Multilayer Superimposed Information for Collaborative Annotation in Wikis

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Collaborative writing and editing typically use annotations to coordinate edition tasks, comment the content, add relevant references, or clarify confusing content. Despite that wikis are among the most widely used hypertext systems for performing such collaborative activities, they have little support to annotations. In this paper, we propose to use spatial hypertext layers as the solution for the management of annotations in wikis. We have extended ShyWiki, a spatial hypertext wiki environment, with Multilayer Superimposed Information features. In addition, we present the results of a study that shows the value of spatial hypertext layers for locate, organize and group annotations in interest groups under a wiki interface.

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  • Annotations help to understand and discuss a content. They have been used in physical content especially in books since centuries. There are personal and collaborative annotations, they are used to remark important information, include missing one, add references, etc.
    Annotations have been used to enrich the content of hypertext documents.
    Annotations have been part of hypertext since Memex (Bush, 1945) and NLS (Engelbart).
  • Wikis are collaborative hypertext systems, with low technical barriers, and provide a shared information space. They are a reliable and cheap solution for knowledge management.
    However, the knowledge in wikis can hardly be used by machines, because it lacks of structure.
    Wikis are collaborative hypertext systems, with low technical barriers, and provide a shared information space. They are a reliable and cheap solution for knowledge management.
    However, the knowledge in wikis can hardly be used by machines, because it lacks of structure.
  • Why do we have to annotate in a wiki?
  • Wikis are collaborative hypertext systems, with low technical barriers, and provide a shared information space. They are a reliable and cheap solution for knowledge management.
    However, the knowledge in wikis can hardly be used by machines, because it lacks of structure.
    Wikis are collaborative hypertext systems, with low technical barriers, and provide a shared information space. They are a reliable and cheap solution for knowledge management.
    However, the knowledge in wikis can hardly be used by machines, because it lacks of structure.
  • Adding annotation capability to collaborative editing systems like wikis have some general requirements
  • Adding annotation capability to collaborative editing systems like wikis have some general requirements
  • What other solutions are available to annotate the wiki content.
    Open hypermedia is a way to extend monolithic hypermedia systems by integrating third-party applications with hypermedia.
    There are OH systems such as Microcosm, Chimera, Annotea, Fluid allow users to annotate and add hyperlinks.
    But open hypermedia data needs special servers and browsers that are not yet integrated with web servers and wikis (figure).
  • Spatial hypertext has not been used in collaborative systems such as wikis (until ShyWiki).
    Spatial Hypertext might have the problem of information overload, and they do not satisfy the general and specific requirements.
  • Multilayer Superimposed Information for Collaborative Annotation in Wikis

    1. 1. Lero© 2010 Multilayer Superimposed Information for Collaborative Annotation in Wikis Carlos Solis, Jose H. Canos and Marcos R.H. Borges Carlos.Solis@lero.ie
    2. 2. Lero© 2010 Table of Contents • Motivation • Related Work • Requirements • Spatial Hypertext Wiki (ShyWiki) • Superimposed Information in ShyWiki • Conclusions • Future Work
    3. 3. Lero© 2010 Motivation: Annotations
    4. 4. Lero© 2010 Motivation: Wikis
    5. 5. Lero© 2010 Motivation Collaborative annotation is part of many information management activities. In Annotative Collaboration Processes authors and editors use annotations to edit, review and evolve documents, as well as in the coordination of the goals, tasks, resolution of conflicts, etc.
    6. 6. Lero© 2010 Motivation How can we annotate in a wiki? • The discussion page can be used as a kind of annotation. • Text between brackets if often used to annotate the content.
    7. 7. Lero© 2010 Requirements General requirements (Murthy, 2004): • The management of the annotations must be simple. • The superimposed information data model must be able to represent many data models • No assumptions must be made about the content being annotated.
    8. 8. Lero© 2010 Requirements Specific requirements: • Add notes to a wiki page. • Add several layers of annotations • View only the original information. • View selected layers of annotations. • Move annotations between layers. • Organize the layers by user interest groups.
    9. 9. Lero© 2010 Related work: Open hypermedia • Open hypermedia systems Microcosm, Chimera, Annotea, Fluid documents allow to extend documents with annotations and hyperlinks.
    10. 10. Lero© 2010 Related Work: Spatial Hypertext Tinderbox Visual Knowledge Builder VIKI, VKB, WARP, Tinderbox
    11. 11. Lero© 2010 Related Work: Spatial Hypertext • Spatial hypertext has not been used in collaborative systems such as wikis (before ShyWiki). • Spatial Hypertext might have the problem of information overload.
    12. 12. Lero© 2010 Superimposed Information Spatial Hypertext
    13. 13. Lero© 2010 ShyWiki
    14. 14. Lero© 2010 Multilayer Superimposed Information ShyWiki Model
    15. 15. Lero© 2010 Multilayer Superimposed Information ShyWiki
    16. 16. Lero© 2010 Interest Groups The superimposed information layers can be associated to the individuals and groups. A user subscribes to a layer name in order to view the superimposed information layers with the same name when she or he navigates through the wiki.
    17. 17. Lero© 2010 Layer Filtering Wiki page allows the possibility of filtering the content: •Users can select a set of superimposed information layers to visualize. •User can display only the base layer.
    18. 18. Lero© 2010 Superimposed information management operations •Add layer. Adds a superimposed information layer to a wiki page. •Remove layer. Removes a superimposed information layer including all its notes. •Add note. Adds a note to a superimposed information layer, by default notes are added to the base level. •Move note. Moves a note to a superimposed information layer. •Move all. Moves all the notes in a superimposed information layer to another.
    19. 19. Lero© 2010 Evaluation • 18 subjects split into two groups, one group used ShyWiki with spatial hypertext layers, and the other without layers. The null hypothesis is that the experimental group would perform better. • Both groups interacted with a wiki page which content was the same. In the first task they counted the number of annotations, in the second they counted the number of sets of annotations, and in the third they counted how many annotation were in each set.
    20. 20. Lero© 2010 Evaluation • Q1. How many annotations are? • Q2. How many sets of annotations are? • Q3. How many annotations are in each set? • Likert – S4. It is useful to have annotations – S5. The annotations are intrusive – S6. The annotations are distinguishable – S7. The annotations are easy to locate – S8. It would be useful to be able to hide or show the annotations – S9. It is useful to have sets of annotations – S10. It would be useful to filter the annotations by set – S11. It would be useful to subscribe to annotation sets – S12. A wiki page should show the annotations sets you are subscribed
    21. 21. Lero© 2010 Discussion •The experimental group was able to locate all the annotations in a more effective way (one tailed p-value, 0.041). •Users in the experimental group were able to locate in a more effective way the sets annotations and the notes that belong to those sets (one tailed p-value is 0.029). •The effectiveness in the experimental group was 88% against 44% in the control one. •The times to find the answers were better for the experimental group in all tasks. •All users believe that annotations are useful. •Spatial annotations were more intrusive, but easily distinguishable, and easier to locate. •User agree that would be useful to be able to hide or show the annotations, having sets of annotations and subscriptions.
    22. 22. Lero© 2010 Conclusions • Superimposed spatial hypertext provides support to annotation in wiki systems. • The use of layers permits to have different views of the information, and create hyperlinks to these views. • Users are willing to annotate the content, and to know the annotations that are performed by users with similar interests • Spatial hypertext layers help users to organize and locate the annotations in a better way than a wiki without superimposed information support.
    23. 23. Lero© 2010 Future Work • Explore the relations between layered spatial hypertext interfaces and multidimensional hypertext (ZigZag and Xanadu). • Analyze how the superimposed information layers are used. • Support independent and parallel sub-group work. • Look if the layers can be used to manage an edition process.
    24. 24. Lero© 2010 Thank you! Questions?

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