A mindful approach to any activity has three characteristics the continuous creation of new categories openness to new information, and an implicit awareness of more than one perspective.
Distinctions emerge and occur across the stage of inquiry New information and perspectives encountered during the process require valiadation
Threshold concepts are a portals Opens up a new ways of thinking about something Transforms way of understanding and interpreting something needed to progress Transforms internal view of subject, landscape, or world view Transformation may be sudden or over a considerable time Transformation can prove troublesome. Transformation may represent how people ‘think’ in a discipline It can be argued that transformed understanding leads to a privileged or dominant view and therefore a contestable way of understanding something
The debate of student info skill began with commentary, years later a call still remains for empirical study, both positions grounded in strong beliefs from experience, professional focus, and later experiments arising in a number of disciplines, education, technology, information science, communications, media studies, psychology.
Bruner 1965 - Learning happens as a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs most often Incidental rather than deliberate.
Extends beyond the academic world to include instances such as evidence and data collected by groups and individuals in communities and the public at large
May also focus upon personal, professional, or societal needs, Primary sources, crowd sources
Vehicle recall, my car, issues on my job related to safety, the responsibility of business to the public
Differing perspectives across time, groups, and disciplinesHotel gone, flights higher, urban planning
Formal Informal-Hotel Description/Hotel ReviewsDescription fine, but on given days maybe not desirable unless a fan
Learners showed trend to treat all tools universally as “search engines” without distinction in terminology, format, process, and underlying structure (Cordes, 2013). New way of thinking is open but need more understanding of structure and relationships, not all digitally equal, rapid change, make take time
2. The database was significantly more useful for performing an academic task than the library catalog or Google, but Google easier to use overall (Cordes, 2014). Shows recognition of discipline related format, process, and difference between academic and everyday need, but not necessarily distinctions of context).
3. Teams that supported interdependence, monitoring, backup and coordination shared and exchanged information better leading to better decisions and more positive feelings (Cordes, 2014).
Process can influence the way people experience information used to solve problems, and how they feel about doing it collaboratively with a group. The method we use to facilitate the transformative process may be as important as the task, tool, or format.
The way we investigate is changing, in part from avenues for creating and discussing everyday and discipline related information, and the form this knowledge takes. Approaches to research leading to new knowledge creation vary by need, circumstance, and type of inquiry.
Sea change brings new needed behaviors/dispositions
Key behaviors- persistence, adaptability, and flexibility, and recognition that ambiguity can be beneficial.
Key concept-Critical thinking supports learning when lack of familiarity with new methods and approaches requires additional effort.
Chess was the greatest fun. We were made to play properly in chess, he was a master of this game - he couldn’t bear to do anything else; but for all the other games he had entirely new rules. Enid Stevens Shawner, Cohen, Morton N. Lewis Carroll - Interviews & recollections, 1989.
Expertise/fluid/automatic novel becomes normal but must fit context
Chess-Chess was the greatest fun. We were made to play properly in chess, he was a master of this game - he couldn’t bear to do anything else; but for all the other games he had entirely new rules. Enid Stevens Shawyer Cohen, Morton N. Lewis Carroll - Interviews & recollections, 1989.
Level of authority can vary with need, Context influences trust and belief (ie religion, political)
What should be examined? How closely? Convenience at the potential risk of incompleteness, the speed of information far greater than the ability/will of humans to be mindful.
When is good enough, enough? Understand the problem and how to address it given need to find and apply information
What is an authority? How does perspective differ between sources (connect the dots)? How does format (multiple), process (individual, collaborative) impact information work? Goals and the paths to reach them aren’t necessarily the same in the workplace as in academics?
Engaging team members during research process Retrieving information using a variety of formats Finding patterns and making connections Exploring a topic thoroughly
Assignment Example-Urban Legends
Ask-Do cryptids exist? Observed species report- 2009 19,232 species in just one year, including nearly 10,000 new types of insects. Discovered by a mix of professional scientists and amateur species hunters
Investigate-Formal and informal resources, scholarly, commentary, formal and informal channels
Create-a dossier of information from a broad spectrum of possible informationCreate individual perspective, look for distinctions in the commnetary/research of others
Discuss-your finding, and those of others in online forums, with classmates and family, with professors
Reflect-Revise or reaffirm perspective, seek new information, infer additional possibilities, or conclude inquiry
Finding the Goat Sucker Choose from list of Cryptids on Wikipedia. Explore internet sources and web sources. Which give you background? Which provide evidence? Document 3 web and 3 library sources that support your case. Based on what you found, decide the likelihood your cryptid is real and rank using the criteria below.
Unconfirmed – cryptids whose existence is alleged but not demonstrated. Disputed – cryptids that have a body of evidence against their existence. Proposed [animal name] – cryptids with an alternative explanation accepted by the general scientific community. Extinct – animals that are generally believed to be extinct, but which cryptozoologists believe may have an extant relict population. Confirmed [animal name or cause] – animals once classified as cryptids but whose existence has now been confirmed. Hoax – cryptids once thought to be real but later conclusively proven to be hoaxes.
BUILD VAILIDY TO AN OPEN ENDED CONTEXT-DIVERSE ELEMENT CONSTRCUT AUTHORITY
Markham Nolan-Managing editor of Storyful, now at Vocativ
First news agency created specifically for the social media age Developed editorial processes & technology to enable organisations to discover, validate & deliver the most newsworthy social media content
High Need / Low Risk High Need / High Risk Live in town, but not close to area In area, aware of incident, affected, at risk of harm
Low Need / High Risk Low Need / Low Risk Person waling in area, unaware, in danger Distant friend, little concern for them, also live inHali recall on car safe area
Need-Location, risk, timely Context-critical, authority may be formal (police), and informal (citizens).
Summarize: Main points, topic Assess: Is it a useful how, what is the goal of this source, how does it compare with other sources? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased? Reflect: Fit with research. How does it help solve problem? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use it?
ONE to ONE FORMAT/PERSPECTIVE covers traditional ideas of finding, using, evaluating, citing, including publication process.
MANY to MANY FORMAT,/PERSPECTIVE comparison between content, format, and commentary of others
Traditional information literacy applies to both academics and personal endeavors, although the tools, tactics and times will change
There may be no one right answer, but there is often a best answer for a given situation
In a rapidly changing information world the key to survival is to question, evaluate, and question again
Knowing what you need, why you need it and where you can get it can mean the difference between success and failure.
River Wide, River Deep: Libraries, Learners, and Transformative Literacy- Ifla 2014 Satellite Presention
RIVER WIDE, RIVER DEEP: LIBRARIES, LEARNERS,
AND TRANSFORMATIVE LITERACY
Western Illinois University
Teaching students to draw distinctions sets the
stage for creating new categories, being open to
new information, and being aware of different
Distinctions reveal that the material is situated in a
context and imply that other contexts may be
A STARTING POINT
Students today think and
fundamentally differently from
their predecessors, as a result
of being surrounded by new
technology (Prensky, 2001).
The actual situation is far from
clear. A more measured and
disinterested approach is now
required to investigate ‘digital
natives’ and their implications for
education (Bennett, Maton, &
Quest of inquiry and authority is often open, unresolved, critical,
personal, professional, social, and strives for meaning and structure
Research is iterative
Focus on open, unresolved problems
Problems can be personal or academic
Evidence can be formal or informal
Often includes differing perspectives
across time, groups, and disciplines
Builds on existing knowledge, leads to
greater ability, understanding and skill
RESEARCH AND THE SPIRAL OF INQUIRY
SIGNS AND PORTENTS
When building web sites students had
challenges using both traditional and web based
search tools, especially social networks
(Delicious, YouTube, Flickr) (Cordes, 2013).
Comparing the library catalog, database, and
search engine students felt the database more
useful for performing academic tasks than the
catalog or Google, but found Google easier to
use overall (Cordes, 2014).
In a collaborative decision task, teams using a
discussion process that supported member
interdependence made better decisions and had
more positive feelings about the work climate
and procedures (Cordes, 2014).
A BROAD SPECTRUM OF INVESTIGATION
More meaningful ways for finding,
filtering and engaging information to
meet variety of needs and topics are
Rich, broad, timely, dynamic
Deep, vetted, built
Specific, focused, validated
by peers, innovative, builds
What is the relationship between need and
authority? Authority and context?
Who/what is an authority? How does format fit?
What sources should be examined? How closely?
How good is good enough?
How does perspective differ between sources?
How does perspective change over time?
What is our responsibility toward the truth?
AUTHORITY IS CONTEXTUAL AND CONSTRUCTED
CONTEXT IS (NOW) KING
[Context]is a key to understanding how students
operationalize and prioritize their course-related and
everyday life research activities… students
consistently referred to “finding context,” in one
form or another, as the most laborious, yet requisite,
part of the research process (Head & Eisenberg,
Nearly all students intentionally make use of a small
compass for traversing the ever-widening and
complex information landscape they inhabit, whether
they are finding information for course work or for use
in their daily lives (Head & Eisenberg, 2010)
A study of 33 graduates in 23 companies found that
new workers used traditional college information
skills, but workers and employers both felt the need
for them to adapt to business research practices,
especially working with a variety of sources, including
traditional sources and collaborative settings (Head,
et al., 2013)
STEPPING THROUGH THE LENS OF INQUIRY
Web Dictionaries and
Encyclopedias Broadcast News
Books and Journals
Government Web Sites
Tracking the Goat Sucker
NEW (?) APPROACH TO CRITICALITY
“Every man should have a built-in automatic crap detector
operating inside him.”
“You have to think like a detective.”
“Triangulation is what detectives do – try to find three different
ways to test a source’s credibility. ”
Some (new) tools to build authority…
• Verify credentials (Google/Scholar)
• Check for web ownership on WhoIs.com
• Use the Scholarly Productivity Index
• Check for bookmarks on Diigo or Delicious
• Verify content using FactCheck.org
MARKHAM NOLAN-CONTEXTUAL DETECTIVE
Found 2 people with that
name in two states.
Only rain in one state
that day. Florida.
Found YouTube Video of thunderstorm for potential story. Is it credible?
Used Google Maps to verify location by
cross referencing clues
with free people
TEDSalon 2012, http://goo.gl/4udioq
CONSTRUCTING MEANING THROUGH COLLABORATION
To clarify the details, someone
posted a link to the live Police
Scanner to Facebook!
Citizens reported first and help
narrow down the location…
Police provided a warning with their
own Facebook post.
From this information, Google maps helped
us plot the danger path
The next day the press
(briefly) reported the
TASKS AND TASKS FOR TRANSFORMATION
Teams contribute content to a
Peers review contributions of
others for credibility, quality, fit
Members integrate their findings
in a mutual space
Teams negotiate meaning
through comparison with peer
Diigo is a multi-tool for personal
dramatically improve your
workflow and productivity
5 THINGS I WANT MY KIDS (AND COLLEAGUES) TO KNOW
Build future skills on the knowledge of the past
There is often more than one way to skin a cat
The truth can come in many colors
Skeptical is safe (if there is such a thing)
All information has value, depending on what your