Development programmes can achieve their goals only if rural communities are actively engaged in local decision-making Communication facilitates this process through knowledge and information sharing FAO’ s over 30 years of experience show how participatory communication processes are a strategic asset to mobilize rural people and institutions towards collaborative change Although the cases illustrated are mainly based in the Latin American region, the lessons learned can easily apply to other contexts worldwide
The ComDev approach goes beyond information dissemination that targets communication at passive audiences, to facilitate active participation and stakeholder dialogue. It integrates the power of media with local communication systems to increase the involvement of rural populations in development initiatives. No matter what kind of project—agriculture, infrastructure, water, governance, health—it is always valuable, and often essential, to establish dialogue among relevant stakeholders. Dialogue is the necessary ingredient in building trust, sharing knowledge and ensuring mutual understanding. Even a project that apparently enjoys a wide consensus, such as the construction of a bridge, can have hidden obstacles and opposition that the ComDev specialist can help uncover, address, and mitigate.
People empowerment Communication for Development uses participatory activities, media and materials to empower people to articulate and share their own opinions, needs, problems and abilities both among themselves and with outside development agencies.
ComDev activities place particular focus on the convergence of different media (e.g. rural radio and ICTs) and the empowerment of local stakeholders. Emphasis is given to local content and community media to foster dialogue and improve the capacity of local institutions and people to plan and implement communication processes.
Capacity development of national staff, institutions and change agents working with rural communities and organizations
Sharing practices in ComDev on a rTo foster the production and exchange of knowledge for the reinforcement of local capacities, CSDI has launched a series of Regional Communication Platforms. These on-line networks of peer ComDev stakeholders, aggregated on a regional basis and coordinated by local focal points, have been set up as modern hubs to support local communities of practice, working mainly at three levels of action: egional basis; Disseminating information and aggregating knowledge on specific thematic areas; Creating an interface with local and national activities. The platforms already in place are the following: Plataforma de comunicacion para el desarrollo de Centroamerica y Mexico ( PlataCpD ), hosted and facilitated by Voces Nuestras of Costa Rica, is dedicated to show how communication for development approaches can contribute to improved livelihood outcomes, in harmony with the environment; Plataforma de comunicacion y desarrollo de los pueblos indígenas ( PlataIndigena ) managed by CIDOB (Confederación de Pueblos Indígenas de Bolivia) of Bolivia, is dedicated to communicators, institutions, national and international bodies who are involved in communication and development activities in favour of indigenous people; Onda rural , born on the agreement among FAO, ALER (Asociación Latinoamericana de Educación Radiofónica) and AMARC (Asociación Mundial de Radio Comunitaria), created to introduce communication in rural development policies and programs, linking community radios with new ICTs; and Communication for development Near East ( ComdevNE ), which focuses on the opportunities offered by modern ICTs addressing the challenges of rural areas that lag behind in terms of connectivity. Currently in their inception phase, two more regional platforms are being supported by CSDI: Communication for Development Platform in Asia (ComDev-Asia) , hosted and facilitated by the College for Development Communication (University of The Philippines, Los Baños), dedicated to the specific topics of ComDev applied to NRM, CCA and Food Security; and Communication for Development Platform in the Caribbean region (ComDev-Caribbean) , hosted and facilitated by The Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication at the University of the West Indies Mona (CARIMAC) to showcase best practices in the region on ComDev for climate change adaptation in the agriculture and NRM sectors.
PRCA is a communication research method that uses field-based visualisation techniques, interviews and group-work to generate information for the design of effective communication programmes, materials, media and methods for development purposes to ensure relevance and ownership by the people. PRCA facilitates dialogue among the rural people themselves and between them and the development workers in order for all parties to reach mutual understanding and plan for action. PRCA is therefore used to promote the involvement of rural people in decision-making that affects their livelihood. With PRCA, the needs and problems of the people are identified, defined and prioritised while opportunities and solutions existing in the community are discovered. WHY: Because we usually make ‘ assumptions’ about our audiences that are often not valid or based on fact. Many times communication efforts are designed by ‘technical experts’ or ‘media producers’ that are either very knowledgeable about the topic/issue, or about media production – but not about the audience. As a result, many campaigns are based on ‘ what’ to communicate, but give no attention as to ‘how’ to communicate effectively, nor to ‘whom’. We often think we already know that the target audience needs to know So that we can establish a baseline picture to be used for later assessing whether or not the campaign has made an impact as intended So that we don’t waste time, energy and ‘money’ developing materials and media products for the wrong audience and/or with the wrong message and the bottom line, so that the campaign is actually successful and effective and achieves our desired objective – social change Of course all ‘ needs assessments’ involves “research” and starts with secondary background research (internet, reports, publications) and discussion with ‘front line officers’ or expert consultations.. But -> (Mody,1991) How people perceive and define their world In addition to any data obtained from secondary sources, work with the people during the field PRCA to develop a profile of the community as seen by the different groups in the community. This enables everybody to reach mutual understanding on how the people perceive and define their world and reality. This is necessary because quite often, the way outsiders see the community or the descriptions given about them in books - their norms, values, actions and aspirations - might not correspond to the way the people see themselves and vice versa. Knowledge of the people's perceptions of their situation provides the background and context for the understanding of the other categories of information that will be revealed by the PRCA, including those issues concerning communication. Figure 6: The two-headed woman
Define the information and communication resources, systems and network of the priority interaction groups Define patterns of communication within the groups. Identify with the groups those in the community and outside who have a particularly strong influence on their behaviour. These people are known as influential sources of advice or role models. Outline why the group prefers them. Find out from the group whether such sources are reliable, timely, easily accessible, knowledgeable, respectable etc. Any sources of information/advice you eventually select for passing on development messages to your priority interaction group must be seen to have these attributes. Identify the information and communication resources both modern and traditional accessible to the interaction group. These should range from cultural/religious events, rituals, art, drawings, stories, dances, songs, drama, to audio-visual and print media. Identify the ones most preferred by the groups and find out why.
n in-depth interview with an individual or a group of people who have special knowledge on a particular topic. Uses Used for discovering special knowledge. To obtain information about the knowledge and behaviour of others in the community. Focus group discussion -FGD- is a cost-effective qualitative research technique generally used to discuss a specific topic in detail and probe into people's feelings, opinions and perceptions of the topic. Uses It is used to verify and obtain more in-depth details about information collected during the PRCA with other tools. Group dynamics generated during FGD produce rich responses and allow new and valuable thoughts to emerge. It provides an opportunity for you to observe a group's non-verbal reactions and discover their feelings and attitudes towards the issue under discussion.
In this phase, PRCA and baseline results are translated into useful accounts and utilised to design a communication strategy that will assist to achieve the development objectives selected during the PRCA. The communication strategy is based on the identified focal problems, which are turned into objectives. The strategy indicates the priority interaction groups in the community most affected by the focal problems and specifies the best communication approaches such as information, motivation, promotion, training and education. Basic messages and discussion topics (rough core content) to be packaged for a variety of channels and media during phases 3 and 4 of the programme are also selected. The strategy outlines financial, material and human resources required for solving the problem. It also contains a preliminary workplan and management plan that specify activities and the people responsible for performing them in order to obtain outputs that will contribute to the solution of the problems. To ensure that the programme does not go off track, the preliminary plan also contains measurable indicators for use in monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the strategy.
Agricultural performance has great impact on the socio-economic development of the country. Bangladesh has already experienced several initiatives using rural radio and other media (e.g. cell phones) to support agriculture production, socio economic growth, awareness rising for disaster preparedness and risk reduction. Until 2008, the national Bangladesh Betar Radio was the only station responsible for raising public awareness for development. Then, radio stations dedicated to serving the grassroots communities and ethnic groups have started to emerge. Hence, in the same year, the Ministry of Information approved the Bangladesh Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy. This paved the way for many organizations to start applying for permit to set up community radios. Recognized as the core medium for reaching out to farmers, women, youth, children, and indigenous people in rural communities and can serve as the central hub for various communication and advisory services. COMDEV CONTRIBUTION: The use of ComDev methods combined with community media and ICTs can contribute significantly to agricultural development, climate change adaptation and risk mitigation, fostering dialogue and participation among local stakeholders and institutions, and leading to collaborative decision-making and action. FAO Technical Cooperation Project - 2010 In collaboration with: Agricultural Information Service (AIS), Department of Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture Bangladesh College of Development Communication, University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication (BNNRC) Exploratory work conducted by CSDI in the region contributed to highlight the need for information and communication services, putting it higher in the livelihood adaptation agenda. This led the government of Bangladesh to request another form of technical assistance t o improve capacities of its Agricultural Information Service to deliver targeted and efficient communication in rural areas (2009). The main objective of the project was to provide technical assistance to the Agriculture Information Service (AIS) under the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) to plan and implement ComDev strategies and plans, and establish a community radio in the coastal area of Amtoli, Barguna District, to serve as a pilot in the establishment of rural communication services in support of food security, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. The RCS will integrate the use of Community Rural Radio (CRR) and other community media to strengthen the linkages among research and extension services, local institutions, NGOs, and the farmers.
At the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), two institutions provide information, education, advice, and training to farmers. AIS uses mass media like radio and television as well as film, video, and training materials to disseminate agricultural information, create public awareness, and facilitate technology transfer. But AIS manpower can only carry out its task up to the regional level where it is deployed. DAE directly reaches out to farmers at the community level to provide information and advisory services, supply farm inputs, and conduct farmer trainings through its upazila-based agricultural officers and sub-assistant agricultural officers (SAAOs). Although both AIS and DAE apply communication and education processes to deal with concerns on food security, climate change adaptation, and natural resource management, their efforts need to be coordinated and systematized more to create better outcome and impact. integrate information, knowledge sharing, and communication initiatives of different institutions and organizations engaged in agricultural development at the national and local levels; avoid unnecessary duplication, fragmented services, unhealthy competition, and waste of resources; and provide a more synchronized and timely delivery of communication services in the agricultural sector - provide the right information at the rigth time
Project implemented both at national and community level. The Upazila of Amtali, Barguna district, was selected as pilot site for implementation at the local level best and establishment of the community rural radio station. Communication planning is an activity that can be done at various levels. You can use the same principles and follow the same steps indicated in the P-process regardless of whether the ComDev plan is intended at the national, regional, provincial, municipal, or village level; and whether you intend for the program or project level. At both levels, situation analysis was undertaken involving (a) identification and analysis of needs, (b) stakeholders, (c) communication resources, (d) knowledge, attitudes, and practices in RCS, (e) communication environment, and (f) communication resources.
The mapping of institutions providing agricultural and advisory services at the national profiled 32 institutions from the government R&D, media, private sector, NGOs, and academe to identify gaps and opportunities for RCS and CRR. The mapping results were useful to identify the potential members of the RCS core groups at the national level and enabled the project, together with these key actors, to draft ComDev plans to: integrate information, knowledge sharing, and communication initiatives of different institutions and organizations engaged in agricultural development at the national and local levels; avoid unnecessary duplication, fragmented services, unhealthy competition, and waste of resources; and provide a more synchronized and timely delivery of communication services in the agricultural sector. The web portal allows farmer-to-expert and farmer-to-farmer communication. Using their cell phone or laptop, farmers can text their questions or comments and send audio, picture, or video file to the web portal and experts can readily respond to these. Users can download and listen to Krishi Radio programs and give feedback using their digital devices. The RCS-CRR web portal has been pretested and results indicate: (a) successful site registration and uploading of comments and pictures among farmers and experts; (b) visibility of web content in cell phone, laptop, and computer; and (c) farmers’ excitement at seeing their postings in the web portal.
At the local level, 20 institutions providing agricultural information and advisory services were profiled with the addition of farmer, women, and youth groups to identify gaps and opportunities for the CRR. The data generated guided how the CRR shall be planned and positioned in the overall local communication system. Group meetings with community members of Integrated Crop management (ICM) Club, upazila agricultural office personnel, local government officials, and local journalists provided information on community’s perception, expectations, need for CRR and their willingness to participate in its establishment, management, and sustainability. For establishment of the CRR at the field level, building and lot space were donated by the upazila agriculture office. The building has been renovated to house the radio station, CRR office, and Learning Resource Center. The document lists the initial 24 programs based on preferences of the local people. They cover topics on agriculture, fishery, livestock, entertainment, women, youth, science, talk show, disaster, life sketches, success stories, income generation, health, social awareness, nutrition, indigenous community, local culture, letters from listeners, history, and news.
The Emergency Cyclone Recovery and Restoration Project (ECRRP) supports the medium to long-term efforts of Bangladesh to facilitate recovery from damage to livelihoods and infrastructure caused by Cyclone Sidr in 2007 and build long-term preparedness through strengthened disaster risk management. One specific ECRRP component provides agriculture recovery assistance in crop, livestock, and fishery; introduces sustainable improvements to agricultural practices; and gives support to community mobilization, facilitation, and management. Together with the project technical consultants, we identified a specific technology being worked out with the farmers through their Farmer Field School (FFS), which critically needed communication to be successfully implemented. In particular, there is one important aspect concerning harvesting of saline-tolerant rice variety which is not quite typical and consistent with farmers’ conventional practices on rice farming. And this is the need to harvest the rice crops at 80% percent stage of maturity; otherwise, the crops will suffer from shattering loss. To make this timely with the distribution of seeds of the saline-tolerant rice variety, there was a need to come up with a small ComDev plan. Immediately, a PRCA was conducted among farmer groups of two FFS using focus group discussions. The results or data elicited then served as basis for drafting the communication plan very specific to harvesting of saline-tolerant rive variety.
500 RCS-CRR posters and leaflets, folk song , station call sign, promotional jingle, program signature music, and filler music for use in the listenership campaign and the full blown radio broadcast 5 training workshops on radio broadcasting and program production with CRR staff and the core group of 20 volunteers (300 applicants)
Krishi Radio anchors regularly discuss best practices and encourage farmers to stay put on their lands in the face of climate change impacts that are already being felt.
AMREF Communications Forum
Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development Mario Acunzo firstname.lastname@example.org Marzia Pafumi email@example.com AMREF Communications Forum Rome - March 29, 2012 1
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Presentation Outline What is ComDev?b. Definitionc. Key Principles and Functionsd. ComDev in FAO Communication for Development Planningg. Steps in ComDev Planningh. Participator Rural Communication Appraisali. Participatory Communication Strategy Design Case study examples from FAO experiencel. Boliviam. Bangladesh 2
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Communication Pathways What is your understanding of ‘Communication for Development’ and how would you describe the role of communication in development programmes? What communication approaches do you currently use in your projects? What do you think are the most important communication activities and skills needed for your work? 3
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations What is ComDev ? Type Purpose/Definition Main Functions Required Core Competencies Use media outputs and products to Public relations, institutional Communicate the mission and Corporate promote the mission and values of communication, excellent writing activities of the organization, communication the institution; inform selected skills, press releases, broad media mostly for external audiences. audiences about relevant activities. network contacts Facilitate the flow of information Ensure timely and effective sharing within an institution/project. of relevant information within the Institutional communication, Internal Sometimes this area can be staff and institution units. It excellent writing skills, web and communication included in corporate enhances synergies and avoids internet skills communication. duplication. Raise awareness on hot Influence change at the public or development issues; use Public relations, marketing, Advocacy policy level and promote issues communication methods and media experience in media campaigns and communication related to development. to influence specific audiences and advocacy campaign support the intended change. Communication research, Establish conducive environments; Support sustainable change in participatory approaches, adult Communication assess risks and opportunities; development operations by education, communication methods for Development disseminate information; induce engaging key stakeholders. and media, consultations and behavior and social change. facilitation skills 4
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?“Communication for Development (ComDev) is a socialprocess based on dialogue using a broad range of tools andmethods. ComDev is about seeking change at differentlevels including listening, establishing trust, sharingknowledge and skills, building policies, debating andlearning for sustained and meaningful change”. World Congress on Communication for Development, Rome 2006 5
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations What is ComDev ?The ComDev process: goes beyond information dissemination involves the use of participatory methods and different tools (e.g. traditional & local media, rural radio, ICTs) facilitates active participation and stakeholder dialogue is different from public relations or corporate communication Special attention is given to the convergence of the media, the development of local contents and the enhancement of local capacities for planning and implementing communication processes 6
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Key ComDev Principles Fostering dialogue and mediation 7
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key ComDev PrinciplesStrengthening local knowledge and communication processes 8
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Key ComDev Principles Convergence and local appropriation of technologies 9
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Functions Facilitate access to knowledge and information Promote peoples’ participation and collaborative action Strengthen peoples’ capability to share knowledge and manage horizontal communication processes Enhance mutual learning co-creation of knowledge Improve linkages and strengthen dialogue between policy makers, institutions and small farmers / local communities Bridge the gap between global information and local knowledge 10
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO - MandateDevelop and implement communication strategies to enhancecapacities of agricultural development programs, institutions,farmers and grass-roots organizations to access knowledge andinformation and actively make decisions on their livelihoods. Policy advice to member countries Technical assistance to governments, regional offices and field projects Capacity development of national staff and institutions Documentation of activities, including case studies, guidelines, videos and publications Advocacy, training and knowledge sharing in ComDev 11
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO – Priority Areas1. Natural Resources Management, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction2. Food and Nutrition Security3. Agricultural InnovationCapacity DevelopmentKnowledge and Info SharingGender and Equity Issuesembedded as crosscutting issues in all projects 12
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsComDev in FAO – Methodologies 13
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev in FAO – Media Community Rural Radio Audiovisual Pedagogy and Participatory Video Local appropriation of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) Traditional and Local Media 14
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Communication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI)Objectives Effective applications and management of ComDev strategies, tools and services for natural resource management (NRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) Improved capacities and partnerships in communication for sustainable NRM & CCAStrategy Knowledge sharing on ComDev methods and tools for NRM and CCA Capacity strengthening and networking Technical assistance to countries and field projects www.csdinitiative.org 15
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Sustainable Development Initiative (CSDI) 16
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Capacity Development Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development for field agents, communication practitioners and community facilitators to learn how to plan and implement ComDev strategies in the agricultural and rural sector. Collaborative Change Communication Web platform for learning and knowledge sharing, aimed at: • Strengthen professional capacities in ComDev • Consolidate on-line and off-line knowledge networks • Facilitate the creation of a global community of practice in ComDev www.cccomdev.org 17
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Knowledge Sharing in ComDev Platforms and online networks are a tool used to foster knowledge exchange and support local communication processes by:a. sharing practices in ComDev on a regional basisb. disseminating information and aggregating knowledge on specific themesc. creating an interface with local and national activities 18
Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development Planning 19
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Strategic ComDev Planning Communication for Development is about participation, dialogue and the sharing of knowledge and informationIn short, the pillars of ComDev are: Strategic participatory planning with all stakeholders Facilitation of exchanges among different knowledge bases Strategic use of appropriate media – both traditional media and emerging ICT technologies Building of local capacity Strengthening of partnerships and best practices 20
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Steps in ComDev Planning THE P - PROCESSPiotrow, et al. 1997. Health Communication: Lessons from Family Planning and Reproductive Health. 21
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Steps in ComDev PlanningA participatory & audience-based methodology1. Situation analysis and problem assessment – Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal (PRCA)2. Participatory Communication Strategy Design (PCSD)3. Communication materials development, pretesting and production4. Implementation and monitoring of participatory, targeted communication interventions5. Evaluation of outcomes/impacts in terms of changes in attitudes, knowledge levels and practices 22
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Why doing PRCA “Research is the corner stone of communication and makes program development a bottom-up process […] rather than the usual top-down approach” (Kline,1999) LISTENING to your target group to find out their real needs and ensure local relevance and appropriation of communication efforts “Producers and subject specialists who commission media campaigns have control over what information they distribute, but do not control what and how much is actually communicated – the receiver does” (Mody,1991) Understanding DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS and avoiding assumptions 23
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations PRCA components Situation Analysis (including mapping of existing programs, policies and best practices) Stakeholder / Audience analysis Analysis of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Social network analysis Analysis of communication resources 24
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations KAP Analysis Pinpointing knowledge gaps, patterns of behavior, cultural beliefs and practices that may either hinder or facilitate a community’s understanding and action Investigating current levels of awareness and assessing the real information and knowledge needs of rural clients on the ground Learning what local practices may already apply and use them as a basis to identify workable, improved solutions DATA are usually gathered through participatory methods 25
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations KAP Analysis Sample KAP Key Questions – Climate ChangeKNOWLEDGE What is your current understanding of climate change? You may explain, illustrate or use examples and analogies. Why do you think this is happening? What information or knowledge about climate change have you heard or received from others which you think are not true ordoubtful? Why? How did you verify them? From whom or from what source did you get these information about climate change? Did you deliberately seek out for theseinformation or they were relayed to you without you asking for them?ATTITUDE Do you find it useful to learn more about climate change? Do you think it is an issue for you? Why or why not? Do you believe that people should intervene and adapt to climate change? Do you agree with the need to modify your farming practices because of changes occurring in the climate and the environment? Are you willing to work in groups in order to take collective actions to mitigate the causes of climate change and adapt to thesechanges? Why or why not?PRACTICE What activities do you undertake to cope with climate change? Do you think these are effective? Why or why not? What old practices do you still stick to and not modify despite the occurrence of climate change? Why? If given the necessary resources, what other activities do you plan to pursue in your farm and household to cope better with climatechange? Please specify the necessary resources for each planned activity. 26
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations PRCA tools Key Informant Interview Focus Group Discussion Problem Tree Time line/ seasonal calendar Social/ community mapping Matrix Ranking Participant Observation Venn Diagram TRIANGULATIONAlways use more than one tool or method to check and verify findings 27
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations PCSD steps Summarize findings of PRCA Set SMART stakeholder-oriented objectives Define the communication approach and key messages Select communication methods, channels and tools Define the communication workplan and budget Plan for monitoring and evaluation Plan for sustainability 28
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Strategy Matrix ComDev strategy matrix Communication Method and tools Approach Stakeholder Key message (Combine mass, group (Combine the strength objective & individual methods) of each approach)Policy makersLocal officialsService providersLocal communityOthers, specify 29
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ComDev Media Rural and community radio Folk media such as popular songs and community theatre Print media (cartoons, booklets, brochures, flyers, fact sheets) Video and multimedia materials (community TV, DVD, CD- Rom) Public service announcements Face-to-face interpersonal communication (e.g. farmer field days, extension visits, community meetings) 30
Subdirección de Investigación y Extensión Extension Branch Research andFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsCommunication for Development EXAMPLES FROM FAO FIELD EXPERIENCE 31
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Case StudiesØ BOLIVIA National Communication Plan for Agricultural Innovation and Participatory Local Communication PlanningØ BANGLADESH Enhancing Rural Communication Services for Agricultural Development through Community Rural Radio 32
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanA ComDev National Plan designedand approved by the Ministry forRural Development and Land(MDRyT) is being implemented by theNational Institute for Agriculture andForestry Innovation (INIAF) Objectives • Design, validate and implement ComDev strategies, systems and services • Strengthen national capacities in ComDev for agriculture and innovation at the local and national level 33
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: National ComDev PlanIn support to the consolidation of Local Innovation Systems (SILos) Local Innovation government Managers Productive innovation Academic centres centers Innovation INIAF Facilitators Projects, Grassroots Learning Institutions, and IPs’ communities NGOs, etc. organization 34
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited NationsBolivia: National ComDev Plan At national level the ComDev strategy is developing: • An information and knowledge management service for agriculture and forestry innovation (including TECA) TECA is an information and communication system with two main functions: - Repository of technology for small farmers - Exchange groups on technologies 35
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Local Communication Plans for Innovation (PLICs)And at local level the project implemented: • Local information and communication plans for agricultural innovation (PLICs), based on local knowledge and communication needs.Examples of PLICs • Pasture management for dairy cattle (Yapacani) • Direct sowing (Yacuiba) • Water harvesting for diversified crops (Chiquitania) and • Forage conservation (at the national level). 36
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Steps for PLICs implementation a) Local Information dentify problems and communication needs, as well as and possible solutions. Communication nvolve local stakeholders, including farmers, grassroots Appraisal organizations, local institutions and the local government. Information and ystematize the appraisal results Communication a) Local Information esign and agreement on strategic communicationServices in support and interventions to Agriculture Communication acilitate coordination and networking among local partners. Innovation and ProgramRural Development ontribute to a participatory monitoring of activities mplementation of priority communication activities at field level a) Local Information rganize activities and defines responsibilities for local stakeholders and Communication evelop communication products and tools (Knowledge and Communication Modules - MCC) Plan mplement training activities 37
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: ResultsLocal Information and Communication Plansare implemented within the context of“Espacios locales de concertación” that arevenues for dialogue and informed decisionmaking.Training results:• 8 intensive training-of-trainers courses to technical experts and workers on the audiovisual methodology and the application of Knowledge and Communication Modules (MCC)• 162 people trained as facilitators and on the use of MCC to train small producers• Yapacaní: 11 workshops attended by overall 320 small-scale producers, local extensionists and field workers on establishing and managing pastures for dairy cows.• 4 workshops in Chiquitania on rainwater harvesting, 8 in the Chaco area on direct seeding, and 3 on forage conservation in the Norte Integrado.• In the four pilot areas, overall 489 producers have been trained, involving 52 institutions and organizations in Bolivia. 38
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bolivia: Results A ComDev National Plan institutionalized within the INIAF Improved agriculture innovation and communication services Increased participation of rural people in agriculture innovation Local knowledge documented and shared Technical information validated and disseminated Improved ComDev capacities of rural actors and extension professionals Knowledge and communication training modules developed and validated with farmers 39
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS) Background High vulnerability to climate change and its adverse impact Agriculture engages 74% of population Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy (2008)Project Objectives Improve access to and utilization of agricultural information, knowledge and services Enhance communication, knowledge sharing, lesson learning between and among stakeholders in the agriculture sector 40
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS)What is RCS? Network-like integration of demand-driven communication services using ComDev strategies, methods and tools to support agricultural development programs Platform for discussion and knowledge sharing among government institutions in collaboration with NGOs, academe, media groups, private sector, CBOs Maximize the resources of research and extension services (DAE/AIS) and strengthen the linkages with other public institutions, NGOs etc. to deliver farmer-centered agricultural advisory services 41
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Rural Communication Service (RCS) Advantages Connecting geographically dispersed stakeholders Strengthening local communication networks Broadening participation and enabling informed decision-making Generating proactive stance and a collaborative environment Avoiding duplication and ensuring more timely information provision 42
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up RCS 43
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsBangladesh: steps to set up CRR 44
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: RCS and CRR Services provided Participatory rural communication planning Capacity Development – training in ComDev (workshops, study tour) Multi-stakeholder partnerships Provision of information, knowledge and communication productsEmergency Project Link with local and national mediaPRCA and ComDev Plan Mainstreaming of ComDev in agriculturalfor harvesting of saline-tolerant rive variety development programs 45
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Krishi RadioMy Radio, My Voice - Krishi Radio FM 98.8 Daily programming in local languages on agriculture, livestock, fisheries, science, women, children, youth, indigenous communities 500 RCS-CRR posters and leaflets, folk song, station call sign, promotional jingle, program signature music, etc. 5 training workshops with CRR staff and volunteers (20 of 300 applicants) Over 100 local farmers belong to a listener club that regularly tunes in and participates in live discussions 46
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Bangladesh: Krishi Radio“We advice farmers on how best to use their land in the face of increasing salinity causing huge economic losses. Field visits and demonstrations can now be reduced as we explain every aspect of cultivating a new crop during our live discussions over radio”Zakia Sultana Baby, agriculture officer“The community radio’s growing popularity is owing to the fact that it really serves the needs of the rural poor people”Salauddin Ahmed, Amtali union council chairman 47
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Key References Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal. A handbook (FAO, 2004) Participatory Communication Strategy Design. A handbook (FAO, 2004) World Congress on Communication for Development. Lessons, challenges and way forward (WB-FAO-CI, 2007) Learning Kit on Communication for Rural Development (FAO, forthcoming) Communication for Development: meeting today’s agriculture and rural development challenges (FAO, 2011) www.cccomdev.org/index.php/learning-resources/learning-materials 48
Research and Extension Branch Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Related sites www.fao.org/oek/communication-for-develompent/en www.csdinitiative.org www.fsca-pisa.org www.cccomdev.org http://Km.fao.org/vercon 49
Research and Extension BranchFood and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nations Thank you! Mario Acunzo firstname.lastname@example.org Marzia Pafumi email@example.com 50