Unodc topic a, topic b and commitee background


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Unodc topic a, topic b and commitee background

  1. 1. Committee: UNODCUNODC is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime.Established in 1997 through a merger between the United Nations Drug ControlProgram and the Centre for International Crime Prevention, UNODC operates inall regions of the world through an extensive network of field offices. UNODCrelies on voluntary contributions, mainly from Governments, for 90 per cent of itsbudget.UNODC is mandated to assist Member States in their struggle against illicit drugs,crime and terrorism. In the Millennium Declaration, Member States also resolvedto intensify efforts to fight transnational crime in all its dimensions, to redoublethe efforts to implement the commitment to counter the world drug problemand to take concerted action against international terrorism.The three pillars of the UNODC work program are: • Field-based technical cooperation projects to enhance the capacity of Member States to counteract illicit drugs, crime and terrorism • Research and analytical work to increase knowledge and understanding of drugs and crime issues and expand the evidence base for policy and operational decisions • Normative work to assist States in the ratification and implementation of the relevant international treaties, the development of domestic legislation on drugs, crime and terrorism, and the provision of secretariat and substantive services to the treaty-based and governing bodiesIn pursuing its objectives, UNODC makes every effort to integrate andmainstream the gender perspective, particularly in its projects for the provisionof alternative livelihoods, as well as those against human trafficking.
  2. 2. Topic A) The need to promote strong partnership with civil society organization indealing With complex problems of drug abuse and crime which undermine thefabric of societyDrug Use in the WorldDrug use is shifting towards new drugs and new markets. Drug crop cultivation isdeclining in Afghanistan (for opium) and the Andean countries (coca), anddrug use has stabilized in the developed world. However, there are signs of anincrease in drug use in developing countries and growing abuse ofamphetamine-type stimulants and prescription drugs around the world.The Report shows that the worlds supply of the two main problem drugs -opiates and cocaine - keeps declining. The global area under opium cultivationhas dropped by almost a quarter (23 per cent) in the past two years, and opiumproduction looks set to fall steeply in 2010 due to a blight that could wipe out aquarter of Afghanistans opium poppy crop. Coca cultivation, down by 28 percent in the past decade, has kept declining in 2009. World cocaine productionhas declined by 12-18 per cent over the period 2007-2009.Global potential heroin production fell by 13 per cent to 657 tons in 2009,reflecting lower opium production in both Afghanistan and Myanmar. Theactual amount of heroin reaching the market is much lower (around 430 tons)since significant amounts of opium are being stockpiled. UNODC estimates thatmore than 12,000 tons of Afghan opium (around 2.5 years worth of global illicitopiate demand) is being stockpiled.To an extent, the problem has moved across the Atlantic: in the last decade,the number of cocaine users in Europe has doubled, from 2 million in 1998 to 4.1million in 2008. By 2008, the European market ($34 billion) was almost as valuableas the North American market ($37 billion). The shift in demand has led to a shiftin trafficking routes, with an increasing amount of cocaine flowing to Europefrom the Andean countries via West Africa, causing regional instability. Globally,the number of people using amphetamine-type stimulants - estimated ataround 30-40 million - is soon likely to exceed the number of opiate and cocaine
  3. 3. users combined. There is also evidence of increasing abuse of prescriptiondrugs.Families have the potential to be the most powerful protective force in the livesof children and youth. Healthy family relationships may even prevent childrenand adolescents from engaging in drug use, delinquency and risky sexualbehaviors. UNODC has developed a Guide to Implementing Family Skills TrainingPrograms for Drug Abuse Prevention to assist those who are looking toimplement effective prevention interventions for young people and families.Descriptions of evidence-based family skills training programs will be publishedlater this year.Supporting parents in taking better care of their children has been proven aneffective strategy to prevent drug use and a range of risky and problematicbehavior. Families characterized by secure and healthy parent/childattachment, parental supervision and effective discipline and a cohesive andorganized family environment help protect children from drug use andcontribute to their capacity to overcome hardships and achieve positiveoutcomes in life.Conversely, families with indifferent child-parent relationships and a chaotichome environment increase the risk of children and youth to initiate drug use orother risky behavior.A comparison of the effectiveness of family skills training programs has foundthem to be on average four times as effective as drug education programstargeting youth only in school. Other positive outcomes reported includeincreased child attachment to school and improved academic performance,less depression and aggression in children, increased child social competenceand pro-social behavior, and lower levels of family conflict.In terms of cost-effectiveness, these programs have been found to return asaving of approximately US$10 in the long term for every dollar spent onimplementation.
  4. 4. Family skills training programs are based on interactive and practical methods inorder to produce lasting behavioral changes in parents and children. They offerparallel skills training sessions for parents and children (or adolescents) and atthe end of each session bring the families together to practice their newlyacquired skills as a family.UNODC is developing a global project to adapt, implement and evaluate theeffectiveness of family skills training programs in low- and middle-incomecountries.Frequently used questions: 1- Are there any programs or organizations on the prevention of drug use? 2- Does the government is trying to build family skills to prevent this type of issues? 3- And if it does, in what manner?Topic B) Thematic program on action against corruption and economic crimeCorruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon thataffects all countries. Corruption undermines democratic institutions, slowseconomic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruptionattack s the foundation of democratic institutions by distorting electoralprocesses, perverting the rule of law and creating bureaucratic quagmireswhose only reason for existing is the soliciting of bribes. Economic developmentis stunted because foreign direct investment is discouraged and small businesseswithin the country often find it impossible to overcome the "start-up costs"required because of corruption.Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon said at the occasion of International Anti-Corruption Day on 9 December 2009 that it the worlds vulnerable who suffer"first and worst" by corruption such as the theft of public money or foreign aid forprivate gain. The result, he says, is fewer resources to fund the building ofinfrastructure such as schools, hospitals and roads. Mr. Ban notes, however, thatcorruption "is not some vast impersonal force" but "the result of personaldecisions, most often motivated by greed." Pointing out that "the UN Convention
  5. 5. against Corruption is the worlds strongest legal instrument to build integrity andfight corruption", he also called on businesses to adopt anti-corruption measuresin line with the Convention.The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the only legallybinding universal anti-corruption instrument. The Conventions far-reachingapproach and the mandatory character of many of its provisions make it aunique tool for developing a comprehensive response to a global problem. TheUNCAC covers five main areas: prevention, criminalization and lawenforcement measures, international cooperation, asset recovery, andtechnical assistance and information exchange. The UNCAC covers manydifferent forms of corruption, such as trading in influence, abuse of power, andvarious acts of corruption in the private sector. A further significant developmentwas the inclusion of a specific chapter of the Convention dealing with therecovery of assets, a major concern for countries that pursue the assets of formerleaders and other officials accused or found to have engaged in corruption.The rapidly growing number of States that have become parties to theConvention is further proof of its universal nature and reach. Corruption can beprosecuted after the fact, but first and foremost, it requires prevention. An entirechapter of the Convention is dedicated to prevention, with measures directedat both the public and private sectors. These include model preventive policies,such as the establishment of anticorruption bodies and enhanced transparencyin the financing of election campaigns and political parties. States mustendeavor to ensure that their public services are subject to safeguards thatpromote efficiency, transparency and recruitment based on merit. Oncerecruited, public servants should be subject to codes of conduct, requirementsfor financial and other disclosures, and appropriate disciplinary measures.Transparency and accountability in matters of public finance must also bepromoted, and specific requirements are established for the prevention ofcorruption, in the particularly critical areas of the public sector, such as thejudiciary and public procurement. Those who use public services must expect ahigh standard of conduct from their public servants. Preventing publiccorruption also requires an effort from all members of society at large. For thesereasons, the Convention calls on countries to promote actively the involvementof non-governmental and community-based organizations, as well as otherelements of civil society, and to raise public awareness of corruption and what
  6. 6. can be done about it. Article 5 of the Convention enjoins each State Party toestablish and promote effective practices aimed at the prevention ofcorruption.Frequently used questions: 1- Does the government has any type of corruption? 2- Does any movement of citizens is presented, because of any type of corruption on economies? 3- Does any federal house is trying to avoid this type of federal issues?