Chapter 8 Cst229


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Chapter 8 Cst229

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Cultural Foundations: Social Institutions
  2. 2. The Family <ul><li>A social group with a common residence, economic cooperation, and the management of reproducing (p 133) </li></ul><ul><li>Not all families fit the above model </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear families </li></ul><ul><li>Extended families </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of family varies from society to society </li></ul>
  3. 3. Family Structure <ul><li>Monogamy – marriage between one man and one woman </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy – marriage to more than one partner </li></ul><ul><li>Polygyny: marriage between one man and two or more women </li></ul><ul><li>Polyandry: marriage of one woman to two or more men (p 134) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Family Structure <ul><li>Exogamy – marriage outside a certain group </li></ul><ul><li>Endogamy – marriage restricted to members of a certain ethnic group (usually arranged marriages) </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal – male dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Matriarchal – female dominated </li></ul>
  5. 5. Religion <ul><li>Unified set of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things (p 142) </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals characterize religion (p 141) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion is a deep and pervasive determinant in establishing cultural patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Churches unify people and groups </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Religions <ul><li>Primitive Religions – nonliterate tribes or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Preanimism: the belief that the world is in constant change from the force of a spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Animism: the social and physical world is inhabited by spirits; these spirits but be offered sacrifices to be made happy (p 143) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Religions <ul><li>Modern religions – literate cultural groups </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism: one god </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism: many gods or goddesses </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract: a timeless, eternal force beyond human and nature </li></ul>
  8. 8. Political Institutions - Types <ul><li>Authoritarianism – ruled by one or elite group; forbidding freedom (North Korea) </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism – government controls every aspect of life (Nazi Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy – elected officials govern; power restricted by laws protecting rights (US, Japan) Democracies are rare in the world (p 149) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Power <ul><li>This concerns who gets what, how much and when; determine behavior of others even against their will (p 149) </li></ul><ul><li>Influence: the power to persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion: the power that comes from a superior force that can punish for disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: those in command as approved by the nation’s majority (p 149-50) </li></ul>