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Voices for CC” initiative in Jamaica

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This presentation discusses the critical importance of the “Communication for Development” (ComDev) approach in ensuring that the voices of all stakeholders are heard in the decision-making process that will be needed in Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change, but especially illustrates how ComDev can engage those whose livelihoods are most vulnerable and most dependent on natural resource bases. Illustrative examples will be drawn especially from Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Caribbean, including the “Voices for CC” initiative in Jamaica as well as best practices in ComDev from RARE Radio in St. Lucia, Toco Radio in Trinidad, among others.

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Voices for CC” initiative in Jamaica

  1. 1. Climate Change Adaptation in NRM: The Need for Communication for Development Maria Protz, Ph.D. Caribbean Centre for Communication for Development (CCCD) Caribbean Institute for Media and Communications (CARIMAC) University of the West Indies (UWI) Monday, February 23 rd , 2009 3 rd International Conference on Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change Dhaka, Bangladesh
  2. 2. Relevant questions/issues from yesterday: <ul><li>Strong need for communication messages – billboards, PSAs, campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>How DO we communicate what works for CBA? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we better link local, farming knowledge with scientific knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>How can community level conflict resulting from CC be better managed? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>How can we bridge the gap between the limit of what communities can do in CBA and what government and/or other services need to do? </li></ul><ul><li>The need for CCA is urgent, yes, but we also need longer-term approaches, there is no “quick fix” </li></ul><ul><li>Need to see CCA within the context of social change and development </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A Wealth of Community-based experience already exists with sound methodologies and tools from community NRM, forestry management, protected area management, coastal zone management, and integrated rural development – </li></ul><ul><li>So there is no need to re-invent the wheel, but to view these experiences through a climate change lens. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>We heard of initiatives whose foundation is based on Action Research, Action Learning and PRA (using venn diagrams, transects, community mapping, etc.) to start the problem solving process. </li></ul><ul><li>We heard of initiatives that are going to experiment with participatory video and drama. </li></ul>
  6. 6. These are the questions , issues , activities and junctures with which Communication for Development is concerned and where ComDev can bring significant value added to the adaptation process.
  7. 7. Communication for Development (ComDev) is best understood by asking: <ul><li>Who? </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>And Why? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who does ComDev Serve? Whose Voices Counts? <ul><li>Most vulnerable communities, groups and households </li></ul><ul><li>Rural knowledge institutions and technical services (e.g., extension services) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific researchers (CC and NRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Makers and Government </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs and other local stakeholders </li></ul>
  9. 9. What IS ComDev and What is it NOT? ComDev is not just a matter of getting the ‘ message ’ right, or of mounting public awareness campaigns – although public awareness is crucial.
  10. 10. It is not only just technology transfer or diffusion of innovations. It is not only “ persuasion” or “social marketing” or a process of encouraging the adoption of new behaviours. It is not one-way, top-down transfer of information. Information alone does not solve problems and evidence shows that message based approaches are limited .
  11. 11. ComDev is a Discipline in its own right . But it is also the process at the very heart of ensuring that all of the needed players and areas of expertise are included in the adaptation effort.
  12. 12. What areas of knowledge can ComDev Support? <ul><li>Technology innovation/adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable NRM </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood options for adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental/local governance </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge on CC & NRM </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Without ComDev, the connection among the different knowledge areas needed for CBA can remain unclear, disorganized or too technical. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, viable CBA options can be much harder to identify, confirm and sustain. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Scientific Technology Innovation Sustainable Natural Resource Management Extension services and rural knowledge institutions Disaster Risk Management Practices Livelihood Options for Adaptation Good Governance and Policy Figure 2 - Knowledge Interface where CC Adaptation is Possible Indigenous Knowledge and Coping Strategies
  15. 15. Scientific Technology Innovation Sustainable Natural Resource Management Extension services and rural knowledge institutions Disaster Risk Management Practices Livelihood Options for Adaptation Good Governance and Policy Figure 2 - Knowledge Interface where CC Adaptation is Possible Indigenous Knowledge and Coping Strategies Overlap where appropriate CBA is possible
  16. 16. <ul><li>With an explicit and strategic ComDev approach that brings value added to these processes, the scope for knowledge sharing is enlarged and deepened. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Scientific Technology Innovation Sustainable Natural Resource Management Extension services and rural knowledge institutions Disaster Risk Management Practices Livelihood Options for Adaptation Good Governance and Policy Figure 3 – Knowledge Interface when ComDev is employed Indigenous Knowledge and Coping Strategies
  18. 18. Scientific Technology Innovation Sustainable Natural Resource Management Extension services and rural knowledge institutions Disaster Risk Management Practices Livelihood Options for Adaptation Good Governance and Policy Figure 3 – Knowledge Interface when ComDev is employed Indigenous Knowledge and Coping Strategies Area of interface when ComDev is employed
  19. 19. Scientific Technology Innovation Sustainable Natural Resource Management Extension services and rural knowledge institutions Disaster Risk Management Practices Livelihood Options for Adaptation Good Governance and Policy Figure 3 – Knowledge Interface when ComDev is employed Indigenous Knowledge and Coping Strategies Area of interface when ComDev is employed
  20. 20. What type of Value-Added Can ComDev bring to the CBA process? What can ComDev do? <ul><li>Makes it easier to identify a wider range of possible CBA options and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances sharing and integration of all the knowledge that is needed for CBA </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Improves the quality of advisory services for technology innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens linkages among agencies and stakeholders </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Helps to flag and bring to light potential areas of conflict that will require further resources/steps to address </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters multi-stakeholder dialogue, negotiation, decision making and action. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Enhances adaptation processes and disaster risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens policy dialogue between institutions and small farmers </li></ul><ul><li>And very importantly: enhances participation, ownership and buy-in to encourage sustainability and action. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Some guiding principles of ComDev: <ul><ul><li>Start with peoples’ knowledge, practices perspectives and expectations ( and document this via media ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build on existing communication systems </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Ensure equitable access to communication processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote and use local content, skills and talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate media technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure financial sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build local capacities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage resources through partnerships </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. When is ComDev Used in the CBA process? <ul><ul><li>Situation/problem assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation, documentation of indigenous techniques and livelihood survival options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of scientific and indigenous knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritization of livelihood adaptation options (pros and cons) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Communication of information to vulnerable groups in order to make sound decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory communication strategy and message design to support CBA activities and interventions </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Implementation and monitoring of strategic, targeted communication interventions to support CBA choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of outcomes/impacts in terms of changes in attitudes, knowledge levels and practices </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. ComDev can employ a range of media including ICTs and traditional media such as: <ul><li>Rural and community radio; </li></ul><ul><li>Edutainment, drama and community theatre </li></ul><ul><li>Print media (cartoons, booklets, newsletters, brochures, flyers, fact sheets) </li></ul><ul><li>Public service announcements </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and ICTs (You Tube, mobile phone text messages, ring tones, ….) </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Community television </li></ul><ul><li>DVDs and CDRoms </li></ul><ul><li>And face-to-face interpersonal communication such as farmer field days and extension visits </li></ul><ul><li>Among many, many others… </li></ul>
  31. 31. A Caveat ComDev recognizes that: <ul><li>Not all media are the same – there are pros and cons, advantages and disadvantages to each </li></ul><ul><li>We need to use the right media ( or none at all ) at the right moments ( years of ComDev experience illustrate this clearly ) </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Media can illustrate and make potential areas of conflict more transparent and visible, and can help bring stakeholders to the table – but cannot solve issues that require other types of interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Media use cannot be “ ad hoc” . </li></ul><ul><li>We should not use media just for the sake of using media. More media is not better. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is both an art and a science and is not EASY – it requires time, skill and resources </li></ul>
  33. 33. In short, the pillars of ComDev are: <ul><li>Strategic participatory planning with all stakeholders; </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of all knowledge bases needed for CCA; </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic and wise use of appropriate media –both traditional media and emerging ICT technologies; </li></ul><ul><li>Building of local capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening of partnerships and best practices. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Reinforcing Recommendations <ul><li>Use ComDev strategically and systematically – from the very beginning of CCA interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with media – yes ! But first take the time to learn what works and use media systematically and strategically. Adopt a planned approach. </li></ul>
  35. 35. So, we do need to take advantage of the Value Added that ComDev can bring to CBA: <ul><li>Acknowledge and Recognize its value! </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize on it! </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for it! </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate it! </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment with it! (wisely!) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Thank you

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