COST meeting Riga

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Presentation at the Transport conference in Riga 2011, together with COST TU0801 meeting

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COST meeting Riga

  1. 1. STREET NETWORKISSUES FOR DISASTERMANAGEMENTMaria BOSTENARU DAN
  2. 2. Overview Introduction Review Future study of 3D modelling Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. Introduction The street expresses the „life way“ – urban character (Sandu) Necessity of connecting building to a street recognised in computer games – not in 3D models Review of the street as factor in vulnerability assessment and emergency management to see what features to incorporate in 3D
  5. 5. Review
  6. 6. Review The assessment of vulnerability  SFB approach  Our contribution The emergency response  Cristina Gociman approach  Italian Civil Protection approach  The street in archive photography of disasters
  7. 7. The assessment of vulnerability
  8. 8. The assessment of vulnerability 1933 Charter of Athens  Circulation network self-standing zone  1934 Master Plan of Bucharest  Circulation control expressed in street fronts: receses > vulnerability  No „Zeilenbau“ of Le Corbusier A central area of Bucharest was analysed
  9. 9. SFB approach 2000-2001 survey in a central area of Bucharest, including street survey (width, parked cars)  Results were included in an ArcView&MS Access GIS system  Results were used for the HLA decision system of Fiedrich (2004)  Later of a Disaster Management System (Markus, 2004) – considers also the change in shape of building following an earthquake
  10. 10. SFB approach Advantages: computer aided decision making, independent of subjectivity Disadvantages:  Depends on electric supply, not so easy in post- disaster phase  The database has to be constantly kept up to date We propose an own decision system  Utility value weighting  Pairwise comparison (which might be multimedia and 3D supported)
  11. 11. SFB approachThe street network in the northern-central area of Bucharest, as includedin the GIS model in frame of the SFB 461
  12. 12. Our contribution Connection between seismic microzoning and urban zonification  1934 Master Plan > vulnerability results  Earthquake Master Plan of Istanbul 2003 (zoning defining risk sectors) Elements of the street as defined by the master plan: floor, fronts, parcours, section  May result into irregular shape of parcels Commercial function > vulnerability through soft storey
  13. 13. Our contribution Disadvantages  No computer support  Lack of communication between aesthetics and structural material (also today simulations are run based on scores after previous performance and not considering structural mechanics – as in recent studies, eg. Pinho)
  14. 14. Our contributionFloor of a street
  15. 15. Our contributionBackground of a street
  16. 16. Our contributionFronts of a street
  17. 17. Our contributionProfiles of a street
  18. 18. The emergency response
  19. 19. The emergency response Urban planning  Earthquake Master Plans  Cristina Gociman approach Functionality of the street network (Italian DPC)  Struttura urbana minima  Struttura urbana strategica
  20. 20. Cristina Gociman approach Planning of security zones  For immediately after the earthquake (a building such as school or even church)  For planning of emergency housing (parking areas, green areas) <> street network Both include evacuation ways „strategical band“ (of green) for falling rubble Disadvantage: No computer support (see DPC) Advantages:  Suitable for restructuring through Master Plan intervention  Breaking ways in urban planning
  21. 21. Cristina Gociman approachEvacuation plan in case of an earthquake. Study work by the group TeodorCucu, Alexandru Dobra, Ana Georgescu, Dragos Parcalabu, Master “Urbandesign”, advisors: Cristina Gociman, Tiberiu Florescu, Maria Bostenaru
  22. 22. Italian Civil Protection approach Short term intervention  Heavy machinery reaches Search&Rescue (see also Fiedrich)  Fire services to buildings  Ambulances to hospitals  Importance of road network topology Long term intervention  Importanceof road network serviceability  Propping measures may block
  23. 23. Italian Civil Protection approachStreet blocked by rubble. Photo: maris/photocase.comObstacle in short term intervention
  24. 24. Italian Civil Protection approachStreet blocked by propping in the city of l‟Aquila, Italy, 1 year after the2009 earthquake and the displaced people visiting their former city. Photo:M. Bostenaru, 2010.Obstacle in long term intervention
  25. 25. Italian Civil Protection approach Considers mobility relationships between building and street, not just static relationship as in the previous approaches Goretti and Sarli (2006) implemented the method in Potenza, Southern Italy
  26. 26. The street in archive photographyof disasters Grant at Canadian Centre for Architecture, 2010  Earthquake, flood, fire, revolution  Earthquake photos such as those of Genthe (1906 San Francisco earthquake) present the reaction of people on the street > participatism http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Quake.jpg?uselang=de  Virtual travel and artistic features in 19th century  Documentary photography  Virtual conservation of „ruins of the moment“ (Baum) N-S boulevard of Bucharest of interwar time: the collapsed buildings (N. Ionescu photographer)
  27. 27. The street in archivephotography of disasters L„Aquila 3D model in Google Earth  http://www.comefacciamo.com/aq3d/aq3d.php  Interaction between Google Maps and Google Earth is minimal  Satelite oblique photographs used for building modelling  Necessity to include road serviceability in disaster mapping (such as, for example, after the Christchurch earthquake, NZ http://tomnod.com/geocan/index.php)
  28. 28. The street in archive photography of disasters
  29. 29. The street in archivephotography of disasters Also the 19th century photography of Soule (stereo; Portland/Maine fire) is suitable for such reconstruction  Photo modeller software requires more photos from different angles Ontology of photography to organise this information (Bostenaru, 2011)
  30. 30. Future study of 3D modelling
  31. 31. Future study of 3D modelling Only l„Aquila Come facciamo uses 3D modelling The study of the street involves not only the horizontal dimension from urbanism plans, but also section and front  Vulnerability: towers, recesses  Emergency management: change of shape, rubble, propping Each study allows for computer aid, if it hasn„t yet  3D GIS (except of photo modelling)  Programming application by Armas et al (2010)
  32. 32. Future study of 3D modelling Computer games  1997-98 „Toy Town“ exhibition at CCA (for architects)  City building games are a subgenre of construction and management games (ex. SimCity)  1989SimCity 2 included disaster scenarious such as 1906 San Francisco earthquake  Evolved to 3D, but complex disaster simulation is lost  Semantic enrichment of computer games with economics part  Training in pre-disaster phase The „hard copy“ model of constructing a cathedral following Ken Follett„s novels
  33. 33. Conclusions
  34. 34. Conclusions Dealing with planning of streets to reduce vulnerability and efficiently intervene in case of a disaster The approaches reviewed have a link to the research of the author (direct or indirect involvment) The vulnerability of the street has to be considered in interaction with that of the building Involvment of urban planning in disaster management Issues of volume shape (and its change) call for 3D  Such approaches not yet known  Google Earth does not interact with Google Maps  Computer games might be the first step on the way to simulations
  35. 35. Acknowledgements COST action TU0801 SFB 461 research student assistantship the support grant of the Canadian Centre for Architecture Marie Curie Fellowship CA‟REDIVIVUS Marie Curie Fellowship PIANO the course on “Risks” taught at the “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism
  36. 36. Thank you!

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