General assembly topic A, B and committee background


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General assembly topic A, B and committee background

  1. 1. Committee: General AssemblyThe General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of the UN. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.<br />Each country has one vote.  Some Member States in arrear of payment may be granted the right to vote. <br />According to the Charter of the United Nations, the General Assembly may:<br />Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament;<br />Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it;<br />Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations;<br />Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields;<br />Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations;<br />Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs;<br />Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States;<br />Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General.<br />Pursuant to its “Uniting for Peace” resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)) , the Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. While the Assembly is empowered to make only non-binding recommendations to States on international issues within its competence, it has, nonetheless, initiated actions—political, economic, humanitarian, social and legal—which have affected the lives of millions of people throughout the world.<br />The landmark Millennium Declaration, adopted in 2000, and the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document reflect the commitment of Member States to reach specific goals to attain peace, security and disarmament along with development and poverty eradication; safeguard human rights and promote the rule of law; protect our common environment; meet the special needs of Africa; and strengthen the United Nations.<br />Topic A; Nuclear Development in Iran and Korea <br />The history of nuclear weapons chronicles the development of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive potential derived from nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reactions. Starting with scientific breakthroughs of the 1930s that made their development possible, and continuing through the nuclear arms race and nuclear testing of the Cold War, the issues of proliferation and possible use for terrorism still remain in the early 21st century.<br />The first fission weapons, also known as "Big Jims" were developed jointly by the United States, Britain and Canada during World War II in what was called the Manhattan Project to counter the assumed Nazi German atomic bomb project. In August 1945 two were dropped on Japan ending the Pacific War. An international team was dispatched to help work on the project. The Soviet Union started development shortly thereafter with their own atomic bomb project, and not long after that both countries developed even more powerful fusion weapons called "hydrogen bombs."<br />During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and United States each acquired nuclear weapons arsenals numbering in the thousands, placing many of them onto rockets that could hit targets anywhere in the world. Currently there are at least nine countries with functional nuclear weapons. A considerable amount of international negotiating has focused on the threat of nuclear warfare and the proliferation of nuclear weapons to new nations or groups.<br />There have been (at least) four major false alarms, the most recent in 1995, that resulted in the activation of either the US's or Russia's nuclear attack early warning protocols.<br />The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) is a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons. The treaty came into force on 5 March 1970, and currently there are 189 states party to the treaty, five of which are recognized as nuclear weapon states: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council).<br />Four non-parties to the treaty are known or believed to possess nuclear weapons: India, Pakistan and North Korea have openly tested and declared that they possess nuclear weapons, while Israel has had a policy of opacity regarding its own nuclear weapons program. North Korea acceded to the treaty, violated it, and in 2003 withdrew from it.<br />The treaty was proposed by Ireland and Finland, and they were the first to sign. <br />The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles. Although the concept of "pillars" is not expressed anywhere in the NPT, the treaty is nevertheless sometimes interpreted as a three-pillar system, with an implicit balance among them:<br />non-proliferation,<br />disarmament, and<br />the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.<br />The treaty is reviewed every five years in meetings called Review Conferences of the Parties to the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In addition, Sessions of the Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference take place on the intermediate years. Simultaneously, many events organized by independent institutions, groups of experts, think tanks and NGOs take place worldwide in order to provide reports and recommendations that complement the Preparatory Committees.<br />Even though the treaty was originally conceived with a limited duration of 25 years, the signing parties decided, by consensus, to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions during the Review Conference in New York City on May 11, 1995.<br />The most recent Review Conference was held in May, 2010.Questions to Consider:- Does your country has relations with other countries regarding nuclear energy?- Has your country had transnational issues regarding nuclear weapons?- What treaties protect your country regarding this issue?- What military actions had been taken towards this issue?<br /> B; <br />Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor, a modern-day form of slavery.<br />The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol) was adopted by the United Nations in Palermo, Italy in 2000, and is an international set of diplomatic guidelines established by the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. The Trafficking Protocol is one of three Protocols adopted to supplement the Convention.<br />The Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument with an agreed definition on trafficking in persons. The intention behind this definition is to facilitate convergence in national cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons. An additional objective of the Protocol is to protect and assist the victims of trafficking in persons with full respect for their human rights. The Trafficking Protocol defines human trafficking as:<br />The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth [above] shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth [above] have been used.<br />The Trafficking Protocol became effective on 25 December 2003. By June 2010, the Trafficking Protocol had been signed by 117 countries and 137 parties.The United Nations' International Labor Organization estimates that at any single moment, approximately 12.3 million people are subjected to forced labor or sexual slavery by human traffickers. As of 2009, Interpol recognized human trafficking as the world's third most profitable international criminal activity. The United States views human trafficking as a grave human rights violation and has joined international efforts to combat human trafficking. The United States signed the United Nations' Palermo Protocol of 2000, which requires signatories to combat human trafficking through legislation, prosecution and victim assistance. The Palermo Protocol informs the United States' policy of addressing human trafficking through the three P's of prosecution, protection and prevention. This paradigm is the basis for all U.S. anti-trafficking legislation.<br />Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 200<br /> The act provided over $95 million from 2001 to 2002 to fund anti-trafficking programs and an interagency task force. The act established sentencing guidelines for human-trafficking offenses, allowing for sentences of up to life in prison for the most egregious crimes. The act included victim protection provisions including the establishment of the T visa, which makes trafficking victims temporary U.S. citizens, protecting them from reprisals from the criminal organization responsible for their enslavement upon their return to their native country. Funding was also provided for housing, health care, job training and other victim assistance programs.<br />Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003<br /> The act designated human-trafficking offenses as crimes covered by the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Statute, while allowing victims to file civil suits against their traffickers. The act struck at child sex tourism by providing travelers to specified countries with information on U.S. policies for combating this criminal enterprise as well as the penalties for engaging in it. The act also required the U.S. attorney general to report annually to Congress on the progress of U.S. anti-trafficking efforts.<br />Trafficking Victims Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005<br />This act gave U.S. courts jurisdiction over federal employees and contractors who committed trafficking-related offenses while working overseas. The Department of Labor was required to compile and make available to the public a list of products made with forced labor and child workers. The act also established grants for the anti-trafficking activities of state and local law enforcement.<br />William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008<br />The act increased law enforcement's data collection and reporting requirements for human-trafficking information, mandating the creation of a system to monitor all anti-trafficking efforts at the federal level and the addition of human trafficking as a category to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports. On the prosecution front, the act eased the burden of proof required to prosecute trafficking offenses against minors. While prosecutors were previously required to prove that the trafficker had full knowledge of his victim's age, the act reduced this standard to what could reasonably be assumed about the victim.Read more: Laws & Policies Against Human Trafficking | more: Laws & Policies Against Human Trafficking |<br /><br />