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Danish resistance schneider,greenwald


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Danish resistance schneider,greenwald

  1. 1. S Nonviolent Resistance to Nazi Occupation of Denmark Clark Schneider Jamie Greenwald
  2. 2. Thesis S Once the Nazis shift from benevolent occupiers to oppressors, the goals (autonomy, independence) of the nonviolent conflict are indeed a viable option in changing the unjust Nazi society into a just one. Through a predominantly non-violent campaign of strikes and protests, Denmark frustrated the Nazi regime while maintaining Danish society and culture and minimizing bloodshed.
  3. 3. Nazi Invasion S On April 9, 1940, the Nazis invaded Denmark with overwhelming force S Denmark did little to resist S Germany promised not to compromise Denmark’s “political independence” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, pp. 48-49)
  4. 4. Samarbejdspolitik S Danish government adopted a policy of cooperation S King Christian “wished to spare his country further misfortune” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, p. 50) S “To survive became the goal’” S (Lennart Bergfeldt, Experiences of Civilian Resistance: The Case of Denmark, 1940-1945 (Uppsala: University of Uppsala, 1993), p. 63) S “Cooperation would be the lesser evil” S (Ackerman, and Duvall, 2010, p. 210)
  5. 5. Early Resistance: Symbolic Protest S Cultural pride S Lays the groundwork for resistance by emphasizing continued Danish society and culture despite the German occupation S 10 Commandments for Danes S Danskerens 10 bud S Danish Youth Association S Media S Ekstrabladet
  6. 6. Onset of German Oppression S Communist Crackdown S “Clashes with the usual Danish sense of justice” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, p. 163) S Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 S “Unavoidable consequences” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, pp. 108-110) S German enlistment of Danish civilians
  7. 7. “‘Down with the traitors’” (The Times of London) S Protests at Rigsdag S Churchill Club S Underground press S Frit Danmark; Studenternes Efterretniigstjeneste S White Book S “Action is required of us all” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, pp. 124-125)
  8. 8. Resistance Gains Momentum S General von Hanneken and Dr. Werner Best S Parliamentary election S Making a difference in World War II S Sabotage S Folk strikes S Traitors black-listed
  9. 9. Dr. Werner Best General Von Hanneken
  10. 10. Government Cooperation Ends S Hitler instructs General von Hanneken to “rule with an iron hand” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, p. 122) S In response to the strikes, Germany gives Denmark’s government an ultimatum: submit to total Germen tyranny or lose power S Danish government refuses; cooperation ends S German military assumes control of Denmark
  11. 11. The Height of Resistance S Danish Jews saved from Nazi round-up S Freedom Council established S Sabotaged Nazi military factories S Frode Jakobsen: “the battle for people’s soul” is through non- violence S (Jorgen Haestrup, Secret Alliance (Odense: University of Odense, 1976), p. 45) S The Freedom Council’s resistance movement had over 45,000 by war’s end
  12. 12. People’s Strikes S Massive strikes halt military production S Danish endure German repercussions S Freedom Council appreciates the power of strikes S Encouraged nonviolent resistance over sabotage and riots S Strikes significantly impaired Nazi war machine
  13. 13. Post-War S Danish resistance forms an interim coalition government S Danish culture, society, and economy remain intact
  14. 14. Goals and Values S Initial goals S compliance, survival, minimal bloodshed S Eventual goals of the resistance S Independence, democracy, minimal bloodshed, resist the Nazis
  15. 15. Conclusion S In the case of Danish resistance to the Nazis, the eventual goals of independence through strikes and noncooperation were a viable and effective option in changing the unjust Nazi state by debilitating its capacity to fight a war.
  16. 16. The Power of Nonviolence S In Denmark’s case resisting the powerful Nazi military through violence would have resulted in slaughter S Nonviolent resistance gave the Danish people the ability to effectively resist the Nazis while avoiding sacrificial violent conflict
  17. 17. Bibliography S Ackerman, Peter, and Jack Duvall. A Force More Powerful. 1st ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. 210. Print.