Open Access 101An oversimplified, aggressively abbreviated overview and summary of recent developments Claire Stewart Josh Honn John Blosser Open Access Week 2012 October 25, 2012 Center for Scholarly Communication & Digital Curation Northwestern University
A Realistic Goal? In 10 years, a scientist will be able to incorporate 30% more papers into their thinking than they can today in the same amount of timeNeil M. Thakur, Special Assistant to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Deputy Director for Extramural Research, Berlin 9 presentation
Why Open Access?• Pricing• Democratizing access• Promoting reproducible and efficient research• Computing across the literature to yield new insights, promote discovery, collaboration
Serials pricing"The Resources and Technical Services Division of the American Library Association has created the Subcommittee on Serials Pricing Issues to gather and disseminate statistics and other data on the rising costs of journals to libraries, perhaps the greatest concern among academic libraries today." Issue 1, ALA/RTSD Newsletter on Serials Pricing Issues, 1989 (emphasis added)
Democratizing access "In today’s information age, where essentially anything said by anyone can be made accessible within a matter of moments, it is unfortunate that families have easy access to all BUT the most scientifically valid information, that which can be found in scientifically reviewed research literature."Sophia Colamarino, Vice President for Research, Autism SpeaksTestimony, House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Hearingon Public Access to Federally Funded Research, July 29, 2010
Reproducible and efficient researchReproducibility initiativehttps://www.scienceexchange.com/reproducibility
Computing the literature Action Science Explorer, http://www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/ase/
Brief (and oversimplified)digression: how scholarly journalpublishing works1. Authors write articles for free2. Other qualified researchers review them for free3. Publishers publish them a. Traditional publishers charge a fee to read b. Open Access publishers dont, but might charge a fee to authors
Key players in the ecosystemAuthors and researchersEditorial boardsScholarly societiesUniversitiesPublishersLibrariesRepositoriesFundersPolicy makersReaders and the general public!
What is Open Access?Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. A very brief introduction to Open Access Peter Suber
What is Real open access? Green versus goldSelf-archived or immediate OA from publisher (when and what) Gratis versus libre Free to read or free to reuse (what rights)
Who pays for (Gold) OA?Free is free: some (many) are free to authors and to readersFor those that are NOT free to authors: submission charges, article processing charges (APC), page charges o NIH, NSF, HHMI, others will allow publishing costs to be charged to grants o OA funds. We dont have one at NU (should we?), some universities do. o Author personal funds
Hybrid Open Access Author pays APC to make single article available: immediate OA Subscription required to access entire issue/run; rights to reuse vary -- see A crowdsourced survey of open access publishers, publications, licenses and fe and SHERPA/RoMEOs paid option list
Open Access milestones1966: ERIC and MEDLINE, seeds of open access. early 1970s:Agricola, Project Gutenberg. arXiv 1991, SSRN 1994.
e-biomed and PubMed Central: Harold Varmus and the NIH role
NIH public access policy PubMed Central; full policy @ http://publicaccess.nih.gov
Scholarly Publishing and AcademicResources Coalition (SPARC) 1998 http://www.arl.org/sparc
August 2006, editorial boardof the mathematics journalTopology resign en masse,citing concerns aboutElseviers pricing policies.
Editorial board resignations and altjournalsNot always a transition to Open Access! many moved from big commercials to University Presses(Portal: Muse/JHU; Journal of Topology: LMS/Oxford, etc.)1989 - present, spike around 2003Source: Journal declarations of independence (OAD)
Journals that converted from Toll Access to Open Accessfrom the Open Access Directory (OAD)
Declarations and principles• Budapest: February 2002, reaffirmed and expanded September 2012• Bethesda: April 2003. Definitions and statements of principle• Berlin: October 2003• Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA): 2008, Code of Conduct
Petition to the White Househttps://petitions.whitehouse.gov/petition/require-free-access-over-internet-scientific-journal-articles-arising-taxpayer-funded-research/wDX82FLQ
EU & UK recent developments• PEER report June 2012: no evidence that self-archiving harms publishing• EU signals intention to support full OA in Horizon 2020 research programme• Finch report, commissioned by UK science minister David Willetts July 2012, strong support for Gold, and diversion of public funds to support it. (lots of criticism that Finch got some basic stuff wrong)• Research Councils UK mandate based on Finch recommendations: o favors Green, embargo of no more than 6 months for science, 12months for other, CC-BY-NC or better o if Gold (even hybrid) is available instead, must choose it. Govt will pay via block grants to unis, but no embargo and CC-BY required
MLA and AHAJune 2012: • Concedes that there are significant problems with the"The revised agreements leave current ecosystem, growing copyright with the authors and problems of inequitable access explicitly permit authors to deposit and rising cost in open-access repositories and post on personal or departmental • Voices concern about the Web sites the versions of their emergence of APC model and manuscripts accepted for recommendations of the Finch publication." report • Sciences v humanities/SS • Exchanging one set of costText of the MLA statement inequalities for another? Text of the AHA statement
On sharing data: "Open your minds and share your results" by GeoffreyBoulton, emeritus professor of Geology of the University of Edinburgh andchair of a Royal Society committee that authored the June 2012 report"Science as an open enterprise"
Peer review+OA experiments continue: F1000 Research open accessand post-publication peer review, Modern Language Associations MLACommons for pre-publication peer review and publishing platform forscholarship in new formats
Image credits, additional citationsUnless otherwise indicated, quotes, screenshots, images and other materials are the intellectual property of the referenced persons or organizations, and are reproduced here according to section 107 fair use principles of the United States Copyright Law, title 17 U.S. Code. This presentation is intended for educational and research use only; any additional use of these materials may be subject to additional restrictions and/or require the permission of the copyright holder.• A realistic goal? and A new role for scientific publishing Thakur, N. M. (2011, November 8). Open access as a path to increased scientific productivity. Presented at the Berlin 9 conference, Bethesda MD. Retrieved from http://www.berlin9.org/bm~doc/berlin9-thakur.pdf• Democratizing access photograph from Berlin 9 speaker page and Autism Speaks logo from Autism Speaks web page• What is Open Access? Thorpe, Lilian. Photo of Peter Suber by Lilian Thorpe. Taken in Brooksville, Maine, November 25, 2009. Work found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Peter- Suber8.jpg / http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/• e-biomed and PubMed Central photo of Harold Varmus from Columbia University news
All original material in this presentation is (c) 2012 byJohn Blosser, Josh Honn and Claire Stewart this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC BY 3.0)