At 2.6% employment, the education sector employs about 270,000 people ranking 4th overall (2005/6 est) (UBOS)During the period 2006 – 2010 education contributed above 5% making it 6th largest sector in Uganda’s economy. (UBOS)
Makerere University’s shift from a development-oriented to a market-oriented mission(Mamdani …)Administrative autonomy (best exemplified by the case of MUBS, Makerere University Business School) and the other towards the proliferation of multi-disciplinary vocational programs with less and less relationship to disciplinary academic expertise (Mamdani)
When Makerere University started in 1922, it admitted only men until 1945 when the first six women were admitted.
Kenya follows an 8-4-4 system while Tanzania and Uganda follow a 7-4-2-3 system of education, the Bachelors degree in Kenya takes at least four years while the same degree takes at least three years in Uganda and Tanzania as well as in Rwanda and Burundi. As a result of the differing education systems, public universities in Uganda require that the Kenyan candidates undergo Advanced Secondary (A-level) studies for 2 years while the private universities insist on a 6-9 months bridging course before the candidates can join the institutions. Additionally, in Tanzania, the Kenyan and Ugandan students are required to sit for the Matriculation examination and this has resulted in fewer foreign students going to study in Tanzania.
There is a complex interplay which promotes but also constrains the growth of regional trade flows in higher education services trade. The incongruence of accreditation mechanisms, disparities in regulatory objectives and differing Institutional capacities all play a direct role but suffice to say, Uganda has maintained an edge in “positive” or “supportive” regulation intended to grow the higher education sector.
Over a 5 year period, 2005 – 2010, Uganda’s regulatory regime has been quite dynamic and supportive of the H.E sector, with various statutory instruments created to handle emerging requirements in the sector, for example the need for provisional license to establish and operate a private University or minimum entry requirements which came as a result of pressure from students who felt differentiated by categorization (affordability, private student, public student, varying cut-off points, gender affirmative action etc.)
UNCHE is seeking an amendment which requires public Universities in Uganda to seek a Charter from the NCHE, in order to harmonize recognition of academic papers. Public Universities have accreditation but do not have a charter which would allow their papers to be universally recognized. Section 103 of the public Universities and Institutions act contradicts section 131 of the same act.Currently only Uganda Martyrs' University Nkozi, Uganda Christian University Mukono, Nkumba University, Cavendish University and Kampala International University are chartered.
Schedule of commitments on progressive liberalization of services The EAC ministry is extending MRA’s to the education sector so as to harmonise competence and eligibility of professionals because disparities in education systems affect eligibility of professionals from EAC partner states and add unnecessary costsSome form of Credit Transfer System has been established and endorsed by the university accreditation authorities in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Uganda’s National Council for Higher Education the Commission for Higher Education (CHE) in Kenya and the Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU) agreed to have the teaching of science courses such as medicine, agriculture, engineering and basicscience that will conform to uniform minimum standards. (Nabawanuka, 2010) …
Key Country HighlightsGeographical & DemographicalMale, 7.27Female,7.04Gender distribution in labor force(millions, 2012 est.)17,127 primary schools, enrollment8.2 million pupilsUrbanPopulation:13.5%Population: 35.6 million (2012 est.), growth rate: 3.2%31% SERRuralPopulation:86.5%12,305 Gov’t 2,822 Private6/19/2013 210% IND 59% AGRIC46% SER 22% IND 32% AGRIC19872005Source: UNCTAD-5.0010.0015.0020.0025.0030.0035.00196019631966196919721975197819811984198719901993199619992002200520082011%Uganda: Exports of Goods & Services as % ofGDP (1960 - 2011)Series1Edu.Sectoremp.2.6%Source: The Conference Board Total Economy Database™
Introductory notesEducation in Uganda has grown very rapidly over the past 15 years.This rapid expansion is owed, in part, to three major policy initiatives:Universal Primary Education (UPE), Universal Secondary Education (USE)and liberalization of the education sector (a painful process with multipleactors; dev‟t partners, political class, civil society, private sector…) ...This development has consequently caused enrollment in higher educationInstitutions to grow. Currently, Uganda‟s Universities pass out over 30,000graduates every year.Internationalization has also occurred over the last decade. The NationalCouncil for Higher Education estimates that export of education servicesyielded US$ 36 million in the year 2010 (which infers 2% contribution tototal services exports – est US$ 1.31 Billion in 2010)UEPB developed first ever services exports strategy (2005) which highlightsexport of education services as a one of the priorities….6/19/2013 3
Uganda‟s Higher Education sector• 148 tertiary Institutions in 2006 to 181 in2010 of which there are now 29Universities• 2 “other degree awarding Institutions”and 3 University Colleges.• In the decade 2000 - 2010, averageannual growth in enrolment 15%• Between 2006 - 2010, total studentenrollment increased from 137,190 to183,985• In 2011, 196,570 students enrolled in inall tertiary Institutions with 140,096(71.2%) enrolling in Degree AwardingInstitutions (Educ. Abstract, 2011).• However, overall enrollment remainsbelow African & InternationalBenchmarks( Sources: NCHE, 2012)6/19/2013 457,72180,39142.1%44%20062010Uganda: Higher Education Female enrollment(2006, 2010)%enrollment Femal StudentsSource: UEBP/COMSEC/NCHE study
Foreign Students EnrollmentIn 2011, 9% of all students in tertiaryInstitutions in Uganda are foreign students.The majority attend University.There were a total of 15,293 foreign studentsenrolled in degree awarding Institutionsin Uganda (Education abstract 2011)51% are female studentsInbound mobility ratio (IMR) of 9% (2006 & 2010)6/19/2013 510,5575,36615,9231,004 7821,786Male Female totalUganda: Foreign Student Enrollment in 2011Degree Awarding Non-degree Awarding0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0%UgandaTanzaniaRwandaKenyaBurundiContinental weighted averageREC weighted averageOutbound Mobility Ratio20092006Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsNumber of Foreign Students
Education Sector: OwnershipThe private sector continue to investin the Education sectorUganda Investment Authoritystatistics of planned/registeredinvestments was US$ 154.7million from 2002 – 2012, most ofthese were local investorsIn year 2011, census shows that froma total of 164 tertiaryInstitutions, 115 are private(70.2%) and 49 government(29.8%)]19.5% of these are degree awarding6/19/201312%30%58%Uganda: Secondary schools by Ownership type(2010)Community Government Private70%30%Uganda: Share of Tertiary Education byOwnershipPrivate Public
Higher Education: Segmentation & Course Choice• Majority of international students(22%) studied business relatedprograms in Uganda.• Information and communicationtechnology programs were alsopopular (15%), health sciences(15%), peace and conflict studies(13%), education (11%) and law (11%)• Science programmes were popularmainly in public universities, wherethere is a strong focus on scienceeducation.• Students from Kenya pursuedbusiness related courses;• Tanzanians pursued mainly educationas a subject;• Somalis studied mainly socialsciences, peace and conflictmanagement• Rwandans concentrated mostly oninformation technology.6/19/2013 7Most students are fromKenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Burundiand the D.R. Congo.International student are mostlyfound in private universities (KIU -6,715, MUK - 2,444, BUGEMA -862, IUU - 767, MUBS -671, BUSOGA 575.Dominance of Kenyan students isdriven byi) high cost of education in Kenya,ii) close proximity,iii) close similarity in educationsystems (standards, quality)
Higher Education: Attractiveness• Data from 2010 UEPB/COMSEC study suggests these choices are notabsolute, highlights some of the key manpower needs in these respectivecountries.• Uganda‟s education is cheap in terms of tuition fees, especially whencompared to university education in other East African countries.• The cost of living in Uganda is low, making it affordable for internationalstudents. A student can survive on US$230 for a whole semester in Uganda(including accommodation, feeding and transport). This compares veryfavourably with neighboring countries where costs are much higher.• Uganda is a free country – foreigners have freedom in Uganda. Internationalstudents can move about freely and not have their presence in the countrychallenged.• The country provides a safe environment for studying.• International students described Ugandans as friendly and warm unlikemost of the neighbouring countries.• Uganda has a fairly strong education system; there are a diverse range ofacademic programmes, types of university and quality of graduates.• Ugandan universities are also unique in the region in accommodatingspecial needs students, and in many cases these courses are the only onesoffered in the region.6/19/2013 8
Incentives for Investment in EducationUnder Value Added Tax statute(1996), education services are treated as anexempt supply, therefore not subjected to VAT.Qualifying education services under thisstatute include• Pre-primary, primary or secondary• A technical college or university• An institution established for the promotion ofadult education, vocational training, technicaleducation, or the education or training ofphysically or mentally handicapped person• Education materials such astextbooks, laboratory equipment are zero-ratedso an investor can claim for a refund fromGovernment for any VAT they pay on inputs(items purchased as education materials)• Government removed all forms of taxes on ICTand computer equipment .6/19/2013 9
Regulating the Higher Education SectorFor quality standards & regulation• Ministry of Education & Sports• Education Service Commission• National Curriculum DevelopmentCentre• Uganda National ExaminationsBoard (UNEB)• Joint Admissions Board• NCHE: The National Council forHigher Education (NCHE), astatutory agency and watch dog forquality of relevant higher education(set up by the Universities &other Tertiary Institutions Act2001)6/19/2013 10For Internationalization• Ministry of Trade, Industry andCooperatives• Uganda Export Promotion Board(UEPB)• Ministry of Foreign Affairs• the Commission for HigherEducation (CHE) in Kenya• the Tanzania Commission forUniversities (TCU)Regional bodies• East African Community (EAC)secretariat• Inter University Council for EastAfrica (IUCEA)
Supportive Regulatory regime6/19/2013 11Statutory instrumentsNo.63 (2007): Minimumentry requirements foradmissions to Universitiesor other tertiary institutionsStatutory instrumentsNo.35 (2008): TheUniversities and othertertiary institutions (basicrequirements and minimumstandards for procurementeducation and training)regulations, 2008Statutory instrumentsNo.35 (2008): TheUniversities and othertertiary institutions(basic requirements andminimum standards forprocurement educationand training)regulations, 2008Statutoryinstruments No.62(2007): Equating ofdegrees, diplomasand certificatesStatutoryinstruments No.34(2008): Theuniversities and othertertiary Institutions(quality assurance)regulations, 2008Under sections 123 and 128 of theUniversities & other Tertiary Inst.Act, the illustrated regulations are inforce for effective managementand enforcement of standards atthe tertiary education level
Supportive Regulatory regime – Cont‟d6/19/2013 12Under sections 123 and 128 of the Universities & other Tertiary Inst. Act 2001, the followingregulations are in force for effective management and enforcement of standards at thetertiary education levelStatutory instrumentsNo.80 C Application for aprovisional licence toestablish and operate aprivate universityStatutoryinstruments No.85(2005) Institutionalstandards Statutory instrumentsNo.61 (2007) Letters ofInterim Authority for privateUniversities and provisionallicence for private otherdegree awardingInstitutionsStatutory instrumentsNo.80 (2005) Establishment& operation of PrivateUniversities and privatetertiary Institutions.Statutory instrumentsNo.80 B A: Checklist ofquality and Universitiescapacity Indicators forassessment ofUniversities andProgrammesUniversities and other tertiary Institutions act is a dynamic piece of legislation whichembraces a dynamic higher education sector, however needs urgent revisitation toaddress chartering and accreditation issues …
Marketing Uganda‟s Higher Education• Uganda Export Promotion Board (UEPB) Partnered with the CommonwealthSecretariat (COMSEC), the NCHE and selected Universities to improve thecompetitiveness of Uganda‟s higher education sector in the EAC and COMESA.Project dubbed, “Strategic Marketing Framework and Internationalisation SurveyFindings”• Basic field research conducted (survey, data analysis)Post research, discussion symposium noted the following:1. Delegates agreed with developing a collective brand name for Uganda‟sHigher Education sector (the makings of a “hub”).2. The Symposium provided a useful opportunity to develop a platform foruniversities to lobby for support and to influence government policy.3. Universities working collectively could approach the Ugandan embassies in theregion and overseas to market Uganda‟s HE sector.4. A framework for joint promotion & marketing could include both the UEPBand NCHE, but clarity was needed about the relationship between the sector andthese agencies.6/19/2013 13
A brief competitiveness perspective• From a competitiveness perspective, Uganda‟s higher education sector is able toprovide the right quantity but not the fully desired quality of education services• Able to provide the service at “cost” and in “time”• However, inadequate strategy or lack of it thereof, continues to inhibit fullcompetitiveness potential• Understanding the needs, expectations, purchasing habits of the targetsegment is critical for packaging the right quality and quantity of service.• Addressing acquisition, allocation and monitoring of the right quantity and qualityof human, financial, physical, Information and network resources makes theservice delivery best suited for private channels of distribution.• H.E COMSEC/UEPB initiative could only address network resourcedevelopment (VC forum…) and information resource (web portal, study guideetc.), but is ill equipped to deal with financial, physical and human resourcedevelopment.6/19/2013 14
Marketing Uganda‟s Higher EducationEducation Symposium in 2010 agreed to the following actionplan.• setting up international marketing (IM) work plans andobjectives;• using the assets of foreign embassies and the Ministry ofForeign Affairs (MFA) to market themselves and theirprogrammes;• working jointly to set up “Study in Uganda” as a singleweb portal with links to all the universities‟ websites;• reorganising the VCs Forum to form a strategic umbrellabody (“Universities Uganda”) for the higher educationsector to provide active leadership on the burning issuesaffecting the sector;• creating a network of university marketing executivesand managers to implement a national Uganda HEmarketing campaign and develop a community ofpractice to share ideas, experiences and promotecollaboration;• participate in a NCHE education fair as individualuniversities and collectively as the Uganda HE sector;• using support from the UEPB to scale- up universitymarketing activities at education fairs in the EAC.6/19/2013 15UEPB, COMSEC & NCHEdevelopedThe first ever“Guide to StudyingIn Uganda”
Marketing Uganda‟s Higher Education• In July 2012, UEPB held aneducation fair in Rwanda, took 9Ugandan Universities into themarket• Fair was a resounding successregistering over 2000 visitors andover 300 enquiries. Fair beefed upby a concerted media campaign inRwandan newspapers and radio.6/19/2013 16The Ugandan Minister of Education and Minister of Trade open the Kigali Educationfair, July 2012
Harmonising education in the EAC commonmarketPartner States have agreed to create comparable frameworks to:• promote equal access to education opportunities ….• harmonised competencies …• harmonised curriculum, quality assurance and accreditationsystems …(EAC Education Harmonisation report, April, 2011).But progress remains the preserve of partner states. Little harmonization• Liberalization of education services is to be achieved inaccordance with the Schedule on the Annex on Free Movement ofPersons (EAC treaty) … developments in this area are not up tospeed.• These reforms could be further cemented by various MRA‟s6/19/2013 17
Challenges to Internationalization of H.ECountervailing factors preventing significant growth innumbers of international students in Uganda• Inadequate university/tertiary infrastructure:• poor teaching facilities,• the quality of teaching,• overcrowding, poor student services• lack of focus on the needs of international students.• Low „export intensity‟ together with growing demandfrom local students …6/19/2013 18
Conclusion• Policy reforms are needed to support the sector to achieveappropriate quality standards and also export readiness• Policy initiatives supportive of regional marketing activities,• Policy synergies to link supportive sectors (edu-tourism)• Support for multi- lingual and -multi-religious students,• Statistical collection competencies and capacities are urgentlyneeded (IMR, OMR, enrollment, revenue, etc …)• Supportive policies towards opportunities for job placementswith industry.6/19/2013 19