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Chapter 6 Part 1 Cst229


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Chapter 6 Part 1 Cst229

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Behavioral Guides
  2. 2. Values: Cultural Standards <ul><li>Values: statements about what we should do, think, how we should act and what we should not do </li></ul><ul><li>Values are determined by larger principles (law, governments) and individually (from family, friends) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Values: Cultural Standards <ul><li>Values differ between people in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Salience: perceived importance </li></ul><ul><li>Direction: values are seen as positive, negative, or having no value </li></ul><ul><li>Degree: the intensity of value </li></ul><ul><li>Values define appropriate vs inappropriate behavior within a culture; since cultures change, values change </li></ul>
  4. 4. Dominant American Values <ul><li>Individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Progress activism </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Informality </li></ul><ul><li>Morality </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any that you disagree with? Think about other cultures – are they the same?? </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Hofstede Value Dimensions <ul><li>Four value dimensions found to have a significant impact on behavior in all cultures : power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individualism and Collectivism <ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Belong to many groups </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy in the workplace and government </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries fall under this category? </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Belong to few groups </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchies common and unquestioned </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries fall under this category? </li></ul>
  7. 7. High / Low Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>How anxious or comfortable people as a whole are with new or unstructured situations </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the feeling of threat, the great avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures adopt rules and behaviors to overcome these situations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Masculinity and Femininity <ul><li>Masculine cultures expect men to be assertive, ambition, and completive. Women are expected to care for children, home, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine cultures see roles as overlapping; both sexes share responsibilities and focus mainly on nonmaterial </li></ul>
  9. 9. High and Low Power Distance <ul><li>The ability or capacity (job, etc) to exert power over others </li></ul><ul><li>High power distance culture – wide gap between those with power and those without (have/have nots) </li></ul><ul><li>Low power distance culture – equality; independence is valued; decision receive input from everyone </li></ul>