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Azores Maria Bostenaru

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Azores seminar on stone housing - seismic culture

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Azores Maria Bostenaru

  1. 1. The use of building stone materialsThe use of building stone materials and the favourable behaviour ofand the favourable behaviour of stone buildings with skeletonstone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakesstructure in earthquakes Maria BOSTENARU DANMaria BOSTENARU DAN ERGOROM ’99ERGOROM ’99 andand ““Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urban PlanningIon Mincu” University of Architecture and Urban Planning
  2. 2. OverviewOverview  IntroductionIntroduction  The morphologThe morphology of historic buildings withy of historic buildings with skeleton structureskeleton structure  The behaviour of stone buildings withThe behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakesskeleton structure in earthquakes  ConclusionsConclusions
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction  TwoTwo structurestructure ttypesypes  Solid building (Massivbau)Solid building (Massivbau)  Skeleton structureSkeleton structure  Stone buildings:Stone buildings:  Massivbau is typical but skeleton structureMassivbau is typical but skeleton structure possible (Gothic)possible (Gothic)  This paper: stone for buildings withThis paper: stone for buildings with skeleton structureskeleton structure
  4. 4. The morphology of historicThe morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structurebuildings with skeleton structure  Gottfried Semper: theory of clothingGottfried Semper: theory of clothing wall-floor-ceiling typologywall-floor-ceiling typology  Semper never employed his theory, thisSemper never employed his theory, this was done by Viennese architect Ottowas done by Viennese architect Otto Wagner – sincerity in architectureWagner – sincerity in architecture  Morphologic analysis: two elementsMorphologic analysis: two elements  Load bearing structureLoad bearing structure  ContentsContents
  5. 5. The morphology of historicThe morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structurebuildings with skeleton structure  Between the load bearing structure andBetween the load bearing structure and architectural space exist:architectural space exist:  the structural space: historic buildingsthe structural space: historic buildings  the free planthe free plan  the space plan (the so-called Raumplan)the space plan (the so-called Raumplan)  The skeleton structure made possible aThe skeleton structure made possible a variant of the Raumplan long before thevariant of the Raumplan long before the 2020thth century: the Gothic (skeleton and infillcentury: the Gothic (skeleton and infill out of stone)out of stone)
  6. 6. Skeleton structures out of stoneSkeleton structures out of stone materialmaterial
  7. 7. The morphology of historicThe morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structurebuildings with skeleton structure  Skeleton structures with stone infill: timberSkeleton structures with stone infill: timber structures (half-timbered)structures (half-timbered)  Raumplan at the level of morphologyRaumplan at the level of morphology
  8. 8. Materials of timber skeleton buildings inMaterials of timber skeleton buildings in earthquake prone regionsearthquake prone regions Alps Portugal Infill adobe sandstone Skeleton oak (sometimes fir) fir and oak Roof oak fir and oak Floor oak fir and oak
  9. 9. Characteristics of the building materials inCharacteristics of the building materials in residential buildings with timber skeleton inresidential buildings with timber skeleton in the Alpine regionthe Alpine region Structual Element Construction materials Resistance characteristics Mix / dimensions Wall Infill adobe oak timber planks For further information regarding the adobe infill, see: http://www.fachwerkhaus.de/fh_haus/info/fsan.htm (2004). Skeleto (histori buildings) oak (sometimes fir) Elasticity modulus 6.9-11.8 GPa; tension 128 MPa; compression 50 MPa; bending 100 MPa; shear 77 MPa Skeleto (new buildings) douglas fir or Laminated wood Elasticity modulus 7-14.1 GPa; tension 25.0 MPa; compression 10.8 MPa; bending 84 MPa; shear - Lower horizontal elements: 13/18, 13/20, 15/20, 13/21 or 16/21 cm (Stade, 1904). Upper horizontal elements: 12/12, 13/13, 12/14, 13/15, 13/18 cm. (Stade, 1904) Corner pillars: 13/13, 15/15, 13/16, 16/16, 21/21 cm (Stade, 1904). Intermediary pillars:12/12, 13/13, 12/14, 13/15, 12/16 or 13/16cm (Stade, 1904). Diagonals: 12/16 or 13/18 cm (Stade, 1904). Upper horizontal elements (sustaining the roof): 12/16, 13/18 or 16/21cm (Stade, 1904). Floors oak timber see above Planks are 2-5 cm thick. The joists are between 2.5cm (0.80m span) to 16cm (4.5m span) Roof oak timber see above Timber between 8/8 cm and 28/30cm. (Stade, 1904).
  10. 10. The morphology of historicThe morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structurebuildings with skeleton structure  Evolutionary structural optimisationEvolutionary structural optimisation  the original structure reaches the optimalthe original structure reaches the optimal shape eliminating the non-effectiveshape eliminating the non-effective elements from step to stepelements from step to step  This theory of the 20th century, in a similarThis theory of the 20th century, in a similar way to that of the Raumplan, wasway to that of the Raumplan, was preceded by its practical employmentpreceded by its practical employment
  11. 11. The morphology of historicThe morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structurebuildings with skeleton structure  Gaiola pombalina:Gaiola pombalina:  stone material and the timber collaborate instone material and the timber collaborate in such a way in the structure of a building whichsuch a way in the structure of a building which can be considered the early expression of thecan be considered the early expression of the optimisationoptimisation  After an earthquake the exterior wallsAfter an earthquake the exterior walls could fall out, then also the stone infill ofcould fall out, then also the stone infill of the gaiola, as energy dissipators, but thethe gaiola, as energy dissipators, but the building remained staying, and so thebuilding remained staying, and so the ones residing in it were protectedones residing in it were protected
  12. 12. The behaviour of stone buildings withThe behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakesskeleton structure in earthquakes  Following the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey itFollowing the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey it became visible that the local timber skeletonbecame visible that the local timber skeleton structure buildings (himiş) behaved much betterstructure buildings (himiş) behaved much better under earthquakesunder earthquakes  so-called local seismic cultureso-called local seismic culture  the origin for the existence of buildings with suchthe origin for the existence of buildings with such structure is much more caused bystructure is much more caused by  the urban way of lifethe urban way of life  traditional “the stone house is more durable than thetraditional “the stone house is more durable than the timber house” concepttimber house” concept
  13. 13. The behaviour of stone buildings withThe behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakesskeleton structure in earthquakes  The symbolics of construction materialsThe symbolics of construction materials  The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structureskeleton structure and the ship structure
  14. 14. The symbolics of constructionThe symbolics of construction materialsmaterials  English folk story: The Three Little PigsEnglish folk story: The Three Little Pigs  the grass house can be the symbol of thethe grass house can be the symbol of the collecting population, the timber house of thecollecting population, the timber house of the half nomads and the stone house of thehalf nomads and the stone house of the settled onesettled one  the straw house is finished more quickly thanthe straw house is finished more quickly than the stone house, for the building of which itthe stone house, for the building of which it must be worked much more, and there is lessmust be worked much more, and there is less time left for play, for distractiontime left for play, for distraction
  15. 15. The symbolics of constructionThe symbolics of construction materialsmaterials  Romanian greeting for wedding is “casăRomanian greeting for wedding is “casă de piatră”, which means house of stonede piatră”, which means house of stone  the stone bridge is taken away by thethe stone bridge is taken away by the water, and a newer one, more durable andwater, and a newer one, more durable and more beautiful will be built further downmore beautiful will be built further down along the water, where the water is deeperalong the water, where the water is deeper and more dangerousand more dangerous
  16. 16. The symbolics of constructionThe symbolics of construction materialsmaterials  Apart from the ideologisation the stoneApart from the ideologisation the stone house, since it was done with more workhouse, since it was done with more work and for more money it was foreseen forand for more money it was foreseen for richer layers of the society.richer layers of the society.  fires destroyed the towns more often infires destroyed the towns more often in former centuries than earthquakes, whichformer centuries than earthquakes, which were unexplainable and thus could bewere unexplainable and thus could be rather considered the will of Godrather considered the will of God
  17. 17. The symbolics of constructionThe symbolics of construction materialsmaterials  Some timber houses resisted centuriesSome timber houses resisted centuries (700 years)(700 years)  Resisted better to earthquakes but not thisResisted better to earthquakes but not this is the reason why they spreadis the reason why they spread
  18. 18. Residential buildings with timber skeletonResidential buildings with timber skeleton load bearing structure in earthquake proneload bearing structure in earthquake prone Basel, Switzerland Lisbon, Portugal
  19. 19. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structureskeleton structure and the ship structure  there is an interdependence between thethere is an interdependence between the metaphor of the ship and the engineeringmetaphor of the ship and the engineering formsforms  2 levels2 levels  FaçadeFaçade  Interior spaceInterior space
  20. 20. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structureskeleton structure and the ship structure  the buildings with timber skeleton are notthe buildings with timber skeleton are not typical for earthquake prone zones but fortypical for earthquake prone zones but for seaside towns and their regionsseaside towns and their regions  the structure of Pombalino buildings wasthe structure of Pombalino buildings was inspired by ship buildinginspired by ship building  The most pure structural form of theThe most pure structural form of the German Fachwerk buildings can be foundGerman Fachwerk buildings can be found on the seaside as well, in the North (basedon the seaside as well, in the North (based on a row of joists in console)on a row of joists in console)
  21. 21. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structureskeleton structure and the ship structure
  22. 22. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure:skeleton structure and the ship structure: facadefacade  the Italian architect Marcello Piacentinithe Italian architect Marcello Piacentini accompanied with his attention the newaccompanied with his attention the new Hungarian architecture from the turn-of-Hungarian architecture from the turn-of- the-centurythe-century
  23. 23. Ship structure in the façade:Ship structure in the façade: HungaryHungary
  24. 24. Ship structure in the façade: ItalyShip structure in the façade: Italy
  25. 25. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure:skeleton structure and the ship structure: interior spaceinterior space  The interior space comes close to the shipThe interior space comes close to the ship metaphor from the structural point of viewmetaphor from the structural point of view  the interior partitions of the churches arethe interior partitions of the churches are called navescalled naves  In the Gothic buildings the structure of theIn the Gothic buildings the structure of the ceiling of the naves was shaped accordingceiling of the naves was shaped according to the rules of the ships. This structureto the rules of the ships. This structure with a spatial effect (3D) is common withwith a spatial effect (3D) is common with that of the ships, but also with thethat of the ships, but also with the buildings with timber skeletonbuildings with timber skeleton
  26. 26. The morphology of stone buildings withThe morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure:skeleton structure and the ship structure: interior spaceinterior space  the height of the Gothic churches > theirthe height of the Gothic churches > their wind load is considerable and thewind load is considerable and the structure similar to a ship was designed tostructure similar to a ship was designed to resist these loadsresist these loads  Such a structure proved correspondinglySuch a structure proved correspondingly resisting facing earthquakes, since theresisting facing earthquakes, since the earthquake forces act also horizontallyearthquake forces act also horizontally and wave-likeand wave-like
  27. 27. ConclusionsConclusions  The use of the morphology provedThe use of the morphology proved suitable to unveil the spread concepts ofsuitable to unveil the spread concepts of the so-called local seismic culture.the so-called local seismic culture.  According to the folk story the stone materialAccording to the folk story the stone material offers the biggest safety.offers the biggest safety.  The 1755 earthquake, which affected Lisbon,The 1755 earthquake, which affected Lisbon, proves the opposite.proves the opposite.
  28. 28. ConclusionsConclusions  Under the marquis of Pombal the stoneUnder the marquis of Pombal the stone walls are reinforced with timber skeletonwalls are reinforced with timber skeleton structuresstructures  also in the Gothic buildings which inheritedalso in the Gothic buildings which inherited the cage structure: the stone is boththe cage structure: the stone is both skeleton and space limit, structure andskeleton and space limit, structure and ornament, it plays a role in all elements ofornament, it plays a role in all elements of the morphology as a materialthe morphology as a material
  29. 29. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements PIANO projectPIANO project Marie Curie Reintegration GrantMarie Curie Reintegration Grant MERG-CT-2007-200636MERG-CT-2007-200636
  30. 30. Thank you!Thank you!

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