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This is about Development in Early Childhood Education

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  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY TO EARLY CHILDHOOD Courtney SImmelink
  2. 2. Development of the Brain and the Nervous System: Synaptogenesis  Synaptic pruning  Myelinization  Reticular Formation PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS  Medulla and midbrain are developed at birth  Years one and two cortex develops
  3. 3.  Reflexes:  Adaptive Reflexes:  Sucking reflex  Rooting reflex  Stepping reflex  Primitive Reflexes:  Moro Reflex  Babinski Reflex PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  4. 4.  Behavioral States:  States of Consciousness  Deep sleep  lighter sleep  alert wakefulness  fussing  Colic:  Intense bouts of crying (3+ hours per day) PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  5. 5. Motor Development PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT. Age (Months) Locomotor Skills Nonlocomotor Skills Manipulative Skills 1 Stepping reflex Lifts head slightly; follows slowly moving objects with eyes Holds object if placed in hand 2-3 Lifts head up to 90- degree angle when lying on stomach Begins to swipe at objects in sight 4-6 Rolls over; Sits with support; moves on hands and knees Holds head erect while in sitting position Reaches for and grasps objects 7-9 Sits without support; crawls Transfer objects from one hand to the other 10-12 Pulls self up and walks grasping furniture; then walks alone Squats and stoops; plays patty cake Shows some signs of hand preference; grasps a spoon across palm but has poor aim when moving food to mouth 13-18 Walks backwards, sideways; runs Rolls ball to adult; claps Stacks two blocks; puts objects into small container and dumps them out 19-24 Walks up and down stairs, two feet per step Jumps with both feet off the ground Uses spoon to feed self; stacks 4 to 10 blocks Note. Retrieved from Lifespan Development, Boyd, Johnson & Bee, 2009
  6. 6. Health and Wellness:  Research says breastfeeding should be sole source of nutrition for babies unless they are preterm or the mothers are drug abusers  Infants require immunizations to start at two months old  DTaP Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis  Hib  Haemophilus influenza  PC  Pneumoncoccal conjugate vaccine  MC  Meningococcal conjugate vaccine  MMR  Measles, mumps, and rubella  Hep B/V  Hepatitis B PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  7. 7. Vision: Visual Acuity  At birth visual acuity is 20/200 to 20/400  Improves rapidly  Color Vision:  Developed one month after birth SENSORY DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS
  8. 8. Early Visual Stimulation:  Early visual stimulation is critical in early infancy  Lack of stimulation limits visual capability in later years  Sleeper Effect SENSORY DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  9. 9. Hearing Auditory Acuity  At a general range of pitch and loudness infants can hear just as well as humans Smelling and Tasting Newborns respond differently to 5 different basic flavors SENSORY DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  10. 10.  Perceptual Skills Young infants are able to make discrimination among sight, sound, feelings, and respond to patterns.  Habituation  a decline in attention that occurs because a stimulus has become familiar  Dishabituation responding to a somewhat familiar stimulus as if it were new PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS
  11. 11. Depth Perception in Infants: Binocular Cue  involves both eyes Pictorial Information  requires information from only one eye Kinetic Cue  comes from your own motion or motion of another object PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS CONT.
  12. 12. ERIKSON’S FIRST STAGE OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT  Children learn from interaction  Helps educators:  Plan  Understand how infants up to adulthood age develop
  13. 13. RELEVANCY AND PERSONAL IMPORTANCE  Future career goal  Gain a better understanding of how children develop  Once educators understand how children develop, they can plan developmentally appropriate activities
  14. 14. By understanding infant development: Help me plan activities for children Help educate children’s parents on the development of their child  Example: If a child comes to my childcare organization and has been crying for a majority of the day and the mother is asking why, I will be able to tell her it is Colic and that often moving the babies legs and rubbing the tummy will help soothe the child. PROFESSIONAL IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION
  15. 15.  Boyd, D., Johnson, P., & Bee, H., (2015). Lifespan Development (5th ed.). Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc. REFERENCES

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