditioning. First, there needs to be rules posted concerning wanted behavior and unacceptable behavior. There needs to be a consequence sheet posted opposite the rules or on the other side of the chalkboard. There will be a reward system put into place using points. Each day he earns or losses points depending on his behavior and at the end of the week, he can turn in his points and get a toy prize or hold them over to next week for a bigger prize. This will be the positive reinforcement system (Argosy, 2011). There has to be structure, constant repetition, and continued follow through. For instance, Dallis gets up out of his seat and tries to wonder around. His teacher’s will prompt Dallis to go back to his seat and redirect him to focus on task. This later will be a form of negative reinforcement, since Dallis will be prompted and the prompting will stop once he is achieving the required behavior (Argosy, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Dallis will have three prompts before a punishment will have to take place. This punishment will be in the form of isolation in a designated room, until Dallis can calm down and stop throwing a tantrum. It is desired that this punishment would not have to be used very often. The suppression of his behavior by this punishment is not the desired outcome (Argosy, 2011). The desired outcome is that he would learn to eliminate this behavior so that isolation does not have to take place. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. <ul><li>Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman, L. (2006). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: Systems, Strategies, and Skills (2 nd Ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2011). Social Learning Perspective: Module 2. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2011). Operant Conditioning Perspective: Module 2. Retrieved from </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research Skills <ul><li>Research Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Violence Connected to Violent Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  17. 17. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>This literature review focuses on the exposure to violent video games and their impact on aggression and other violent behavior. From school violence to increased criminal activity, violent video game play is involved in some way. Positive findings show that there is a connection between violent video games and increased aggression. Negative findings indicate that there is no significant research showing that violent video games cause enough aggression to manipulate criminal activity. The results from all studies predict that the exposure to violent video games increases aggressive behavior in the short and long term. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Violence Connected to Violent Video Games </li></ul><ul><li>The violent crime rate is significantly more elevated in this country than any other Western nation (U.S. Department of Justice, 1991). Over the last decade, increased attention has been giving to violence among children and adolescents. One of the reasons is because of the incidents of youth violence in Georgia, Colorado, and Kentucky. These incidents have taken the lives of school children and teachers because guns have been being brought into the schools (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002). The school violence and the different terrorist attacks around the world have increasing brought up the idea of the exposure to media violence. Early research studies revealed that there was enough evidence to declare that media violence was linked to violent behaviors and that even short term exposure showed increased aggressive behaviors (Bushman & Anderson, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>In the last decade there has been a focus on violent video games as a significant part of the media violence. The issue of youth violence can be very complex and difficult to narrow down the true cause or combination of causes. There has been little research done in the areas of the influence of family violence and how that plays into the violence of the youth (Dowd, Singer, & Wilson, 2006). There are a number of studies that have looked at the playing of violent video games and its positive and negative effects on the player. These players can be female or male and range in many different ages from youth, adolescents to adults. A person’s personality can have an influence in whether they become lightly aggressive or show signs of high aggression after playing these violent video games. These personality issues can be but are not limited to cognitive delays, antisocial behavior or psychotic (Markey & Markey, 2010). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the research involves children or adults the question is: Does violent video games have an impact on our society? The effects in males or females are unclear as to whether they have the same severity. Video game research is newer and much smaller than the research involving television and movie violence (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li> Hypothesis Support </li></ul><ul><li>In one of the experiments that Anderson and Ford (1986) conducted, the undergraduates were asked to play violent video games. These students were randomly selected to play either the highly violent game, the mildly violent game, or were not assigned a video game. There were 20 students in each group and upon completion they were asked to fill out a questionnaire. The analyses from this experiment showed an increase of hostility whether they played the mildly violent or highly violent game. The same types of results were displayed in the area of anxiety and depression, leading to an overall increase in aggression. The child or adult playing the violent video games showed signs of their emotional state revolving into a negative outcome. Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. (Anderson & Ford, 1986). Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. The strengths of the study by Anderson and Ford are that they were able to recognize the short-term effects of playing violent video games. While the limitations to this study are their analyses had to be combined for the simplicity of their research. </li></ul><ul><li>The research that Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted was on short-term exposure to violent video games and non-violent video games. They used a general aggression model to determine the extent of hostility and aggression displayed after playing these games. The results concluded that the participants who played the violent video games showed more aggressive responses than those who played the non-violent video games. The overall consensus showed the participants of violent video games have the potential to handle all conflicts in an aggressive manner, whether it needed to be or not. Many of these games are played with two players or the single player is trying to beat someone else’s scores. Anger based aggression seems to be increased when there is competition (Anderson & Morrow, 1995). The research studies on the game Mortal Kombat show the players having a higher score on hostility situations and a higher heart rate level (Ballard & Weist, 1996). The strengths of these studies are their structure of their research and how they compared their results at each check point. The limitations are that Bushman and Anderson tested their results to the General Aggression Model only. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Women and men were being studied in these types of settings specifically for the outcome of their gender. The only difference was that women showed a little less aggression then the men in all cases (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002) (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). It important to remember that playing video games can be addictive in nature, therefore the violent video games could reinforce unwanted behavior. One such research showed that the components of violent video games is joined with the reinforcing properties of the violent game, a stronger learning experience happens (Anderson & Dill, 2000). Anderson and Dill (2000) also concluded that the continued exposure to violent video games alter a person’s basic personality, which lead to increased aggression. The strengths of these studies are that they equally compare men and women regarding the levels of aggression from playing violent video games. The limitations are the availability for the same amount of genders involved in each study. </li></ul><ul><li>Many think that playing video games is just moving the joystick or other controller with your hands. It is much more than that. When playing a violent video game the player is rehearsing the violent and aggressive actions and thoughts. This leads to antisocial behavior and desensitizes the player to the violence and aggression (Bailey, West & Anderson, 2011: Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Anderson, Shibuya, Ihori, Swing, Bushman, Sakamoto, Rothstein, & Saleem, 2010). Some of the strengths of these authors’ studies are the emphasis on the possibility of desensitization to violent material, and what it does to the game players. The limitations to these studies are the prosocial effects of violent games. Other research suggests that these violent games cause a decrease in prosocial behavior, physiological arousal and desensitization/empathy (Barlett, Anderson & Swing, 2009). The strengths of Barlett, Anderson & Swings study are the variety of video games played, non-violent and violent. The limitations are the lack of research in the longitude of the affects of violent video games and aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Women and men were being studied in these types of settings specifically for the outcome of their gender. The only difference was that women showed a little less aggression then the men in all cases (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002) (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). It important to remember that playing video games can be addictive in nature, therefore the violent video games could reinforce unwanted behavior. One such research showed that the components of violent video games is joined with the reinforcing properties of the violent game, a stronger learning experience happens (Anderson & Dill, 2000). Anderson and Dill (2000) also concluded that the continued exposure to violent video games alter a person’s basic personality, which lead to increased aggression. The strengths of these studies are that they equally compare men and women regarding the levels of aggression from playing violent video games. The limitations are the availability for the same amount of genders involved in each study. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Video games are commonly sold in almost every store. Observation shows that they are placed up front by the check out areas for the quick grab and purchase. Today, more video games are violent in nature, than they were ten or even twenty years ago. What is the impact of these video games on the increased violence in society? These violent video games desensitize anyone who plays the games, whether they are children or adults. Data does show that playing these violent video games increases aggression and desensitization to violence (Bailey, West, & Anderson, 2011). Further research indicates that men are more affected by the increased aggression than women (Bartholow & Anderson, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Older research shows that there is be short-term effects that are negative in nature when playing these video games. The child or adult playing these games suffer from negative effects on their emotional state (Anderson & Ford, 1986). Their emotional state became increasingly hostile. Would even playing these games occasionally increase the violent nature we see in society? Whether the violent video games are played alone or with other players it still brings out aggression. Competition brings out an even more anger based aggression (Anderson & Morrow, 1995). The game Mortal Kombat shows researchers that the hostility levels were higher along with their heart rate during and after playing this game (Ballard & Weist, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li> Research shows long term effects of playing these violent games increase the players’ way they deal with real life conflicts (Anderson & Dill, 2000). Long term effects in males and females show the development of aggressive cognition and of aggressive personality (Anderson & Bushman, 2001). In some cases other effects have been high neuroticism (emotional), acting without thinking, and no concern for others that were found in players of violent video games (Markey & Markey, 2010). Bushman & Anderson did a test on the general aggression model which indicated that violent video games do manipulate the level of aggressive opportunity that people conjure up in reaction to possible conflict situations (2002) (Barlett et al, 2009). There is enough research to support the hypothesis that violent video games have an impact on the increased violence in society. There is a video game in every home, and these games have some type of violent content (Anderson et al, 2010). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>The risks of playing these violent games are high. Further research needs to be done on the longitudinal effects that alter a person’s personality and their increased aggressive social behavior. Another question, what are the cognitive changes on game players? Other factors need to be looked at like the family violence exposure, possible brain damage or injury and whether or not they were previously abused and any (Dowd et al, 2006) (Ferguson et al, 2008). Longitudinal studies need to be done in different economic and social status areas to show that violent video games makes cognitive and personality changes on all types of children and adults. These studies need to include highly violent, moderately violent, and lightly violent video games. </li></ul><ul><li>While looking at the different levels of violence, they also need to look at the specific features of these games that could possibly increase aggressive thoughts, behaviors and mind-set (Anderson & Murphy, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>  References </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C, & Bushman, B. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359. </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C., & Dill, K. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78 (4), 772-790. doi: 1031037//0022-3514.78.4.772 </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C., & Ford, C. (1986). Affect of the game player: short-term effects of highly and mildly aggressive video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12 (4),. 390-402. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C., & Morrow, M. (1995). Competitive aggression without interaction: effects of competitive versus cooperative instructions on aggressive behavior in video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21 (10), 1020-1030. </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Violent video games and aggressive behavior in young women. Aggressive behavior, 29, 423-429. </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, C., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E., Bushman, B., Sakamoto, A., Rothstein, H., & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin. 136(2), 151-173. doi: 10.1037/a0018251 </li></ul><ul><li>Bailey, K., West, R. & Anderson, C. (2011). The association between chronic exposure to video Game violence and affective picture processing: an ERP study. Cognitive Affect Behavior Neuroscience, 11, 259-276. </li></ul><ul><li>Ballard, M, & Weist, J. (1996). Mortal kombat: the effects of violent video game play on males hostility and cardiovascular responding. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 717-730. </li></ul><ul><li>Barlett, C., Anderson, C., & Swing, E. (2009). Video game effects-confirmed, suspected, and speculative: a review of the evidence. Simulation & Gaming, 40 (3), 377-403. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholow, B., & Anderson, C. (2002). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: potential sex differences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 283-290. doi: 10.1006/jesp.2001.1502 </li></ul><ul><li>Bushman, B., & Anderson, C., (2001). Media violence and the American public: scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477-489. </li></ul><ul><li>Bushman, B., & Anderson, C. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: a test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (12), 1679-1686. </li></ul><ul><li>Dowd, N., Singer, D., & Wilson, R. (2006). Handbook of children, culture, and violence. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Research Skills Cont. <ul><li>Research Skills Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferguson, C., Rueda, S., Cruz, A., Ferguson, D., Fritz, S., & Smith, S. (2008). Violent video games and aggression: causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35 (3), 311-332 doi: 10.1177?0093854807311719 </li></ul><ul><li>Markey, P. & Markey, C. (2010). Vulnerability to violent video games: a review and integration of personality research. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 82-91. doi: 10.1037/a0019000 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Justice. (1991). Uniform crime reports: 1990, crime in the United States. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Communication <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Sara Winnemucca Elementary School Counseling Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  25. 25. Communication <ul><li>Communication Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Sara Winnemucca Elementary School Counseling Interview </li></ul><ul><li>The counseling/clinical interview will take place at an elementary school. Sara Winnemucca Elementary School has a program for children with behavioral issues. This program is the only public school day treatment program in Northern Nevada. They have started to have an increasingly amount of students with just not behavioral issues but with possible other mental disorders, too. It seems to be more than the school counselor can deal with or even understand. They have asked me to go into the programs classrooms and first observe the children’s behavior then to do clinical interviews with each child. </li></ul><ul><li>The school has talked to each child’s parents and let them know what they would like to do. I have put together the appropriate paperwork to meet with each parent ahead of time to go over the ethical guidelines and standards, and get the proper paperwork signed by the parents, (Seligman, 2006). The dates have been set for the classroom over view of the observation of the children. I have asked the teachers and the counselor not to give me any information on the children, as I do not want to have another bias possibly come into play. Since each classroom has a small number of children, it is nice to be able to know each child by name. During the observation I will spend all day with each class to be able to understand their day and possible outbursts, (Stewart & Cash, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>During these observations, I will be using data sheets to document each child’s behavior to different situations. While keeping an open-mind, being relaxed and patient helped me to just observe and not give out any suggestions or comments during the observation. What I noticed in the two days of observations is that the classrooms are very culturally diversified. With this diversity unfortunately has caused some miscommunication. The students from these other cultures are experiencing frustration due to the verbal and nonverbal communication skills of the teachers. From what I saw this lead to behavioral acting out from not being able to understand the teacher, (Stewart & Cash, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Since the parents have experienced some of the same behavioral issues as the school, the next step is to do the intake interview with the child and parent or parents. The intake interview is meant to determine the nature of the problem or problems. During this process, it will be open-ended questions while using the semi structured method so that the child and parents feel open to discuss the answers in more detail. The questions will be organized to gather information regarding the child’s problem and how long it has existed, “any past treatment history, medical history, family history, education history, and relationship issues,” (Argosy, 2010a, p. 1). </li></ul>
  26. 26. Communication <ul><li>Communication Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>This will help to understand the underlying issues that may be causing the behavior at home and at school </li></ul><ul><li>Being very aware of the cultural background of each person in the interview will help with making sure the verbal and nonverbal cues are picked up. I want to make sure that I can do whatever it takes to build the unquestioning and effective relationship needed. There also seems to be some possible cognitive thinking errors with some of the children, (Argosy, 2010a). </li></ul><ul><li>Once the intake interview has been done and evaluated, the clinical interview may be required. Seeing the need to have a clinical interview will help assess whether the child has mental and/or emotional disorders. The type of interview during this session will be the “Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID),” (Argosy, 2010b, p. 1.) The primary reason for this session is to help predict, classify, and describe the disorders. During this interview, the control has to be in my corner to ensure the child stays focused and willing to communicate, (Argosy, 2010b). </li></ul><ul><li>After the observation and all of the interviews were done and getting approval from the parents, I was able to give the school some recommendations. The first suggestion was that the teachers become fully trained in how to deal and communicate with different cultures. The teachers will need to be more familiar with mental and emotional disorders (mainly the signs and behaviors). With the approval of the parents, I let the teachers and the head of the department along with the counselor the diagnosis of the children that are due to mental and emotional disorders. I also suggested some therapists and psychiatrists to the parents for their children that could help outside the school setting. The counselor, the department head, and the teachers found all of the information that was obtained through the intake and clinical interviews beneficial for their program. They started the implementation of the changes within the next week, and the students were able to make great progress. </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010a). Intake Interview . Module 8. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010b). Clinical Interviews . Module 8. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman, L. (2006). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: systems, strategies, and skills (2 nd Ed.). Upper </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart, C. & Cash, W. Jr. (2008). Interviewing Principles and Practices (12 th Ed.). New York, New York: </li></ul><ul><li>McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ethics & Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Ethics & Diversity Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Human Nature, Good or Evil? </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ethics & Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Ethics & Diversity Awareness Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, and his ideas of human nature and how they relate to humans. According to Thomas Hobbes, there are two different theories of human nature and they correspond with each other. Humans are like machines and are selfishly inclined. Are all humans giving up their freedoms permanently or just temporarily depending on what they are doing? Human nature is it entirely good or evil? </li></ul><ul><li>Human Nature, Good or Evil? </li></ul><ul><li>Nature seems to have given way to many different ideas to Philosophers regarding the abilities of human beings and the nature of mankind. Thomas Hobbes was one of these philosophers that had is own idea of human nature and why humans behave as they do. Many of Hobbes’s ideas are based out of human fear and self motivation. Hobbes implies that humans are at war with themselves and others at all times. Hobbes has two parts to his view which are the theory of social contract (state of nature) and his theory of human motivation, (Friend, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes theory of human nature seems to be a mix of morality and politics. He looks at the sciences and the different discoveries, basically states that humans are a mechanism. The bodies of humans are mechanically inclined to do things such as walking without the influence of others or real thought. While other mechanisms are chains of events due to other humans influence on our own bodies and thoughts. (Hobbes, 2010, Ch. XIII) “From Hobbes’ point of view, we are essentially very complicated organic machines, responding to the stimuli of the world mechanistically and in accordance with universal laws of human nature” (Friend, 2010, p. 3). </li></ul><ul><li>He views humans as being selfish, self-interested, yet reasonable all at the same time. According to Hobbes everything people do is based on their own best interest. That they are being motivated by this best interest and this is why humans subject themselves to authority no matter what the cost. It is in this thought that he theorized the state of nature or the social contract that all humans are willing to enter into. “Humans, Hobbes said, are born into a state of nature. In the state of nature, nothing is right or wrong because definitions of right and wrong are created, made-up, by society.” (Argosy, 2010, p. 1) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ethics & Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Ethics & Diversity Awareness Cont. </li></ul><ul><li>In this state of nature there are no laws, no authority, everyone would be in a state of complete disarray. Hobbes states that it is this reason why people enter into the social contract with politicians, government authority and even the neighbors around them. Hobbes feels that there are factors to which humans decide to end the battle of the state of nature and obey the rules of a society. These factors are: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Equality of need: Everyone has the same basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity: There are not enough resources for the needs of all. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential equality of power: No one is strong enough, or smart enough or cunning enough to prevail over others indefinitely. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited altruism: People are not completely selfish and will occasionally help others in need but we can never count on the generosity of others” (Argosy, 2010, p. 1). </li></ul><ul><li>With these main factors and the rationality of humans the understanding of a society that has rules and regulations that are needed in order to help preserve life and not be in a state of fear is the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>With all of Hobbes ideas in mind, I would have to agree to part of his theories. </li></ul><ul><li>First our bodies do seem to be like a machine. Each human body is basically structured the same with regard to the interior make up, except for the sexual distinction. Each person is given a mind of their own, and depending on their intellect and brain make up would depend on how they act or react. A machine if built well will run and do exactly what it was meant to do from the builder. Now a human body will perform exactly how it was meant to, with the exception that humans feel and have senses where a machine does not. </li></ul><ul><li>I believe that humans are all born into a world that is evil, but that the person has a built in moral conscience with good intentions. For instance, we have a child in our home that was abused physically and sexually by the adults in his life. This child was born into a world that is evil, but he has a deep desire of knowing what is good. Whether this was imprinted on him when he was young or whether this was given to him by God when he was born. I trust this was given to him and everyone else when they are born. He continues to seek out what is good, even when the hurt and pain tempt him to be bad or evil. He has not conformed to the world in which he was raised, but has transformed himself and others around him by his own actions. I do not see where this is selfish, as I think that selfish would just be to conform. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ethics & Diversity Awareness <ul><li>Ethics & Diversity Awareness Cont. </li></ul><ul><li> This is where I differ from Hobbes in my views. Hobbes statements and views make everything seem so bleak with regard to human nature and all that surrounds human nature. I do not feel this to be true. Everything in me tells me that not everyone is self-centered, but there are a few. I do not believe that people permanently surrender their freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>However, I do understand why people may temporarily surrender their freedom to help benefit those around them. For example, your family has decided that they want to go to a movie. Unfortunately, everyone is in agreement on what to see except for myself. I decide to temporarily give up my freedom of choice and go to the movie that they have chosen. I have not permanently surrendered my freedom to choose . These are the reasons why I only partially agree with Hobbes. I think that it is very important when looking at Hobbes and the other philosophers that we keep an open mind. As we need to understand where they are coming from in their thoughts and views, yet we need to make our own decisions on what we are to believe. To me human nature is inherently good, but evil can come out of it. It is imperative that judgments are not made out of hast, but that reasoning is used to determine what humans think in regard to their nature, (Branningan, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> References </li></ul><ul><li>Friend, C. (2010). Social Contract Theory . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes, T. (2010). Chapter XIII Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerning Their Felicity and Misery . </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University. (2010). Social Contract: Module 4. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Brannigan, M. (2005). Ethics Across Cultures . New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  31. 31. Foundations of Psychology <ul><li>Foundations of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Observing Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>PSY 361: Personality Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  32. 32. Applied Psychology <ul><li>Applied Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing and Contrasting the MMPI and the Rorschach Inkblot Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia Stephenson </li></ul><ul><li>Argosy University </li></ul>
  33. 33. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>Interpersonal Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>M5:A2 – Waco Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Reading the information on Waco from the articles on brings back memories of a man, David Koresh, that had went off the deep end. I remember a man in his early thirties that was very charismatic and was able to get followers by his false teachings and prophesies. At that time my husband and I were youth pastors, so I knew what Koresh was teaching was incorrect. I do find it interesting how he and other cult leaders are able to do this. After reading these articles and our text I see how compliance gaining strategies were used. </li></ul><ul><li>I believe that he sought out people who depended on others and/or lacking something in their own lives, Alberts (2009). Talks about dependency as an influence on the strategy choices that one will use. Koresh’s uncomplicated message of “If the Bible is true, then I’m Christ” (Lacayo, 1993,) seems to be a form of altruism and possibly a promise with regard to the compliance gaining strategies. As altruism states that someone will comply with the request due to the kindness of their heart and promise states that a person will be satisfied if they comply with the request, (Alberts, 2009). In my opinion these forms would be appealing to someone who is seeking out completeness or someone who wants to feel like their life has meaning or a part of something. Another strategy I think that David Koresh used is the pregiving strategy. Koresh gave his followers a place to live, to worship and also food, (Gibbs, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the presented goodness of the compound to give them shelter, food and friendship turned into a place to conform and equip them to what Koresh wanted from his followers’- total devotion. Lisa Gent stated, “Step by step, you give up everything in your life,” her husband stated, “You begin to live for a pat on the head” (Lacayo, 1993) These statements are signs of conformity by the followers of Koresh that they would give up their previous lifestyle to follow him. Authority is the behavior that was used by Koresh to get his followers’ to comply. “Koresh held over them all the power of the Apocalypse; he was the Lamb of Revelation, who alone could open the seven seals and foresee the end of the world,” (Gibbs, 1993). Compliance was automatically given to Koresh since he was the true authority according to his followers. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Interpersonal Effectiveness <ul><li>Interpersonal Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>One of the true forms of obedience can be found in the 12-year-old girl when she spoke on the Phi Donahue show and said “how they were taught to put the barrel of a gun in their mouth” (Gibbs, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>The ATF used the positive esteem and liking compliance-gaining strategies at first, and they seemed to work in the beginning. For example, the show of respect to Koresh got him to release 37 people, which 21 of them where children, (Gibbs, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>The ATF used the positive esteem and liking compliance-gaining strategies at first, and they seemed to work in the beginning. For example, the show of respect to Koresh got him to release 37 people, which 21 of them where children, (Gibbs, 1993). Regrettably, the ATF changed their strategy and went with an aversive stimulation technique. This was done by changing their tone with Koresh to a more rude and scornful manner. They used a “harassment campaign of lights and noises” to keep Koresh and his followers off guard. I believe this method was unsuccessful as Koresh still had ultimate control of his followers and the ATF. </li></ul><ul><li>    3 </li></ul><ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Alberts, Jess K. Interpersonal Effectiveness: Psychology 180. Argosy University, 2009. 11. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Lacayo, R. (1993, March). Cult of Death. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>ht tp:// </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbs, N. (1993, May). Oh, My God, They’re Killing Themselves! Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  35. 35. My Future in Learning <ul><li>My Future in Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Change is vital to a successful and fulfilling life! Life long learning is part of that changing process. Whether we learn from textbooks, professors, or through the knowledge we get living our lives, it is what I strive to do. Albert Einstein once said, “Learning is not a product of schooling but the lifelong attempt to acquire it.” I believe learning is what I make it. </li></ul><ul><li>My future in learning is to proceed to get my Masters in Psychology to become a Marriage & Family Therapist. </li></ul>
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