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Project Management The State of the Art

Elma Roberg, president of the Project Management Institute South Africa presents on project management vs program management and more.

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Project Management The State of the Art

  1. 1. Project management the state of the art Futurex 2007 - The Conference: ICT: Foundations of the Economy Elmar Roberg 082 651-5138 [email_address]
  2. 2. Menu <ul><li>The people </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation </li></ul><ul><li>The art </li></ul>
  3. 3. A little history <ul><li>First project management body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPMA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PMI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1969 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>230,000 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major standards generating body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAPM, PMP (200,000 certifications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To come: PgMP, PfMP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRINCE2™ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK OGC / APM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80,000 certifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GAPPS, AIPM, JPMA, etc. etc </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The state of the art A striking proportion of project difficulties stem from people in both customer and supplier organisations failing to implement known best practice. This can be ascribed to the general absence of collective professionalism in the IT industry, as well as inadequacies in the education and training of customer and supplier staff at all levels. Moreover, there is a broad reluctance to accept that complex IT projects have similarities with major engineering projects and would benefit from greater application of well established engineering and project management procedures. “ A significant percentage of IT project failures, perhaps most, could have been avoided using techniques we already know how to apply. For shame, we can do better than this.” (L Hatton) The Challenges of Complex IT Projects BCS, Royal Academy of Engineering April 2004
  5. 5. A profession has … <ul><li>Initial professional education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accreditation of knowledge requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversight bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMBoK, SWEBoK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skills development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housemanship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Years of experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MCSD, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House doctor, specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professional Societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMI, CSSA, IEEE, ACM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond individual competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMM </li></ul></ul>Gibbs, Ford (SEI) & McConnell
  6. 6. Competence Competence = ƒ ( Knowledge, Skill, Personal attributes ) Skill = ƒ ( Applicable experience, Years, Results ) Talents / gifts are 1. recognised 2. developed 3. exercised to become skills
  7. 7. Knowledge <ul><li>Project management knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PMBoK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRINCE2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager competency development framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PMP, P2 Foundation / Practitioner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SWEBoK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry certification & training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APM BoK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General management </li></ul>
  8. 8. Skill <ul><li>Domain </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on application </li></ul><ul><li>Years </li></ul><ul><li>Success, results </li></ul>
  9. 9. PM personal attributes a la IPMA <ul><li>Ability to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative, engagement, enthusiasm, ability to motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy, ability to connect, approachability </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense, assessment of value, acceptance of responsibility, personal integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution, openness to new ideas, fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to find solutions, holistic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty, solidarity, readiness to assist weaker members </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership ability </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal attributes a la PMI PMCDF <ul><li>Achievement & action </li></ul><ul><li>Helping & human service </li></ul><ul><li>Impact & influence </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Personal effectiveness </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to assess … <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is at level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assess pattern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul>Examples
  12. 12. What is missing?
  13. 13. Assessing organisations <ul><li>So, you have employed capable project managers, but just how good is your organisation as a project incubator? </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PMI OPM3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMM and derivatives </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Standards, methods, … Method The definition: “ A way of doing things .” Dict What does this mean? Methodology The definition: “ A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline. .” PMBoK What does this mean? Standard The definition: “ A document established by consensus and approved by a recognised body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context .” PMBoK What does this mean?
  15. 15. Value, benefit, … Value The definition: “ The ratio of benefit to the cost to deliver that benefit.” EJR What does this mean? Benefit The definition: “ The quantifiable and measurable improvement resulting from an outcome which is perceived as positive by a stakeholder and which will normally have a tangible value expressed in monetary or resource terms. Benefits are expected when a change is conceived. Benefits are realised as a result of activities undertaken to effect the change .” OGC What does this mean? Value management The definition: “ A management technique to define the perceived and actual value to the enterprise, and then assessing progress and achievements based on this value .” OGC What does this mean? Value engineering The definition: “ A creative approach used to optimise project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively .” PMBoK What does this mean?
  16. 16. Portfolios, programmes, projects Project The definition: “ A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” PMBoK What does this mean? Start and end date. Unique. Scarce resources. Complex. Cross-functional. Programme The definition: “ A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing individually. Programmes may include elements of related work (e.g. ongoing operations) outside the scope of the discrete projects in a programme .” PMBoK What does this mean? Related projects, work. Coordination. Complementary. Portfolio The definition: “ A collection of projects or programmes and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programmes of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related .” PMBoK What does this mean? A list. Linked to strategy / business plans.
  17. 17. Portfolios, programmes, projects Programme Portfolio Sub-Programme Portfolio Portfolio Portfolios Projects Programmes Programmes Projects Projects Programmes Projects Other Work Projects Projects
  18. 18. Example: MSF programme Envision O’ll Arch Rqmts Build Releases Close Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3 Benefit realisation measurement Stab Rel1 Deploy Deploy Deploy … Stab Rel2 Deploy Deploy Deploy … Stab Rel3 Deploy Deploy Deploy … … Realise benefits Realise benefits Realise benefits
  19. 19. Portfolios, programmes, projects (2) Multi-project management Mega-project management Project Management The definition: “ The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” PMBoK What does this mean? . Programme Management The definition: “ The centralised, coordinated, management of a program to achieve the programme’s strategic objectives and benefits .” PMBoK What does this mean? . Portfolio Management The definition: “ The centralised management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritising, authorising, managing and controlling projects, programmes, and other related work, to achieve specific business objectives .” PMBoK What does this mean? .
  20. 20. Portfolio, programme and project management PMI PFM Std Project Programme Portfolio Scope Narrow Wide Business Deliverables change Changes to meet benefit expectations Changes with strategic goals Change tolerance Averse Expected and even encouraged Monitors need for change Success Measurement On time Within budget Products delivered to spec ROI New capabilities Benefits Aggregate performance of portfolio components
  21. 21. Portfolio, programme and project manager PMI PFM Std Project Manager Programme Manager Portfolio Manager Leadership style focus Task delivery Directive Relationships Conflict resolution Politics Adding value to portfolio decision-making Manages Technicians Specialists “ Doers” Project managers Management / coordination of portfolio management staff Team role Team players Motivate through knowledge and skills Provide vision and leadership Provide insight and synthesis and leadership Planning level Detailed High-level Create and maintain process and communication relative to aggregate portfolio Planning focus Delivery of products Provide guidance to projects Activity Monitor & control tasks Monitor & control production of products Monitor & control projects Monitor & control ongoing work Monitor aggregate performance and value indicators Method of control Hands on Governance structures
  22. 22. PPPM context PMI PFM Std Organisational resources Vision Mission Org strategy & objectives Ops planning & mgt Proj Portfolio planning & mgt Mgt of ongoing ops Mgt of projectised activities (pgms, pjs)
  23. 23. How it all hangs together Programme management Provide programme governance Close programme Describe programme Manage benefits Manage programme portfolio Identify programme Control projects Initiation Planning Executing Controlling Closing Project concept Initiation Planning Executing Controlling Closing Project concept Initiation Planning Executing Controlling Closing Project concept Initiation Planning Executing Controlling Closing Project concept Strategy Business Plan Operational Plans Enterprise Portfolio Management Support P M O P S O P O
  24. 24. A progression … PMO Independent unrelated projects Coordinated projects Programmes Portfolio management PSO PO PMO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO PO Budget