Creating the IDEAL Team for Positive Discipline in the School Library Setting


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From the #4csla #calibconf concurrent session! By Janice Gilmore-See and Sandy Patton

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  • Here’s a definition from an educational point of view. A set of activities…promoting good behavior…eliminating bad behavior…through establishment of a relationship…and a positive climate…in an organized fashion. As we will see throughout the presentation, the focus remains on a plan for teaching skills, building and maintaining relationships, and creating a climate focusing on proactive interventions.
  • I photocopied a couple of month's worth, and stapled all on Monday's together, starting with the first class coming.... (Use pencil on the master sheet so that you can edit the names) Tuesday, etc. Then I would have a week ready to pull, and I could see at a glance who was coming, the grade and what time!!!!
  • How do you get the student’s attention (every teacher uses something different) - what will you use and how will you train students to respond? If the teacher has poor behavior management, you have even more to overcome. Catch them at the door if you know there are potential problems. (Example: have them line up outside and wait until it is quiet before you let them in) If they do something wrong, have them do it again until they get it right. Don’t get frustrated - stay positive even as they groan. Don’t become sarcastic or degrading. Let teachers know that if they stay they need to enforce the rules of your classroom (the library).
  • Here are the specifics for “training and instruction.” And these benefits look pretty enticing, don’t they.
  • Uh-oh. Hopefully, this is NOT your discipline plan. Look at the outcomes here. If these are the characteristics of your students and environment (and possibly your staff), then maybe your discipline plan is too heavy-handed.
  • Why do so many school librarians and paraprofessionals leave the field, or if they stay, get mean and nasty? Sadly, many librarians cannot make the difference in the lives of students because of lack of skill in behavior management. Their mental photo album does not match reality. Inability to control the students during a library visit is the number one reason administrators give poor evaluations. It's also one reason classroom teachers find excuses not to bring their class, do not wish to stay during class visits, and do not wish to collaborate. The majority of school librarians and paraprofessionals are sent into the classroom with little or no training in student behavior management. Some quit. Some become Library Dragons and make visiting the library a miserable experience for students, many give up and let the library become toxic, others simply send every offender out ~ back to the classroom, up to the office, hand out detention slips.
  • How do we "keep the faith" when the threat from behavior problems to career satisfaction is greater today than ever before? The reason for the increase of frequency and intensity of behavior problems is open to debate. Depending on who you talk to, it is blamed on any of the following reasons (and more).
  • Explain 7: Firm means consistent. Be consistent across situations. Be consistent across time. Consistency = predictability Inconsistency promotes the belief that rules aren’t really important. Consistency helps students see the value of appropriate behavior. A variable schedule of reinforcement is the most powerful. Be mindful how you use it. Who can tell me why a variable schedule of reinforcement is the most powerful? Think about a slot machine. It’s one of the most addictive forms of gambling. Why? The possibility of a big payoff. So provide positive reinforcement on a variable schedule. You are more likely to get your students to “feed the machine,” to give you what you want. Consequences, however, must be on a regular schedule. Students may start to “gamble” if consequences are delivered inconsistently. Avoid threats or promises you cannot or will not keep. You increase the likelihood of negative behavior with inconsistent payoffs. If negative behavior increases following your “intervention,” then your intervention is backfiring. Reevaluate! You’re probably reinforcing negative behavior on a variable schedule. If you’re inconsistent on following through on consequences, the students will push the buttons and cross the line to see if they can “get away with it.” Consequences provide reassurance to every one that you are the protector of the physical, psychological, and educational well-being of ALL students. Empty threats send the message that, “I don’t really mean it,” and “I’m out of ideas. I’ve got nothing here. Explain 6. The one-up Children will always one-up you. If you raise your voice, they will talk louder. If you act angry, they will act angrier. If you are sarcastic, little children will be bewildered, and older children will get hurt feelings. You want the students to model your behavior, so be careful expressing those negative emotions. They will mirror those, too.
  • You must be energetic, excited about school. Express high, but realistic, expectations for academics AND behavior. Look at the funny side. Sometimes it takes years before we see the light side of a situation. How many of you have ever said, “One day we’ll laugh about this!” Laugh now. Kids are funny. Their behavior is goofy. But if you laugh out loud and in front of the kids, make sure you are laughing with them, not at them. It’s only humorous if it’s funny to everyone involved. And don’t take things too personally. You know those things they said about your mama are not true.
  • Here we are addressing one of the only things we can control - poor teaching. Students like to know what is expected and what is going to happen. Changing everything up just causes chaos. Kids can learn any routine - there is no right or wrong - but be consistent. For example … if students always hear a story then checkout … they will not do well if all of a sudden you say to check out books first & then read a story. If a class is scheduled to come … be ready. That may mean warning students that are dropping in, stopping in the middle of cataloging tasks or answering the phone or email messages. It means that you aren’t wasting instructional time for the persons or groups that have pre-booked your time. If you leave a group of students sitting idly Think through entire visits and lessons - stay late the night before if you must, but have your handouts duplicated and ready, your reading choice ready and marked, the resources pulled in advance.
  • Use the school-wide Student Code of Conduct if one is developed. Post this Code of Conduct prominently so that you can refer to it when you see misbehaviors. There is a big difference between breaking a conduct rule vs. breaking a library rule. Usually these Codes cover obvious misbehaviors, but they can especially be helpful for small infractions that take minor redirection; student is standing on a stool and pulling our a heavy book that could fall on another student; student tries to get ahead in line student is not finishing assigned work student is treating library book carelessly student is talking too loudly Before going to the next slide have the audience come up with 3 to 6 rules they use now.
  • Looking at the rules that we listed. Have we broken any rules about rules.
  • Explaining 5. While we don’t expect you to whisper, we do expect you to be considerate of others; maintain a low conversational tone of voice while in the library. Explaining 6. Quality work is difficult to accomplish in a junky work space. Make sure the library looks as good when you leave as it did when you came in. Explaining 7. In order to ensure that everyone can find the books they need, please place any books you remove onto the carts at the front of the library so they can be reshelved properly.
  • The broken record message is simple: Repeat it, repeat it again, repeat it again…same tone of voice (calm and quiet), although you might use slightly different words. Sometimes we don’t clearly convey what we WANT, especially if we state it in negative terms. When I say, “Don’t run,” is it ok for you to skip, to twirl, to hop, to somersault, to stand perfectly still? You’re not running. Did I want you to walk, walk slowly, walk on the right-hand side of the hall? Use the broken record method to continue to give information, and to clarify the information you give.
  • Is one class still finishing up when another is arriving?
  • Before we can talk about intervention techniques you need to understand why PEOPLE act the way they do? There are only five reasons why people (not just students) misbehave. We’ve all come to realize that negative attention is just as reinforcing as positive attention. People do some outrageous things to get attention. Why do students, in particular … although these reasons could explain the behavior of other teachers, parents, and administrators alike … act in way they do. And how can we get them to stop. Students may be angry about the treatment they get in school they are bored, they don’t understand why they have to complete these assignments that don’t teach them anything, they want to get back at teachers, administrators, adults in general, for boring them to death. Some of them need to be in charge and will take over if you let them. Others are just trying to get away from a situation where they can’t succeed. Well, and then there are the students that are tired, hungry, or need to go to the bathroom! If all they have is a basic need in mind, they aren’t going to be active and engaged in any activities.
  • Treat behavior deficits the same way you would reading or math deficits. Tell it, show it, practice it, score it, reteach it, reinforce it. Teach it in context, not in isolation. Every behavior is a tool to get something we want. Some people have a well-equipped, well-organized tool box. They keep their tools bright and shiny. They know where they are, what they are for, when to use, how to use them safely…Others have a roll of duct tape and a can of WD40. If it doesn’t move and it should, use the WD40. If it moves and it shouldn’t, use the duct tape. Duct tape and WD40 are pretty good quick fixes, but not for the long haul. Fixing skill deficits takes time and practice. You’re not going to be able to do this when you see a student once a week or once a month.
  • When is caution is the better part of valor? Provide a safe environment. Avoid opportunities for disaster. Keep potential weapons locked away. If necessary, clear the room. Property can be replaced. People cannot. Physical intervention can escalate behavior. Touch only when absolutely necessary to avoid further harm. Logistically, this can be difficult to allow in a school. Other students and personnel perceive that the student has “gotten away” with something. Not true. You can have consequences without throwing gasoline on the fire. Wait until the crisis cycle has passed. Again, assigning consequences during the crisis cycle will likely escalate, not de-escalate, the situation. Applying consequences is not an emergency measure. It can and should wait until you are sure the child is ready to accept the consequences without a “flare up.” Remember, a physical confrontation is usually more aversive to the “intervenors” than to “intervenees.” The angry student has far less to lose than the teacher or administrator. Be mindful of the possible effects of gender, size, race, and numbers when deciding whether to seek assistance from other individuals. Touch only when absolutely necessary to avoid further harm.
  • We make the mistake of equating “loud” with aggressive. We think that inappropriate language constitutes a threat. A person who is loud and using inappropriate language is giving valuable information. They are expressing a feeling. Verbal aggression does not naturally lead to physical aggression. In fact, sometimes venting will relieve the pressure. An inappropriate intervention at this time could lead to physical aggression. Children with language problems are more likely to act out physically. If a person can express their feelings verbally, and are allowed to do so, you can sometimes avoid physical aggression.
  • The students will know if you genuinely care about them. This is how you build relationships. We know from our research regarding cultural diversity that relationships are one of the primary values of the African-American student. In almost any relationship, you can better obtain cooperation if you first establish a level of trust and caring. If you need to have a difficult conversation, let the other person know in advance. Give them time to prepare. The situation is less likely to become volatile if they have time to think and plan than if they have to “think on their feet.”
  • Think about your job - would you do it without a paycheck? Aren’t the extensive vacation and time off an incentive to stay in your job? Do you enjoy everything about your job - do you procrastinate on doing those tasks you struggle with? Do you enjoy eating lunch with your colleagues? Do you like it when the principal singles you out for a good job in front of the rest of the faculty? What keeps you focused on learning better ways to do your job? Is it important to you to develop a good reputation as an exceptional librarian? We ALL gradually move from tangibles to social rewards. We pair the two and eventually the good feeling we get from inside ourselves becomes enough reward.
  • Research says that teachers are 12 times more likely to pay attention to negative behavior than to positive behavior. And for every negative interaction, it takes 18 or so positive interactions to rebuild the relationship. You do the math! 18 x 12 = 216 ….
  • Why do I have to give them stuff for what they should be doing anyway? They’re going to expect to get something all the time. Make sure you praise the action (behavior) of the child and not the character. Instead of, “You’re such a good boy for cleaning up,” try “I really like the way you cleaned up your area.” Because, conversely, if they don’t engage in the desired behavior, they might surmise that they are a bad boy for leaving a mess. Ask students how they think they did. They are their own toughest critics. Give them an opportunity to find the problem and responsibility for making it better. Instead of being a critic, you are now the support. The students learn self-evaluation and problem-solving through this process. You become the facilitator of the process, instead of the meanie. Some people have problems taking a compliment. Tell them, “I’m about to give you a compliment that you really deserve. When I’m finished, you should say, ‘Thank you. I DID do a good job, didn’t I?’”
  • We treat every negative behavior like it’s an emergency! We pay attention to it immediately. Not every negative behavior needs immediate attention. The behavior we want to attend to immediately is positive behavior. So pay attention to those students first. Get them busy, reduce the audience, and handle the negative behavior in private. Now, even though the negative behavior is getting attention, it’s not immediate, and there’s an audience of one, instead of 26.
  • Sometimes adults need a time-out, too. Never admitting that you are wrong is a power struggle in and of itself. It tells the students to “give up.” It’s a dictatorship…and that can lead to disaster. Let the kids know it’s ok to mess up occasionally as long as you recognize your mistakes, apologize for your mistakes, and learn from your mistakes. The kids don’t have to be perfect, and neither do the adults.
  • (Take a bag of potato chips. Put half in a clean, attractive bowl. Put the other half in a garbage can. Throw in the empty bag, dump in a glass of water/soda…Walk around the room and offer the participants a chip. Keep going until you get one or two people to take a “soggy” chip. Someone always does.) The soggy potato chip vs. the crisp potato chip principle is this: If you can’t get a crisp potato chip, would you take a soggy one instead? Or if you had a choice, which would you take? Many students will take a soggy chip b/c that’s what they are used to and they’ve come to enjoy those soggy chips. Or maybe they think they only deserve the soggy chip. Do you know what “extinction burst” means? It means that when attention has been sustaining a behavior and attention is withdrawn, the student will frantically exhibit the behavior to try to get your attention. If you’re strong and ignore the first 25 times, then “give in” on the 26 th try, the student gets the message that he now has to try 26 times instead of 3 times to rattle your cage. Remember, this works for negative and positive behavior. Wouldn’t it be nice for the student to be appropriate 26 times in exchange for one reward. The bottom line is this: Don’t offer soggy chips. Offer plenty of crisp ones and change the tastes of those who previously preferred the soggy ones.
  • Here are the benefits of encouraging effort. These are the characteristics of successful, life-long learners.
  • Instead of letting students escape, keep them there. We often send students away--out of the room, to the office, In-School Suspension, out of school suspension, expulsion—for behaviors whose function was to ESCAPE. And that’s what we give them—an escape, essentially a vacation. Some vacations are brief, some are longer. Administrative leave with pay. If I’m not bothered by the long term effects, this is a pretty good deal in the short go-round. How do we make the problem behavior irrelevant: Set kids up for success. Give them material on which they can achieve some level of success. Give them attention for the behavior we would like for them to continue.
  • We take for granted that all kids have the same behavior skills at the same age. They don’t. You can’t walk until you crawl. When a baby starts to push up, you get on the floor and clap and coo and encourage them to get on their knees. When they get on their knees, you hold out your hands and beg them to crawl. When they crawl, you prop them up against the couch so they can stand. You take their hands and walk them around the room. It’s a gradual process. You encourage and reward all along the way. Tell them, “When you finish my activity, you can work on your activity.” How many of you are “working for the weekend?” Isn’t that a song title. What about this one: The three best things about teaching are June, July, and August! Dangle the carrot in front of the students. Then give them carrot and let them enjoy it.
  • You don’t need many skills to teach a dead man certain things. They sit still really well. They hardly ever run. They are great at being quiet. I’m pretty sure I can teach a dead man these things with no formal education and no license. But we spend hours teaching dead man behavior.
  • “If” can sound threatening. It also opens the door to “maybe-maybe not” conditions. “If” sounds like “we’ll see,” and everyone knows that “we’ll see” means different things to different people…and from different sources. “When” puts the child in control. It conveys a firm promise.
  • Win-win is not a compromise. It means everybody gets what they want. This is accomplished by offering choices that are acceptable to you and likely to be chosen by the child. Even if they don’t particularly like the choices, they enjoy the process of choosing. Students feel more in control of themselves and happier about the outcome if they have some say-so. Make them think it’s their idea!
  • Build your rep: Display concern. When they ask, “Why did you call my parents?” answer, “B/C I care about you.” Talk with them outside of class. Use humor and create joy.
  • Effective discipline is an ongoing practice that takes place in the classroom. When a disciplinarian is brought in to handle the situation, you are into a punitive mode. Research indicates that proactive/preventive practices are the most effective; immediate intervention at the outset of the problem behavior chain is less effective; and punishment after the fact is not at all effective for long-term behavioral change.
  • Try using soft background music without lyrics, such as classical music as “white noise” to mask other distracting noises, such as the air conditioning blowing, florescent lights buzzing…noises that students with ADHD symptoms hear with their “super” hearing that we don’t hear. To keep attention focused, use cardboard “telescopes.” Students watch you or a section of the board through an empty paper towel tube. The other eye automatically closes, blocking out distracting stimuli. Another benefit is that you know exactly where the attention is directed. Make card windows to use for text. Cut out a piece of cardboard the same width as the textbook. The text window can be the size of a typical line of print, a paragraph, or a row of math problems. Customize card windows for each textbook.
  • If you use two new rolls of pennies each day, you’ll have $22 at the end of the month. Reward yourself or your class!
  • This directive…”If your horse dies, dismount!”…is supposedly in the Calvary handbook. Basically it is the same message that you got at the beginning of this presentation: “Stop the insanity!”
  • Creating the IDEAL Team for Positive Discipline in the School Library Setting

    1. 1. STUDENT BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT ESTABLISHING DISCIPLINE in the school library <ul><li>Janice Gilmore-See </li></ul><ul><li>District Librarian & Learning Resources Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>La Mesa-Spring Valley School District </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Sandy Patton Teacher Librarian, National Board Certified Lakewood High School Long Beach Unified School District [email_address]
    2. 2. What isn’t taught in TL preparation programs … and expected of our paraprofessionals with no training? <ul><li>A set of activities by which </li></ul><ul><li>WHO? the librarians, paraprofessionals, and/or visiting teachers </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL? promote appropriate student behavior and eliminate inappropriate student behavior; CONTRAINTS? while still developing good interpersonal relationships and a positive socio-emotional climate in the library </li></ul><ul><li>HOW? by establishing rules and procedures to maintain an effective and productive library environment. </li></ul>Behavior Management & Discipline
    3. 3. Sandy’s example ~ sharing things that work: 1. Make up a seating chart 2. Read Miss Nelson is missing (I wore a character T-Shirt with &quot;Miss Viola Swamp is Watching You&quot; on it) 3. Explain the system (stars, happy faces, and checks) tied to the citizenship grade on the report card.
    4. 4. <ul><li>Besides the assigned seating put in boxes for: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Miss Viola Swamp is watching you in the Library Media Center&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1. Be polite and show respect. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Help each other to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Work quietly. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use time wisely. </li></ul><ul><li>5. &quot;Six legs on the floor.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>When Miss Viola Swamp is pleased: </li></ul><ul><li>Star = Found a book quickly an is reading quietly. </li></ul><ul><li>Happy face = Good library behavior. </li></ul>When Miss Viola Swamp is not amused: one check = Warning two checks = Sit down, no books. three checks= Out of the library today.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Today's Class Behavior was: Poor Good Better Best </li></ul><ul><li>Book selection__________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Activity________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Today's activity was_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Students who went to see the nurse: </li></ul><ul><li>______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Students who needed to use the bathroom: </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 </li></ul><ul><li>3. 4. </li></ul><ul><li>At the top of the seating chart I wrote </li></ul><ul><li>DAY ____________ TIME____________ Teacher____________ Room____Grade____ </li></ul>Feedback for the teacher
    6. 6. BENEFITS <ul><li>Just picking up the clipboard changed behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher knows that TL is on top of it by dismissal procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback to teacher so follow up can occur; ie: citizenship grade, students at the nurse or restroom </li></ul><ul><li>Students with good behavior got recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Activity line was important to let the teacher know what lessons had been done ~ a little PR never hurts </li></ul>
    7. 7. Challenges library vs. classroom <ul><li>Students may come with the baggage of their teacher’s system (or lack thereof) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited time to train routines </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming the babysitter - the dump and run </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers that undermine </li></ul>
    8. 8. How, with these obstacles, can librarians … <ul><li>Create more of the desirable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of the problem behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Have positive and caring interactions with students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Be structured, organized, and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Create a library in which kids feel welcomed, valued, befriended, useful, challenged, respected, and physically and psychologically safe </li></ul>
    9. 9. DISCIPLINE IS <ul><ul><li>enticement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>praise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thanks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline results in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>change for the better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive bonds </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. DISCIPLINE IS NOT <ul><li>an iron-handed approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demeaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>berating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coercive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempts to force compliance result in: </li></ul><ul><li>superficial compliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alienation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistance </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Discipline and the school librarian <ul><li>Why should school librarians care about discipline problems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number one reason for poor evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of career-related stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason for leaving the profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No formal training in managing student behavior puts you at a disadvantage with classroom teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the library unpleasant to visit and discourages use </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Why? Reasons why we see more misbehaviors … <ul><ul><li>and things we can’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abusive/poor parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural differences & racial tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decay in family structure & values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to drugs, alcohol, and weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain chemistry (ADD/ADHD, OD, SED & medications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pop culture (song lyrics, video games, 2.0, talk shows, exposure to sex & violence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meteorology (rain, sunspots, phases of the moon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental factors (chemicals, radiation, food additives, fast food, obesity, lead poisoning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>my personal favorites (Elvis Impersonators, Aliens, the Devil … ) </li></ul></ul>Things we can (try to) control… Boredom Irrelevance of curriculum Poor teaching
    13. 13. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>The Four Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1: The Shiny New School Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : Shell Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3 : Discipline Dictator, Master Shusher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4 : The Skilled and Caring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Manager, or… I give up! </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Top 10 : Tenets of Student Behavior Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10. Treat students with dignity and respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Your relationship with students is long-term, but generally intermittent … teachers relationships are short-term, but deeper and consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Watch teachers that have good discipline - emulate them and ask them to mentor you </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>7. Be firm and consist ently enforce rules ~ beware of having pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Model tolerant, patient, dignified, and respectful behavior ~ earn a reputation as even tempered and hard to rattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Use the least intrusive interventions first </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><ul><li>4. Use the school-wide character program - know it and use the same language as the rest of the school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Never give up on a student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Catch kids being good - a lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Every time you resort to referring a problem to someone else - you lose the force of your authority </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Effective School Librarians <ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain an upbeat, enthusiastic, and positive outlook. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Express high, but realistic, expectations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You must be energetic and excited! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you dwell on the negative, you’ll find yourself in a downward spiral rather quickly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possess a sense of humor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Plan <ul><ul><li>Structure, structure, structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a plan ready for as many situations as you can anticipate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ready to engage the students the minute they walk in for scheduled visits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start visits with direct instruction: a story, book talk or lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have procedures in place for common individual or group “drop in” visits that are occurring simultaneously so that it doesn’t distract you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep extra supplies ready </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow satisfactory completion of work with a preferred activity (meaning what the student would choose); could be selecting books, using the computers, or reading quietly </li></ul></ul>Poorly planned activities, routines, transitions, and groupings lead to poorly behaved students
    19. 19. The Plan <ul><ul><li>Make rules specific and clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rule about rules ~ Rules must avoid being so rigid that they violate dignity or common sense, or prevent personal growth and self-regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some librarians make a “catch all” rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Respect yourself, materials & equipment, and others while using the library.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Plan <ul><li>STEP 1: Post the Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Gentle reminder - that doesn’t look safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty Gentle reminder - the truth will come out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility Gentle reminder - you’re responsible for … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity Gentle reminder - Are you doing the right thing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesy Gentle reminder - Are you showing consideration for others? </li></ul></ul>Know that there is a difference between a Code of Conduct and Areas-Specific Rules
    21. 21. The Plan <ul><li>STEP 2: Set up rules specific to the library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit yourself to 3 - 6 rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid restating rules that are school wide regulations and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State rules in a positive manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t post and forget </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Sample Library Rules <ul><li>You must have a pass to use the library during class hours. </li></ul><ul><li>RESPECT the books & equipment, the faculty, and each other </li></ul><ul><li>3. Keep the library gum free Ask for a piece of wax paper if you’d like to save it for later </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the stacks and computer lab food and drink free Place your food or drinks on the cart next to the circulation desk or on a study table so that you may retrieve them when you exit the library </li></ul>
    23. 23. More Sample Library Rules <ul><li>5. Keep it to a dull roar </li></ul><ul><li>6. Clean up after yourself and push in your chairs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Let us re-shelve the books </li></ul>
    24. 24. The Plan <ul><ul><li>Rules viewed as “stupid” are the least likely to be followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules without relationships lead to rebellion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our society’s premise is that education trains people to think and understand, not to follow blindly. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Plan <ul><li>STEP 3: List reasonable and appropriate consequences in sequential order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will get a formal reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will be reseated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will be excluded from activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will be asked to leave the library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-------------- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over the line behavior may require immediate assignment of detention, referral to the VP, and/or contact of parent. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Sample consequence statement <ul><li>Consequence: Blatant disrespect will result in expulsion from the library and, in some cases, a call to your parents and/or an office referral. </li></ul>
    27. 27. The Plan <ul><ul><li>Make, post, and review activity-specific rules in positive terms (do rules vs. don’t do rules). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make bathroom rules. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make behavior in the hall rules (both trips) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make using the computer rules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special facility rules (work room, behind the circulation counter, cabinets with student materials, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Sample Specific function rules <ul><li>Computer use: </li></ul><ul><li>You must have your school ID to use the computers. </li></ul><ul><li>During school hours, computers are for academic purposes ONLY. Using class time to check your personal email or play video games are not academic purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave computer settings alone. </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>PRINTING: </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s your own work, it’s free. </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s a web page or article for homework, it’s 5 cents per page. (I will check with your teacher, so save yourself some money and take notes.) </li></ul><ul><li>If it's an article off the web that you should take notes on, it's 10 cents a page. (Just use the &quot;email&quot; button and send it to yourself) </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s junk off the web, it’s 25 cents per page. </li></ul><ul><li>Color prints are 50 cents per page. </li></ul><ul><li>Overdue Fines </li></ul><ul><li>Overdue fees are .01 cent per day once the three day grace period ends. </li></ul><ul><li>The lost book fee is the cost of the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Unpaid library fines that exceed $1.00 will restrict you to a 1 book check-out limit ~ paying your fine will remove the restriction. </li></ul><ul><li>All library fines of $1.00 and less will be eliminated at the end of each trimester. </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Plan <ul><li>Devise consequences for rules violations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences provide reassurance that the librarian is the protector of physical, psychological, and educational well-being. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences should make sense. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Sample consequences <ul><li>Fine options: </li></ul><ul><li>You can pay them off in increments—Skip the Pepsi and pay a dollar toward your fine. </li></ul><ul><li>You can work it off— Cleaning duty in the library pays $2.00 per hour in credit toward book fines. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace the book—Purchase a replacement copy of the lost/missing book and bring it in to the librarian. Hardcover = Hardcover Paperback = Paperback or Hardcover </li></ul><ul><li>Or Pay the fines in full. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Remember, we are the ultimate behavior manager in the library … but not the only one <ul><li>Self-monitoring - A student helps regulate his or her own behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Peers choosing person to reward </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure – group or class gets a reward </li></ul><ul><li>Student helpers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers know their students and what works in their classrooms </li></ul>
    33. 33. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Teach routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t expect them to “know how to behave” or read your mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them the skill. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show them the skill. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actively practice the skill in a role-playing situation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the use of appropriate adaptive skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use teachable moments. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ve been successful when routines become automatic and students naturally use replacement behaviors to solve their own problems </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Skills and Practices <ul><li>Prepare students for the transition (don’t surprise them) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain expectations for the transition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students wearing green, quietly stand up, walk over put your equipment away, and go stand in front of your teacher. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use closures to ease transition back to their classrooms (don’t send students back to their teacher wound up). </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize transitions by setting a time limit, counting down </li></ul>Skills and Practices - Transitions
    35. 35. Understand why students misbehave? <ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger/Revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power/Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to meet basic needs </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Recognize a skill deficit and teach the replacement behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every acting-out behavior is due to a skill deficit. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always remember: They do not know better! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People use the most effective tool they have. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The maladaptive skill has worked repeatedly in the past and will be exhibited until it no longer works ~ and an adaptive skill is learned as a better tool </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The longer the maladaptive behavior has been in place, the harder it is to extinguish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>What is a skill deficit?
    37. 38. Skills and Practices Addressing anger/revenge <ul><ul><li>Provide multiple outlets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes people who feel angry need a place to vent. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What happens in time-out is o.k. as long as nobody gets hurt and no property is damaged. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set parameters without confining, cornering, or boxing-in. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mind individuals’ personal space. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach personal space and boundaries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical: one arm’s length away. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal: quiet voice, acceptable language. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional: calm demeanor, low-expressed emotion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Make yourself available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You must be trusted and respected before relationships can develop and lasting change take place. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make a leading statement, then wait for the child to approach you. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You seem upset about something. Let me know when you’re ready to talk about it.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We need to talk about what happened in class today. Think about it for a few minutes, then we’ll talk.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Skills and Practices Addressing Need for Attention <ul><ul><li>Best Practice: Reward positive behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? Recognizing and rewarding appropriate behaviors increases the likelihood that they will occur again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? The objective is to start with tangibles, move to social rewards, and eventually to intrinsic motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible ~ edibles, “goodies”, bookmarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities ~ computer time, choice of seats, first in line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social ~ smile, attention, physical proximity, verbal praise or recognition in front of peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic ~ motivated individuals are the most successful. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Skills and Practices Need for Attention <ul><ul><li>Plan to ignore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignore: “See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective ignoring extinguishes behavior that functions to seek attention. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention sustains behavior, positive and negative. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies show that teachers attend to negative behavior twelve times more frequently than they attend to positive behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use proximity praise for youngsters near them who are doing the correct thing. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use proximity control with younger students who are avoiding work or attempting to gain something besides attention. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Skills and Practices Need for Attention <ul><ul><ul><li>Not receiving rewards can create resentment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates contests; pits kids against kids. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem becomes dependent on approval of others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding pitfalls: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pair material reward with social recognition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pair material reward with verbal recognition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for child’s self-evaluation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link praise to positive actions/efforts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Express expectations for continued positive behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare children for positive feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 43. Skills and Practices Need for Attention <ul><ul><li>Address negative behavior that cannot be ignored. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend to people exhibiting positive behavior first. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pause. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State the rule. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for a solution. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Take care of it.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wait. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce the positive behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Skills and Practices Addressing control <ul><ul><li>Choice or direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do you choose to sit down at the table or on the story carpet?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You can work independently or with your team - your choice.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You can choose to check out 1 nonfiction book and 1 audiobook or 1 magazine and 1 fiction book.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be succinct . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid lecturing, nagging, interrogating, moralizing. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Skills and Practices Addressing control Admit mistakes <ul><ul><li>Sometimes adults are at fault. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Say, “I was mistaken. I’m sorry.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling positive behavior teaches children the expected behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admitting mistakes gains respect. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Skills and Practices Need for Attention kills and Practices <ul><ul><ul><li>Attention is one reason children act out. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An old, melted candy bar is better than no candy bar. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you’ve never had a fresh cold candy bar, you don’t know the difference. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand extinction burst and be ready to work through it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A behavior that has been sustained with attention will increase dramatically before extinguishing, once attention has been withdrawn. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Skills and Practices Need for Attention <ul><ul><ul><li>Make the problem behavior ineffective. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make it impossible to get the old, melted candy bar. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the problem behavior inefficient. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the cold, fresh candy bar more attractive than the old melted one. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the cold, fresh candy bar more accessible than the old melted one. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 48. Skills and Practices Fear of failure <ul><li>Encouraging effort instead of correctness promotes positive outcomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking chances on challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of others </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Skills and Practices Addressing Fear of Failure <ul><ul><li>Going to the library is a fundamentally enjoyable activity - unless you can’t read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make problem behaviors irrelevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate activities that preclude escape-avoid behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer interesting activities that preclude inappropriate attention-seeking. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are you boring them - do they see what they are learning as irrelevant? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 50. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Shape the desired behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start by rewarding partial positive behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward even small steps in the right direction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate the Premack Principle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer more desirable activities to follow completion of less desirable activities. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>“ Mannequin” behavior has no lasting value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much skill does it take to teach it to a mannequin? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much skill does it take for a mannequin to learn? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much value does the skill have if a mannequin can do it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Shut up! Stop talking! I don’t want to hear a peep out of you! Be still! Don’t you move a muscle! Stop running! Wipe that smirk off your face! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 52. Skills and Practices <ul><li>“ Mannequin” behavior has no lasting value. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remind them of the behavior you want to see, not the behavior you do not want to see. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Work on the task while seated at your table,” vs. “Do not get up from your seat.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Listen and follow directions,” vs. “Don’t talk.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Walk,” vs. “Stop running.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 53. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Offer choices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think “win-win.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redirect attention to a desired activity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offer an activity that teaches or measures the same skill, but through a different activity, in a different setting, or at a different time. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody works harder on activities they have chosen and in which they are vested. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid “if-then” ultimatums; try “when-then” contingencies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Skills and Practices <ul><ul><li>Avoid power struggles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power struggles result when children are given “win-lose” scenarios, i.e. “I win; you lose.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When a student is misbehaving, using increasingly more severe punishers as in a confrontation of wills, often leads to worsening student behavior and more animosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Using just the negative consequence path is the dark side (don’t go there) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment consequences by severity: Verbal warning, LOI grade adjustment, assignment, community service, phone call, referral, parent conference (there are many others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt the chain and have a one on one conversation or try another intervention </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 55. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><ul><li>Build your “rep.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show concern for students. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Converse with students outside the classroom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use expressive and receptive humor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    55. 56. Abdicating Power <ul><li>Once you send a student out of your room for someone else to deal with, you have abdicated power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the students know that you are not in charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the principal knows that you are not in charge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have lost your right to be involved in the resolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You have no right to complain about the consequences for yourself or the student. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The EXCEPTION: Certain actions are over the line and require same-day follow up to administration and documentation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats, sexual harassment, physical confrontation </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. Strategies <ul><li>Modify the library environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential seating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>close to you, but in the middle of students with good self-control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move furniture and displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary modalities of lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much time is lecture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web quests or individualized interactivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using overhead, SMARTboard, videos, manipulatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the students to eat, drink, or chew gum responsibly. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Use non-verbal prompts and cues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbs up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pantomime </li></ul></ul>
    58. 59. Library Management Strategies <ul><ul><li>Provide choices and variation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use timers for games, such as “race the clock.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use soft background music without lyrics, such as classical music. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow standing, walking, and changing seats as long as the child remains on task. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 60. Good teaching Strategies <ul><li>Make lessons interesting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an overview first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them what they will learn and why it is important to their lives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intersperse activities with lecture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the students’ interests, strengths, hobbies, in assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be enthusiastic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use concrete objects, overheads, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate movement. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 61. TRY THIS <ul><li>Put 100 pennies in your left pocket. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every time you make a positive remark, move a penny to the right pocket. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the day, you should have 100 pennies in your right pocket. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move a penny from the right to the left for every negative remark! (If you punish students by taking away rewards earned, this will help you experience punishment from their point of view.) </li></ul></ul>
    61. 62. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Secret Student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the class you are watching the behavior of a particular student(s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write down the name(s) on a piece of paper and hide it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the activity, reveal the name of the secret student(s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the secret student(s) was well-behaved, they win a pre-determined award. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You might “cheat” if a student who is normally not well-behaved exhibits good behavior during the observation period so that you can catch him being good. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 63. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Award chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an award chart in grid format. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the awards are social, some are tangible. Some are small and some are large. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover each square with a removable sticker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students earn the privilege of choosing squares and uncovering awards. </li></ul></ul>
    63. 64. Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Raffle Tickets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute raffle tickets throughout the day for good behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be generous with the tickets, being mindful of rewarding the targeted students when they are behaving well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of the class/activity/day/week draw for one or several awards. </li></ul></ul>
    64. 65. Tools <ul><li>Grouping Pencils </li></ul><ul><li>Yacker Tracker </li></ul><ul><li>Signs & Posters </li></ul><ul><li>Noise Makers </li></ul>
    65. 66. If your horse dies, DISMOUNT! <ul><li>Do not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stay on the horse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switch riders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move the horse to a new location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use a stronger whip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tighten the cinch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>try a new bit or bridle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>say things like, “We’ve always ridden our horses this way.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>model people who ride dead horses in different ways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complain about the state of horses today. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blame the breeding. </li></ul></ul>