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Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch                                                                ...
Research and Extension Branch      Food and Agriculture      Organization of the      United Nations               Present...
Research and Extension Branch  Food and Agriculture  Organization of the  United Nations      Communication Pathways What...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations                     What is ComDev ?   ...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations                 What is ComDev ?“Com...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations                     What...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations        Key ComDev Principles           ...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations         Key ComDev PrinciplesStrengt...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations        Key ComDev Principles    Converg...
Research and Extension Branch    Food and Agriculture    Organization of the    United Nations                   ComDev Fu...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations        ComDev in FAO - M...
Research and Extension Branch        Food and Agriculture        Organization of the        United Nations     ComDev in F...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO – Methodologies        ...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations            ComDev in FAO...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations        Communicati...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Sustainable Developmen...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations      Capacity Development              ...
Research and Extension Branch         Food and Agriculture         Organization of the         United Nations   Knowledge ...
Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch                                                     Research an...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations      Strategic ComDev Pl...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations            Steps in ComD...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations        Steps in ComDev P...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations                   ...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations               PRCA components          ...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations                   ...
Research and Extension Branch         Food and Agriculture         Organization of the         United Nations             ...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations                         ...
Research and Extension Branch    Food and Agriculture    Organization of the    United Nations                           P...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations         ComDev Strategy Matrix      ...
Research and Extension Branch    Food and Agriculture    Organization of the    United Nations                           C...
Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch                                                     Research an...
Research and Extension Branch  Food and Agriculture  Organization of the  United Nations                         Case Stud...
Research and Extension Branch      Food and Agriculture      Organization of the      United Nations   Bolivia: National C...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations   Bolivia: National ComD...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBolivia: National ComDev Plan           ...
Research and Extension Branch        Food and Agriculture        Organization of the        United Nations        Bolivia:...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations                   ...
Research and Extension Branch      Food and Agriculture      Organization of the      United Nations                      ...
Research and Extension Branch    Food and Agriculture    Organization of the    United Nations                           B...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations          Banglades...
Research and Extension Branch     Food and Agriculture     Organization of the     United Nations         Bangladesh: Rura...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations          Banglades...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up RCS      ...
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up CRR      ...
Research and Extension Branch      Food and Agriculture      Organization of the      United Nations          Bangladesh: ...
Research and Extension Branch      Food and Agriculture      Organization of the      United Nations            Bangladesh...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations             Bangla...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations                   ...
Research and Extension Branch       Food and Agriculture       Organization of the       United Nations                   ...
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations                       Thank you!       ...
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AMREF Communications Forum

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AMREF Communications Forum

  1. 1. Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development Mario Acunzo mario.acunzo@fao.org Marzia Pafumi marzia.pafumi@fao.org AMREF Communications Forum Rome - March 29, 2012 1
  2. 2. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Presentation Outline What is ComDev?b. Definitionc. Key Principles and Functionsd. ComDev in FAO Communication for Development Planningg. Steps in ComDev Planningh. Participator Rural Communication Appraisali. Participatory Communication Strategy Design Case study examples from FAO experiencel. Boliviam. Bangladesh 2
  3. 3. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Communication Pathways What is your understanding of ‘Communication for Development’ and how would you describe the role of communication in development programmes? What communication approaches do you currently use in your projects? What do you think are the most important communication activities and skills needed for your work? 3
  4. 4. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations What is ComDev ? Type Purpose/Definition Main Functions Required Core Competencies Use media outputs and products to Public relations, institutional Communicate the mission and Corporate promote the mission and values of communication, excellent writing activities of the organization, communication the institution; inform selected skills, press releases, broad media mostly for external audiences. audiences about relevant activities. network contacts Facilitate the flow of information Ensure timely and effective sharing within an institution/project. of relevant information within the Institutional communication, Internal Sometimes this area can be staff and institution units. It excellent writing skills, web and communication included in corporate enhances synergies and avoids internet skills communication. duplication. Raise awareness on hot Influence change at the public or development issues; use Public relations, marketing, Advocacy policy level and promote issues communication methods and media experience in media campaigns and communication related to development. to influence specific audiences and advocacy campaign support the intended change. Communication research, Establish conducive environments; Support sustainable change in participatory approaches, adult Communication assess risks and opportunities; development operations by education, communication methods for Development disseminate information; induce engaging key stakeholders. and media, consultations and behavior and social change. facilitation skills 4
  5. 5. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?“Communication for Development (ComDev) is a socialprocess based on dialogue using a broad range of tools andmethods. ComDev is about seeking change at differentlevels including listening, establishing trust, sharingknowledge and skills, building policies, debating andlearning for sustained and meaningful change”. World Congress on Communication for Development, Rome 2006 5
  6. 6. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?The ComDev process: goes beyond information dissemination involves the use of participatory methods and different tools (e.g. traditional & local media, rural radio, ICTs) facilitates active participation and stakeholder dialogue is different from public relations or corporate communication Special attention is given to the convergence of the media, the development of local contents and the enhancement of local capacities for planning and implementing communication processes 6
  7. 7. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Key ComDev Principles Fostering dialogue and mediation 7
  8. 8. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key ComDev PrinciplesStrengthening local knowledge and communication processes 8
  9. 9. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Key ComDev Principles Convergence and local appropriation of technologies 9
  10. 10. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Functions Facilitate access to knowledge and information Promote peoples’ participation and collaborative action Strengthen peoples’ capability to share knowledge and manage horizontal communication processes Enhance mutual learning co-creation of knowledge Improve linkages and strengthen dialogue between policy makers, institutions and small farmers / local communities Bridge the gap between global information and local knowledge 10
  11. 11. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO - MandateDevelop and implement communication strategies to enhancecapacities of agricultural development programs, institutions,farmers and grass-roots organizations to access knowledge andinformation and actively make decisions on their livelihoods. Policy advice to member countries Technical assistance to governments, regional offices and field projects  Capacity development of national staff and institutions Documentation of activities, including case studies, guidelines, videos and publications Advocacy, training and knowledge sharing in ComDev 11
  12. 12. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO – Priority Areas1. Natural Resources Management, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction2. Food and Nutrition Security3. Agricultural InnovationCapacity DevelopmentKnowledge and Info SharingGender and Equity Issuesembedded as crosscutting issues in all projects 12
  13. 13. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO – Methodologies 13
  14. 14. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO – Media Community Rural Radio Audiovisual Pedagogy and Participatory Video Local appropriation of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) Traditional and Local Media 14
  15. 15. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Communication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI)Objectives Effective applications and management of ComDev strategies, tools and services for natural resource management (NRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) Improved capacities and partnerships in communication for sustainable NRM & CCAStrategy Knowledge sharing on ComDev methods and tools for NRM and CCA Capacity strengthening and networking Technical assistance to countries and field projects www.csdinitiative.org 15
  16. 16. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI) 16
  17. 17. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Capacity Development  Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development for field agents, communication practitioners and community facilitators to learn how to plan and implement ComDev strategies in the agricultural and rural sector.  Collaborative Change Communication Web platform for learning and knowledge sharing, aimed at: • Strengthen professional capacities in ComDev • Consolidate on-line and off-line knowledge networks • Facilitate the creation of a global community of practice in ComDev www.cccomdev.org 17
  18. 18. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Knowledge Sharing in ComDev Platforms and online networks are a tool used to foster knowledge exchange and support local communication processes by:a. sharing practices in ComDev on a regional basisb. disseminating information and aggregating knowledge on specific themesc. creating an interface with local and national activities 18
  19. 19. Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development Planning 19
  20. 20. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Strategic ComDev Planning Communication for Development is about participation, dialogue and the sharing of knowledge and informationIn short, the pillars of ComDev are: Strategic participatory planning with all stakeholders Facilitation of exchanges among different knowledge bases Strategic use of appropriate media – both traditional media and emerging ICT technologies Building of local capacity Strengthening of partnerships and best practices 20
  21. 21. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Steps in ComDev Planning THE P - PROCESSPiotrow, et al. 1997. Health Communication: Lessons from Family Planning and Reproductive Health. 21
  22. 22. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Steps in ComDev PlanningA participatory & audience-based methodology1. Situation analysis and problem assessment – Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA)2. Participatory Communication Strategy Design (PCSD)3. Communication materials development, pretesting and production4. Implementation and monitoring of participatory, targeted communication interventions5. Evaluation of outcomes/impacts in terms of changes in attitudes, knowledge levels and practices 22
  23. 23. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Why doing PRCA “Research is the corner stone of communication and makes program development a bottom-up process […] rather than the usual top-down approach” (Kline,1999) LISTENING to your target group to find out their real needs and ensure local relevance and appropriation of communication efforts “Producers and subject specialists who commission media campaigns have control over what information they distribute, but do not control what and how much is actually communicated – the receiver does” (Mody,1991) Understanding DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS and avoiding assumptions 23
  24. 24. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations PRCA components  Situation Analysis (including mapping of existing programs, policies and best practices)  Stakeholder / Audience analysis  Analysis of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP)  Social network analysis  Analysis of communication resources 24
  25. 25. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations KAP Analysis Pinpointing knowledge gaps, patterns of behavior, cultural beliefs and practices that may either hinder or facilitate a community’s understanding and action Investigating current levels of awareness and assessing the real information and knowledge needs of rural clients on the ground Learning what local practices may already apply and use them as a basis to identify workable, improved solutions DATA are usually gathered through participatory methods 25
  26. 26. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations KAP Analysis Sample KAP Key Questions – Climate ChangeKNOWLEDGE What is your current understanding of climate change? You may explain, illustrate or use examples and analogies. Why do you think this is happening? What information or knowledge about climate change have you heard or received from others which you think are not true ordoubtful? Why? How did you verify them? From whom or from what source did you get these information about climate change? Did you deliberately seek out for theseinformation or they were relayed to you without you asking for them?ATTITUDE Do you find it useful to learn more about climate change? Do you think it is an issue for you? Why or why not? Do you believe that people should intervene and adapt to climate change? Do you agree with the need to modify your farming practices because of changes occurring in the climate and the environment? Are you willing to work in groups in order to take collective actions to mitigate the causes of climate change and adapt to thesechanges? Why or why not?PRACTICE What activities do you undertake to cope with climate change? Do you think these are effective? Why or why not? What old practices do you still stick to and not modify despite the occurrence of climate change? Why? If given the necessary resources, what other activities do you plan to pursue in your farm and household to cope better with climatechange? Please specify the necessary resources for each planned activity. 26
  27. 27. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations PRCA tools Key Informant Interview Focus Group Discussion Problem Tree Time line/ seasonal calendar Social/ community mapping Matrix Ranking Participant Observation Venn Diagram TRIANGULATIONAlways use more than one tool or method to check and verify findings 27
  28. 28. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations PCSD steps Summarize findings of PRCA Set SMART stakeholder-oriented objectives Define the communication approach and key messages Select communication methods, channels and tools Define the communication workplan and budget Plan for monitoring and evaluation Plan for sustainability 28
  29. 29. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Strategy Matrix ComDev strategy matrix Communication Method and tools Approach Stakeholder Key message (Combine mass, group (Combine the strength objective & individual methods) of each approach)Policy makersLocal officialsService providersLocal communityOthers, specify 29
  30. 30. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Media Rural and community radio Folk media such as popular songs and community theatre Print media (cartoons, booklets, brochures, flyers, fact sheets) Video and multimedia materials (community TV, DVD, CD- Rom) Public service announcements Face-to-face interpersonal communication (e.g. farmer field days, extension visits, community meetings) 30
  31. 31. Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development EXAMPLES FROM FAO FIELD EXPERIENCE 31
  32. 32. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Case StudiesØ BOLIVIA National Communication Plan for Agricultural Innovation and Participatory Local Communication PlanningØ BANGLADESH Enhancing Rural Communication Services for Agricultural Development through Community Rural Radio 32
  33. 33. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanA ComDev National Plan designedand approved by the Ministry forRural Development and Land(MDRyT) is being implemented by theNational Institute for Agriculture andForestry Innovation (INIAF) Objectives • Design, validate and implement ComDev strategies, systems and services • Strengthen national capacities in ComDev for agriculture and innovation at the local and national level 33
  34. 34. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanIn support to the consolidation of Local Innovation Systems (SILos) Local Innovation government Managers Productive innovation Academic centres centers Innovation INIAF Facilitators Projects, Grassroots Learning Institutions, and IPs’ communities NGOs, etc. organization 34
  35. 35. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBolivia: National ComDev Plan At national level the ComDev strategy is developing: • An information and knowledge management service for agriculture and forestry innovation (including TECA) TECA is an information and communication system with two main functions: - Repository of technology for small farmers - Exchange groups on technologies 35
  36. 36. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Local Communication Plans for Innovation (PLICs)And at local level the project implemented: • Local information and communication plans for agricultural innovation (PLICs), based on local knowledge and communication needs.Examples of PLICs • Pasture management for dairy cattle (Yapacani) • Direct sowing (Yacuiba) • Water harvesting for diversified crops (Chiquitania) and • Forage conservation (at the national level). 36
  37. 37. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Steps for PLICs implementation a) Local Information dentify problems and communication needs, as well as and possible solutions. Communication nvolve local stakeholders, including farmers, grassroots Appraisal organizations, local institutions and the local government. Information and ystematize the appraisal results Communication a) Local Information esign and agreement on strategic communicationServices in support and interventions to Agriculture Communication acilitate coordination and networking among local partners. Innovation and ProgramRural Development ontribute to a participatory monitoring of activities mplementation of priority communication activities at field level a) Local Information rganize activities and defines responsibilities for local stakeholders and Communication evelop communication products and tools (Knowledge and Communication Modules - MCC) Plan mplement training activities 37
  38. 38. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: ResultsLocal Information and Communication Plansare implemented within the context of“Espacios locales de concertación” that arevenues for dialogue and informed decisionmaking.Training results:• 8 intensive training-of-trainers courses to technical experts and workers on the audiovisual methodology and the application of Knowledge and Communication Modules (MCC)• 162 people trained as facilitators and on the use of MCC to train small producers• Yapacaní: 11 workshops attended by overall 320 small-scale producers, local extensionists and field workers on establishing and managing pastures for dairy cows.• 4 workshops in Chiquitania on rainwater harvesting, 8 in the Chaco area on direct seeding, and 3 on forage conservation in the Norte Integrado.• In the four pilot areas, overall 489 producers have been trained, involving 52 institutions and organizations in Bolivia. 38
  39. 39. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Results A ComDev National Plan institutionalized within the INIAF Improved agriculture innovation and communication services Increased participation of rural people in agriculture innovation Local knowledge documented and shared Technical information validated and disseminated Improved ComDev capacities of rural actors and extension professionals Knowledge and communication training modules developed and validated with farmers 39
  40. 40. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS) Background  High vulnerability to climate change and its adverse impact  Agriculture engages 74% of population  Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy (2008)Project Objectives Improve access to and utilization of agricultural information, knowledge and services Enhance communication, knowledge sharing, lesson learning between and among stakeholders in the agriculture sector 40
  41. 41. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS)What is RCS? Network-like integration of demand-driven communication services using ComDev strategies, methods and tools to support agricultural development programs Platform for discussion and knowledge sharing among government institutions in collaboration with NGOs, academe, media groups, private sector, CBOs Maximize the resources of research and extension services (DAE/AIS) and strengthen the linkages with other public institutions, NGOs etc. to deliver farmer-centered agricultural advisory services 41
  42. 42. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS) Advantages Connecting geographically dispersed stakeholders Strengthening local communication networks Broadening participation and enabling informed decision-making Generating proactive stance and a collaborative environment Avoiding duplication and ensuring more timely information provision 42
  43. 43. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up RCS 43
  44. 44. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up CRR 44
  45. 45. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: RCS and CRR Services provided  Participatory rural communication planning  Capacity Development – training in ComDev (workshops, study tour)  Multi-stakeholder partnerships  Provision of information, knowledge and communication productsEmergency Project  Link with local and national mediaPRCA and ComDev Plan  Mainstreaming of ComDev in agriculturalfor harvesting of saline-tolerant rive variety development programs 45
  46. 46. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Krishi RadioMy Radio, My Voice - Krishi Radio FM 98.8 Daily programming in local languages on agriculture, livestock, fisheries, science, women, children, youth, indigenous communities 500 RCS-CRR posters and leaflets, folk song, station call sign, promotional jingle, program signature music, etc. 5 training workshops with CRR staff and volunteers (20 of 300 applicants) Over 100 local farmers belong to a listener club that regularly tunes in and participates in live discussions 46
  47. 47. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Krishi Radio“We advice farmers on how best to use their land in the face of increasing salinity causing huge economic losses. Field visits and demonstrations can now be reduced as we explain every aspect of cultivating a new crop during our live discussions over radio”Zakia Sultana Baby, agriculture officer“The community radio’s growing popularity is owing to the fact that it really serves the needs of the rural poor people”Salauddin Ahmed, Amtali union council chairman 47
  48. 48. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key References Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal. A handbook (FAO, 2004) Participatory Communication Strategy Design. A handbook (FAO, 2004) World Congress on Communication for Development. Lessons, challenges and way forward (WB-FAO-CI, 2007) Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development (FAO, forthcoming) Communication for Development: meeting today’s agriculture and rural development challenges (FAO, 2011) www.cccomdev.org/index.php/learning-resources/learning-materials 48
  49. 49. Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Related sites www.fao.org/oek/communication-for-develompent/en www.csdinitiative.org www.fsca-pisa.org www.cccomdev.org http://Km.fao.org/vercon 49
  50. 50. Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Thank you! Mario Acunzo mario.acunzo@fao.org Marzia Pafumi marzia.pafumi@fao.org 50

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