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Business Cycle
Is the economy getting better or
worse?
Micro vs. Macro
• Microeconomics: The study of personal, or
small finances.
– Individuals, families or businesses
• Macroe...
Gross Domestic Product
• Def. The total value, in dollars, of all final
goods and services produced within the
nation each...
What does the GDP tell us?
• If the GDP is larger than last year the
economy is expanding (getting bigger)
• If the GDP is...
Business Cycle
• The Business Cycle allows people to
understand the direction the economy
(GDP) is going (growing or shrin...
Phases of the Business Cycle
Expansion (Growing)
Peak (Top)
Contraction (Shrinking)
Trough (Bottom)
Business Cycle
Expansion
Peak
Contraction
Trough
Expansion
Peak
Contraction
Expansion
• During a period of expansion:
– Wages increase
– Low unemployment
– People are optimistic and spending money
–...
Peak
• When the economic cycle peaks:
– The economy stops growing (reached the top)
– GDP reaches maximum
– Businesses can...
Contraction
• During a period of contraction:
– Businesses cut back production and layoff
people
– Unemployment increases
...
Trough
• When the economic cycle reaches a
trough:
– Economy “bottoms-out” (reaches lowest point)
– High unemployment and ...
Recession/Depression
• A prolonged contraction is called a
recession (contraction for over 6 months)
• A recession of more...
What keeps the Business Cycle
Going?
• 4 variables cause changes in the
Business Cycle:
1. Business Investment
When the ec...
What Keeps the Business Cycle
Going?
2. Interest Rates and Credit
Low interest rates, companies make new
investments, addi...
What keeps the Business Cycle
Going?
4. External Shocks
External Shocks, such as disruptions of the oil
supply, wars, or n...
Who Cares?????
• Why should you care about the business
cycle and economy?
• Lots of reasons!
“Don’t quit that job!”
• If the economy is going into a contraction,
jobs will become more scarce. If you quit,
you may no...
“Should I make a big purchase?”
• Only if you know that you won’t lose your
job in a contraction. So, buy your house
durin...
Quick Review!
• What phase of the business cycle do
wages go up?
• Expansion
• What phase of the business cycle do
wages g...
Review cont.
• When are wages at their highest?
• Peak
• When are wages at their lowest?
• Trough
More Review
• When will borrowing decrease?
• Contraction
• When will borrowing increase?
• Expansion
• When will borrowin...
Even More Review!
• When will unemployment be at its lowest?
• Peak
• When will business profits be the highest?
• Peak
• ...
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Business cycle

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This PPT is helpful for understanding different phases of business cycles and aspects of economy

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Business cycle

  1. 1. Business Cycle Is the economy getting better or worse?
  2. 2. Micro vs. Macro • Microeconomics: The study of personal, or small finances. – Individuals, families or businesses • Macroeconomics: The study of economic systems on a large scale – National or Global economies
  3. 3. Gross Domestic Product • Def. The total value, in dollars, of all final goods and services produced within the nation each year • Abbreviated as the GDP
  4. 4. What does the GDP tell us? • If the GDP is larger than last year the economy is expanding (getting bigger) • If the GDP is smaller, the economy is shrinking (getting smaller)
  5. 5. Business Cycle • The Business Cycle allows people to understand the direction the economy (GDP) is going (growing or shrinking) and plan accordingly. • The economy follows the Business Cycle regularly.
  6. 6. Phases of the Business Cycle Expansion (Growing) Peak (Top) Contraction (Shrinking) Trough (Bottom)
  7. 7. Business Cycle Expansion Peak Contraction Trough Expansion Peak Contraction
  8. 8. Expansion • During a period of expansion: – Wages increase – Low unemployment – People are optimistic and spending money – High demand for goods – Businesses start – Easy to get a bank loan – Businesses make profits and stock prices increase
  9. 9. Peak • When the economic cycle peaks: – The economy stops growing (reached the top) – GDP reaches maximum – Businesses can’t produce any more or hire more people – Cycle begins to contract
  10. 10. Contraction • During a period of contraction: – Businesses cut back production and layoff people – Unemployment increases – Number of jobs decline – People are pessimistic (negative) and stop spending money – Banks stop lending money
  11. 11. Trough • When the economic cycle reaches a trough: – Economy “bottoms-out” (reaches lowest point) – High unemployment and low spending – Stock prices drop But, when we hit bottom, no where to go but up! UNLESS….
  12. 12. Recession/Depression • A prolonged contraction is called a recession (contraction for over 6 months) • A recession of more than one year is called a depression
  13. 13. What keeps the Business Cycle Going? • 4 variables cause changes in the Business Cycle: 1. Business Investment When the economy is expanding, sales and profit keep rising, so companies invest in new plants and equipment, creating new jobs and more expansion. In contraction, the opposite is true
  14. 14. What Keeps the Business Cycle Going? 2. Interest Rates and Credit Low interest rates, companies make new investments, adding jobs. When interest rates climb, investment dries up and less job growth 2. Consumer Expectations Forecasts of an expanding economy fuels more spending, while fear of a recession decreases consumer spending
  15. 15. What keeps the Business Cycle Going? 4. External Shocks External Shocks, such as disruptions of the oil supply, wars, or natural disasters greatly influence the output of the economy Ex. 1992-2000 was the longest period of expansion in U.S. history. Early in 2001, signs of contraction appeared, though the Bush administration denied it. The Sept. 11th 2001 terrorist attacks quickly caused the business cycle to shift into a contraction.
  16. 16. Who Cares????? • Why should you care about the business cycle and economy? • Lots of reasons!
  17. 17. “Don’t quit that job!” • If the economy is going into a contraction, jobs will become more scarce. If you quit, you may not find another job! • But, if the economy is in a period of expansion, jobs are readily available. It may be a good time to switch careers.
  18. 18. “Should I make a big purchase?” • Only if you know that you won’t lose your job in a contraction. So, buy your house during an expansion. HOWEVER, • When the economy starts to slow down (contraction), interest rates will decrease. Wait to buy a house until the rates drop to a low point, if you are sure you won’t lose your job.
  19. 19. Quick Review! • What phase of the business cycle do wages go up? • Expansion • What phase of the business cycle do wages go down? • Contraction
  20. 20. Review cont. • When are wages at their highest? • Peak • When are wages at their lowest? • Trough
  21. 21. More Review • When will borrowing decrease? • Contraction • When will borrowing increase? • Expansion • When will borrowing be at it’s lowest? • Trough
  22. 22. Even More Review! • When will unemployment be at its lowest? • Peak • When will business profits be the highest? • Peak • When should you look for a new job? • Expansion
  • dhirajdeka5

    May. 6, 2018
  • RubyMalasig

    Mar. 6, 2018
  • ShrutiTandon12

    Sep. 29, 2017

This PPT is helpful for understanding different phases of business cycles and aspects of economy

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