• Census Records - beyond the federal population schedules.• The U.S. Federal Census was taken every ten years from 1790 through the present day. Most researchers are familiar with the population schedule from these census records. But did you know that there are many other schedules for the federal census that may be useful in your research? What about state census records? Territorial censuses? Come and learn about the different types of census records, schedules and information that may contain information on your ancestors as well as tips and tricks to get the most out of what you see.
• Equal representation in government• First bicameralist government – 17th Century England• Bicameral: Latin: bi=two; camera=chamber• Two chambers of Parliament• Two chambers of the legislature• Senate same regardless of size• Count population for representation in the House• Large states disproportionate representation
Locating people can be difficult Boundary Changes: State/Territory County Town
Constant boundary changes Changed states/territories Changed counties Changed towns Dollarhide, William and Thorndale, William, Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790-1920, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1987. Print.
Boundary Changes (Problem #1) Lack of printed forms until 1830 in most areas YOU. NEED. A. BLANK. PRINTED. FORM ALWAYS!
Boundary Changes (Problem #1) Lack of printed forms until 1830 (Problem #2) Handwriting is not 21st century Because. it’s. NOT. 21st century.
Kip Sperry’s Reading Early American Handwriting, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Co. 2008
Boundary changes (1) Lack of printed forms/illegible (2) Handwriting is illegible/unusual (3) Amazing that anyone is found…ever
8/23/1860 Francis M 7/14/1870 Francis M 6/17/1880 M 6/1/1900 Frank M 6/1/1910 Francis M 1/22/1920 Francis Maron 4/17/1930 Marion
You don’t read the whole page Miss family connections Infant baptism – sponsors/godparents Family Married daughters Local flavor
Agricultural ◦ Farmer – what he made, etc. Mortality ◦ Who died during the census year ◦ REMINDER OF “CENSUS YEAR” Tax “Indian” Census Slave
Name of slave holders = owners Several owners = only one name needs to be entered Owned by corporation or trust = enter that name Enumerate the slaves that reside in that district although they may be absent at the time The person in whose family or on whose plantation the slave is found to be employed is to be considered the owner. Principal objective: number of slaves NOTcorrect master or owner’s name
34 States All New England states BUT Connecticut
Name, Rank, Vessel or Regiment Entry, Discharge, Length of Service Post Office (address) Sustained wounds, illness Comments
Incomplete Weird Left off people who were there Put in people who weren’t
• Census law did not give a definition of “place of abode”• Some persons reported in two places• Some not at all• Left to the judgement of the enumerator• “Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive.”• “…sailors temporarily at a sailors’ boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.”
• RE: # children born/living• In 1900 & 1910: mothers asked # of children born and # living• Does NOT include stillborn children• If you have gaps – check it out• RE: Birthplaces• Canada English vs Canada French• Not language - DESCENT
Lainehart, Ann S. State Census Records, Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Company. 1992.
Many more types of federal census schedules than population. State Census is a great resource for between years Browse Ancestry.com, FamilySearch.com for images and titles Read lists of available census records in Ancestry’s Red Book