Introduction To Services
Services are deeds, processes and
performances- Zeithmal and Bitner
Deeds – are action of the service provider
Process – are steps in the provision of the
Performance- is customer’s understanding of
how the service has been delivered.
It is any act or performance that one party can
offer to another i.e. essentially intangible and
does not result in the ownership of anything. Its
production may or may not be tied with a physical
product. We can say that services have
• Lack of physical output or construction.
• Benefits to the receiver is from service rather
than product offer.
• The intangible offer
• The possible combination of service with the
• Marketing of an idea or a concept
• Services are activities ,benefits or satisfaction
which are offered for sale and provided in
connection with the sale of goods -- American
• A service is an activity or benefit that one
party can offer to another that is essentially
intangible and does not result in the
ownership of anything. It production may or
may not be tied to a physical product – Kotler
And Armstrong (1991)
• Service are those separately identifiable
, essentially activities , which provide want
satisfaction when marketed to consumers and
/or industrial users and which are not
necessarily tied to the sale of a product or
another service.– Stanton
• Service as any primary or complimentary
activity that does not directly produce a
physical product , that is , the non goods part of
transaction between buyer ( customer ) and
seller (provider) – The Service Industrial Journal
Goods & Service Continuum
Service along with tangible goods.
Goods and services in near equal measure.
Service accompanied by minor goods.
• Tangible Goods – Companies offering tangible
goods e.g. soap , FMCG, toothpaste , salt etc.
Customer purchase these products based on
purely direct benefit received from consumption.
• Services along with tangible goods- In case of
technological dependent goods or other products
for which customers need training and
knowledge about product use , delivery
, operating , training , validity. The customer
loyalty and word of mouth communication are
more likely to be dependent on the performance
of these services than on the product
performance . e.g. washing machine
, refrigerators, cars, computers etc.
• Goods and service in near equal measure
The goods ( menu card, food, drinks etc. ) are
accompanied in equal measure by services
(ambience , music, décor , atmosphere
, hospitality , efficient service etc. ) to make it a
memorable experience for the customer.
• Pure service
Some firms provide services that may not have
any accompanying goods .For example –
education, insurance , hospital , etc.
• Service accompanied by minor
Most airlines providing service are based on
comfort which is intangible in nature and
accompanied by some minor goods such as food
and drinks, magazines served on the
aircraft., physical evidence of a service such as a
ticket, boarding pass or a complimentary inflight magazine etc.