1Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special
Needs Education in Uganda.
Tracking flow of funds for Spec...
2 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
was produced by the Civil Soci...
3Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements.............................................
4 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 10: 	 Aid funding for special needs in comparison to education sector...
5Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) is grateful to ...
6 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
ACRONYMS
BTVET		 Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training
CDO...
7Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
FOREWORD
Equitable access to education and social services is the right of e...
8 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Its unfair that iam going to
miss exams
because we don’t have
roads and goo...
9Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As part of the broader goal of fostering budget transparen...
10 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
2.	 Institutional framework – Only
Kibaale among the study districts had
f...
11Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
number totalling to 427 (61.6% male
and 38.4% females) of children with
spe...
12 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
7.	 Develop a basic sign language chart
and make this a requirement for al...
13Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
1.0	 INTRODUCTION
SpecialNeedsEducation(SNE)isanaffirmativeactiondesignedto...
14 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
3.	 To examine the role of duty
bearers and right holders and
the accounta...
15Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
In addition to the literature
review, the team conducted
field visits to Ab...
16 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
2.1.1	 National Consultations
Guided by a semi-structured interview
guide,...
17Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
3.0	 SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN UGANDA: CONTEXT AND
BACKGROUND	
The Uganda ...
18 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Figure 1:	 Types of disabilities within study districts
Source: Calculated...
19Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
A more detailed aggregate statistics
from the MoES indicates that in the
th...
20 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Education teachers, provided materials
and supported the establishment of
...
21Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Board (UNEB) also embraced the
need for an inclusive environment
and create...
22 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 3: Number of special needs children
District Total number of special...
23Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
4.0	 THE LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIAL NEEDS
EDUCATION
This sectio...
24 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
United Nations Convention on the
Rights of Persons with Disabilities
(2006...
25Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 4:	 National laws and policies
Law/policy framework Description of co...
26 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
The Children Statute 2006
•	 This Act operationalizes the Constitution reg...
27Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
The Special Needs and
Inclusive Education Policy
(2011)
The specific object...
28 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
needs, state investment in meeting
the educational and learning needs of
p...
29Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
5.0	 THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIAL NEEDS
EDUCATION IN UGANDA
5.1 ...
30 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Whereas the Special Needs and Inclusive
Education Department at the Minist...
31Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Sub county CDOs
•	 Supports 12 vulnerable children (orphans, HIV infected, ...
32 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Kagadi hospital; this treats children with special needs at Bishop Rwakaik...
33Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Figure 6:	 National Stakeholders involved in the delivery of Special Needs ...
34 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
6.0	 PLANNING AND BUDGETING FOR SPECIAL NEEDS
EDUCATION
This section of th...
35Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
revealed that the communities during
their planning processes were not awar...
36 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Budget statistics indicate the actual
allocations to the sector increased ...
37Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 8: Comparison of Special needs with other ministry departments
Depart...
38 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
increased to Ug. Shs 1.3billion an increase
of over 176% from the previous...
39Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 10: Detailed breakdown of Special Needs Education Budget for FY2009/1...
40 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Wage versus non-wage expenditure
The review of budgets indicates that all ...
41Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
special needs budget. Within this budget,
there are 2 expenditure lines-tra...
42 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Figure 7: Aid funding for Special Needs education
10	 The OECD CRS databas...
43Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table 12 shows that the total donor funds
to the Education Sector between 2...
44 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Table14:	ProgressonsomeplannedSNEactivities
YearPlan
Budget
(millionUGX)
O...
45Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
2011/12
•	Constructionof3schoolsto
increaseaccessforlearnerswith
SNEespecia...
46 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Figure8:	Quarterlyreleaseprocess
Cashlimits
prepared
by
MOFPED
budget
dire...
47Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
7.1	 INCREASING ACCES TO EDUCATION BY CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS-
HOW INCL...
48 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
The establishment of a Special Needs
Department in Kyambogo University
has...
49Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
The challenge of finding teachers for SNE
is further compounded by a number...
50 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Staff shortage is a key challenge in the
districts visited. The District
T...
51Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
children is often negative, which affects
the learning ability of these chi...
52 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
minimal attention provided at the lower
level of the learner’s education c...
53Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing; resource allocation to Special
NeedsEducationremainslowatanavera...
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.
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Civil Society Budget AdvocacyGroup piloted a study in 3 districts namely: Agago, Abim and Kibaale; with the purpose of examining the level of financing of SNE ,tracking the utilization of SNE funds over the last three years and the level of SNE beneficiary
satisfaction .

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Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda.

  1. 1. 1Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Tracking flow of funds for Special Needs Education in Abim, Kibale and Agago Districts Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. C S B A G Budgeting for equit y Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group
  2. 2. 2 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. was produced by the Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) with support from the Democratic Governance Facility (DGF) under the Gender and Local Accountability Project. The contents of this publication are the responsibility of CSBAG and not of our development partners. © 2013 Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) P.O. Box 660, Ntinda Plot 15 Vubya Close, Ntinda Nakawa Rd Fixed Line: +256-41-286063, Mob: +256-55-202-154 E-mail: csbag@csbag.org Web www.csbag.org | @CSBAGUGANDA CSBAG/Facebook.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or reprinted in any form by any means without the prior permission of the copyright holder. CSBAG encourages its use and will be happy if excerpts are copied and used. When doing so, however please acknowledge CSBAG.
  3. 3. 3Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................... 2 Acronyms ............................................................................................................................... 3 FOREWARD .............................................................................................................................7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY................................................................................................................... 8 1.0 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 11 2.0 METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................. 13 3.0 SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN UGANDA: CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND....................... 16 4.0 THE LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION....................... 21 5.0 THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE DELIVERY OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN UGANDA.......................................................................................................................... 25 6.0 PLANNING AND BUDGETING FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION...................................... 30 7.0 PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF SPECIAL NEEDS AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN UGANDA.......................................................................................................................... 41 8.0 CHALLENGES FACED IN THE PROVISION OF SNE............................................................. 46 9.0 CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS...................................................... 49 ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................. 50 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 52 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Distribution of population aged 5 years and above by degree of difficulty according to functional domain (%)............................................................................................................. 16 Table 2: International instruments guaranteeing the right to SNE....................................................... 21 Table 3: National laws and policies....................................................................................................... 22 Table 4: Stakeholders involved in delivery of SN&IE at local level........................................................ 26 Table 5: Special Needs Education in the Kibaale DDP (Sector 06: Education and Sports, Subsector 64: Special Needs Education)......................................................................................................... 30 Table 6: Comparison of Special Needs with other Ministry Departments............................................ 32 Table 7: Disaggregated expenditures between special needs and guidance and counseling............... 32 Table 8: Detailed breakdown of Special Needs Education Budget…………………………………….................. 34 Table 9: Breakdown of allocations within Special Needs Education services........................................ 36
  4. 4. 4 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 10: Aid funding for special needs in comparison to education sector........................................... 37 Table 11: Budget performance for special needs.................................................................................... 38 Table 12: Progress on some planned SNE activities................................................................................ 39 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Types of disabilities within study districts............................................................................... 17 Figure 2: School attendance by children with disabilities in the study districts..................................... 17 Figure 3: Class distribution of children with special learning needs in the study districts..................... 20 Figure 4: National Stakeholders involved in the delivery of Special Needs Education........................... 29 Figure 5: Special Needs Education Budgets - FY2008/09 - 2013/14....................................................... 33 Figure 6: Wage and Non-wage allocation for Special Needs Education................................................. 35 Figure 7: Aid funding for Special Needs Education................................................................................. 37 Figure 8: Quarterly release process........................................................................................................ 40
  5. 5. 5Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) is grateful to all the respondents who shared information that provided the basis for this report. We are particularly indebted to the stakeholders consulted during this study including the Local Government technical staff at district and sub-county level in the districts of Abim, Agago and Kibaale, civil society organisations, head teachers as well the communities and parents of children with various impairments. We are also grateful to all the peer reviewers namely; Frank Twinamatsiko, Jean Bageya, Daniel Lukwago and Dr. Edward Bbaale for their comments that greatly enriched this report. We are particularly appreciative of the team at Development Research and Training (DRT) for taking lead in this research, this work would not have been completed without your dedicated efforts. This report was produced under the supervision of Julius Mukunda whose technical insight guided the research team at different stages which greatly enriched this report. Special thanks go to Democratic Governance Facility (DGF) whose financial support enabled the successful production of this report.
  6. 6. 6 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. ACRONYMS BTVET Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training CDO Community Development Officer CFO Chief Finance Officer CSBAG Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group DANIDA Danish Agency for Development DEO District Education Officer DIS District Inspector of Schools EARS Education Assessment Resource Services EFA Education For All ENT Ear, Nose and Throat HOD Head of Department LGMSDP Local Government Management and Service Delivery Programme MoES Ministry of Education and Sports NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations PLE Primary Leaving Examination PTCs Primary Teacher Colleges PWD Persons with Disabilities SFG Schools Facilities Grants SNE Special Needs Education SNEO Special Need Education Officer UPE Universal Primary Education URDT Uganda Rural Development and Training
  7. 7. 7Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. FOREWORD Equitable access to education and social services is the right of every individual. Children withdisabilitieshavearighttoaccesssocialservicesincludingeducation.TheGovernment of Uganda designed a number of polices to ensure that children with disabilities can access education .These polices include: Uganda National Institute of Special Education Act, 1995 which instituted Special Needs Education (SNE), the Constitution of Uganda (1995) and the Persons With Disability Act (2006).SNE was designed as an affirmative action to facilitate educational approaches and programmes specially designed for persons with special learning needs. In spite of the existence of an elaborate institutional and legal framework to cater for the realization of the right to education for children with special needs, implementation of these policies is still a challenge. Only 0.33% of the education sector budget was allocated to the financing to the Special Needs Education in Uganda from 2010/11 to 2012/13, and yet the Persons With Disability Act (2006) stipulates that not less than 10% of all educational expenditure should be allocated to the needs of Persons with Disability (PWDs).According to the National Development Plan (NDP), 10% of children in school have special needs and their access to special needs is hampered by limited technical, human, financial and physical public resources.Lack of adequate funding to SNE deprives children with special needs of their right to education, and consequently increasing their susceptibility to poverty. In an effort to effectively engage the Government of Uganda on the need for increased financing of SNE in Uganda, CSBAG piloted a study in 3 districts namely: Agago, Abim and Kibaale; with the purpose of examining the level of financing of SNE ,tracking the utilization of SNE funds over the last three years and the level of SNE beneficiary satisfaction .In this report, CSBAGhighlights the challenges faced in the provision of SNE and makes appropriate recommendations on how to improve SNE in Uganda.Some of these recommendations include :increasing the resource allocation of Special Needs Education upto 10% as stipulated in the Persons With Disability Act (2006);recruitment of 2 SNE officers in each district; increased motivation for SNE teachers; increased training of SNE specialized teachers to ensure effective delivery of SNE;intensified monitoring and supervision of SNE schools and infrastructure in districts; and sensitization of stakeholders on their roles regarding promotion of SNE. CSBAG hopes that the recommendations highlighted in this report will be adopted by the Government to enable improvement in the financing and performance of Special Needs Education in Uganda. Julius Mukunda CSBAG Coordinator
  8. 8. 8 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Its unfair that iam going to miss exams because we don’t have roads and good transport systems
  9. 9. 9Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As part of the broader goal of fostering budget transparency, the Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group1 (CSBAG) commissioned a study to track the flow and utilization of special needs Education resources in 3 districts of Kibaale, Abim and Agago. The overarching goal of the study was to generate evidence to inform efforts of enhancing accountability and efficiency of public resource utilization in Uganda. Thestudyisinresponsetovariouschallengesthatareexperiencedbyspecialneedslearners in trying to attain education services in the various schools of Uganda. Whilst the international and national policy and legal frameworks provide enabling environments for these learners to attain education without being discriminated against, various studies cite implementation gaps. framework for the delivery of special needs education and analyses budget allocations for special needs education at national and local level with a focus on 3 districts of Abim, Agago and Kibaale. It also assesses the beneficiary satisfaction of special needs education. KEY STUDY FINDINGS: 1. Despite the existence of an extensive and elaborate policy framework for the realisation of the right to education for persons with disabilities like the Uganda Constitution and the Disability Act (2006), the existence of such policies and laws has however, not guaranteed better access to quality education for children with special needs. Implementation of these policies and laws is not fully supported by the required technical, human, financial and physical resources. Where it happens, it is done in an adhoc and uncoordinated manner. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The major objective of the study was to track the utilization of special needs educxation funds in the three selected districts. The study sought to address the following: 1. The institutional set up and policy frameworks for special needs education in Uganda and how this influences effective service delivery on special needs education in Uganda. 2. Special needs education programme interventions and strategies that have been implemented over the last 3 years. 3. Criterion used to determine allocation of resources for special needs education at district level. 4. Performance and financing of special needs education and the level of beneficiary satisfaction. The study documents the international and national legal and institutional 1 Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG) is a coalition formed in 2004 to bring together civil society ac- tors at national and district Levels to influence Government decisions on resources mobilization and utilization for equitable, gender responsive and sustainable development
  10. 10. 10 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 2. Institutional framework – Only Kibaale among the study districts had filled the position of Special Needs Education Officer. In Abim and Agago districts,thepositionsofSpecialNeeds Education Officers were still vacant. Similarly, within the Department of Special Needs Education at Ministry Level, two (2) senior positions (for Inclusive Education and Special Needs) were vacant. Lack of adequate staff has constrained effective delivery of SN&IE as was evident in Abim and Agago. 3. Financing Special Needs Education; when compared to the entire Education sector budget, Special Needs and Inclusive Education has from 2010/11 to 2012/13, received only 0.33 percent. Specifically for FY 2013/14, the Department of Special Needs, Guidance and Counselling is set to receive the least budget share of Ug. Shs 2.1 bn in FY 2013/14. Out of this, only Ug. shs 1.2 bn is to set spent on Special Needs and Inclusive Education. The rest is to be for guidance and counselling. The current proportions are far below the recommended 10% as stipulated in the Disability Act (2006). 4. Mainstreaming SNE into LG plans; with the exception of Kibaale, Local Governments in the study districts did not have plans that are specific to special needs education. This was attributed to the lack of knowledge about Special Needs and Inclusive Education and the available policies and the role of different actors. 5. Lessgirlsthanboyswithspecialneeds access education- three quarters i.e. (75%) of the interviewed households that have children with impairments send their children to school and about a quarter (24.6%) are not in school. Abim district had the least
  11. 11. 11Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. number totalling to 427 (61.6% male and 38.4% females) of children with special needs attending primary school. It is important however to note that whereas majority of children with special needs were reportedly attending school, the study further reveals a developing pattern of a significant reduction in numbers of pupils with special needs staying and completing upper primary (P6-P7) education. 6. Teachers trained but not deployed– whileanumberofteachersinthethree study districts received specialized training in Special Needs and Inclusive Education, with support from the now ended DANIDA-EARS project, in Agago and Abim none of the trained teachers are involved in the delivery of SN&IE. In Kibaale, only 10 of the trained 70 teachers are posted within the special needs schools in the district. This was attributed to the lack of teaching materials, low motivation and lack of follow-up. 7. Inclusive education not inclusive enough – while the policy emphasizes inclusive education for learners with special needs, this is not backed up by adequatefacilitationandprogramming to facilitate learning of children with special needs. No remedial classes are offered. The inclusive schools visited, had only one form of support provided to children with learning needs and that was making them take the front seats during class. This was found wanting in terms of providing a conducive learning environment for learners which accounts for the high drop out among children with special learning needs. 1. Increase resource allocation for Special Needs and Inclusive Education to the required 10% of the Ministry budget as per the Disability Act (2006) particularly to be spent on provision of subvention grants to schools. 2. Government should create a budget line within the Universal Primary Education Capitation grant for purchase of specialized equipment, facilities and materials for children with disabilities. In addition, the School Facilities Grant should be flexible to include construction of needed infrastructure for Special Needs Education in inclusive schools 3. For ease of monitoring and tracking resources, the ministry should split the vote functions of (i) special needs (ii) guidance and counselling. 4. There is need to ensure that all district local governments recruit Special Needs and Inclusive Education officers 5. The remuneration of Special Needs and Inclusive Education teachers should be improved for motivation and increased retention. 6. Strengthen the teaching force through training additional Special Needs and Inclusive Education teachers. The study proposes the following recommendations; ACTIONS FOR POLICY MAKERS
  12. 12. 12 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 7. Develop a basic sign language chart and make this a requirement for all inclusive schools to have. This is aimed at providing a conducive environment for inclusion. 8. Revise the curriculum of PTCs to provide for specialisation as opposed to the generalised training in Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 9. There is need for a policy guideline to provide for a percentage spending of the local government education budget on Special Needs and Inclusive Education. ACTIONS FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS 1. (Create awareness on Special Needs and Inclusive Education) – civil society should support Government to sensitize communities on the rights to education for persons with disabilities and the available services. This will help to reduce the negative attitudes towards children with disabilities and increase the number of children with leaning needs accessing education. 2. Mobilize citizens to monitor and track resources allocated to special needs education. 3. Strengthen advocacy for increased resource allocation to special needs education for the benefit of the children with disability.
  13. 13. 13Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 1.0 INTRODUCTION SpecialNeedsEducation(SNE)isanaffirmativeactiondesignedtofacilitateeducationalapproaches and programmes specially designed to meet the needs of persons having special learning needs (Uganda National Institute of Special Education Act, 1995). The Uganda’s National Development Plan (NDP), 2010/11-2014/15notes that 10% of school going age children in Uganda have special needs thus requiring Special Needs Education. This is further emphasized in the Ministry of Education and Sports’ (MoES) Education Sector Strategic Plan 2004-20153 (revised 2010-2015) which recognizes the existence of children throughout the country with special learning needs. The causes of these needs is twofold: arising out of individual impairments in hearing, vision, mobility, or other multiple disabilities and due to factors external to the individual related to teaching methods and or instructional materials. 3 Government of Uganda National Development Plan (2010/11-2014/15): A Transformed Ugandan Society from a Peasant to a Modern and Prosperous Country within 30 Years. 4 Ministry of Education and Sports, Uganda (2005) Education Sector Strategic Plan 2004-2015 , Kampala, Uganda, Ministry of Education Through the NDP, Government is keen to build a knowledgeable and skilled population through provision of relevant information and skills to improve their quality of life, respond to development challenges and compete nationally, regionally, and internationally. Furthermore, the Education Sector Strategic Plan commits Government to conduct regular assessment of services to children with special needs, implement a policy of inclusive education as well as build special schools for children with severe disabilities.4 Over the last five years, CSOs in Uganda under the Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CS-BAG) have been engaging in influencing the budget process and to ensure that both the local and national budget incorporates the views of the poor and marginalized people and that budgets are pro-poor, gender sensitive and sustainable. CSBAG commissioned this study to inform its advocacy work and ensure that marginalised groups of people such as persons with disabilities in Uganda (women and men, boys and girls) benefit from the Special Needs Education (SNE) Programme. THE STUDY HAD THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES; 1. To examine the institutional and policy frameworks for SNE programming in Uganda. 2. To examine the financial estimates and actual flow of SNE resources and establish the extent to which they reached the primary beneficiaries in the 3 districts.
  14. 14. 14 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 3. To examine the role of duty bearers and right holders and the accountability mechanisms at different levels (national, local governments and community levels) in ensuring effective service delivery. 4. To assess the nature and degree of beneficiary satisfaction with the SNE program implementation in their localities. SPECIFICALLY, THE TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN INCLUDED THE
  15. 15. 15Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. In addition to the literature review, the team conducted field visits to Abim, Agago and Kibaale districts and held discussions with a range of stakeholders including local government technical officials at district and sub-county level, politicians, teachers and Head teachers at school level, officials working for organizations with disability related programmes, parents of children with various impairments and selected community members. As this was a case study supported by limited financial andtimeresources,thestudydid not seek for representativeness in terms of number of districts covered but rather focused on 3 districts for an in-depth understanding of the subject matter. 2.0 METHODOLOGY The study adopted a Q2 methodology involving the use of both qualitative and quantitative tools. Among the qualitative methods used included an extensive document review of laws, policies and frameworks for special needs education and the education sector and local government budgets from 2008/9 to date. These were complemented by key informant interviews, group discussions, and community meetings. The quantitative tools on the other hand included a household survey to capture beneficiary views and satisfaction about the implementation of the special needs education. Document Review: The study conducted a detailed desk review ofrelevant literature on the international, regionaland national laws, policies and frameworks onSpecial Needs and Inclusive Education. Theseincluded among others; The Persons with DisabilityAct (2006) and Decentralization Act (1997);investment and district development plans such as,the Education Sector Investment Plan (2010-2015),Abim, Agago and Kibaale districts Local GovernmentDevelopment Plans and Budgets (2010-2015); Thepurpose of reviewing these documents was tolocate special needs education in existent policies,laws and frameworks and thus based on this beable to assess the extent to which it has beenmainstreamed within the operational activities,planning, budgeting and actual implementation atnational, district and sub-county levels. The studyalso reviewed previous studies and performancereports on special needs education to establishthe body of knowledge available on special needseducation in Uganda.
  16. 16. 16 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 2.1.1 National Consultations Guided by a semi-structured interview guide, the national level consultations were held with various key informants that included; staff in the Ministry of Education and Sports, outgoing Head of Department Faculty of Special Needs and Rehabilitation, Kyambogo University; working in the area of special needs education.Thenationallevelconsultations were complemented with a document review of relevant policies, Acts, Sector Policies and Budgets among others. 2.2.2 Selection of Research Sites The study selected 3 districts of Agago, Abim and Kibaale District, selection was purposively conducted to ensure a sub-regional representation. Agago was selected to represent the Northern region, Abim for the Karamoja region and Kibaale for the Western region. The study did not cover all the regions of the country due to logistical limitations. CSBAG is confident however that the findings from the 3 regions will inform discussions on refocusing special needs education nationally. In each of the study districts, 2 sub- counties were randomly selected. In each sub-county, at least one school was visited to assess available resources for special needs education at school, planning and actual delivery of special needs education. Selection criteria of schools varied by district, in Agago, these were randomly selected. This was done by the researchers with the help of the District Education Officer this approach was favoured because none of the schools in the district/sub-county had a trained teacher in special needs education. In Abim, the schools were purposively selected because a number of teachers in Abim had been previously trained as specialised Special Needs Education teachers and posted to various schools. To adequately track benefits of these trainings and to assess how these teachers were supporting the delivery of special needs education, schools selected were those where the trained teachers had been posted. In Kibaale the focus was on the special units for Special Needs Education. Below is a presentation of the study sites: 2.1 DETAILED METHODOLOGY
  17. 17. 17Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 3.0 SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN UGANDA: CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND The Uganda National Household Survey of 2009/2010 estimates that 16% of the total population lives with some form of disabilities. Review of literature indicates that children with disabilities are often excluded from enjoying mainstream services available to all Ugandans. A report by the Uganda Society for Disabled Children (2011) indicates that 90% of the children with disabilities do not access and or enjoy their rights to survival, development, protection and participation. Similarly, UNICEF (2012) Annual Report states that only 5% of the children with disabilities are able to access education within an inclusive setting of the regular schools whereas 10% access education through special schools and annexes6. Table 1: Distribution of population aged 5 years and above by degree of difficulty according to functional domain (%) Source UNHS 2009/10 3.1 DISABILITY WITHIN THE STUDY DISTRICTS 6 http://www.unicef.org/uganda/Fast_Facts_Uganda_Day_of_the_African_Child_.pdf accessed on 7th August 2013 Across the study districts, physical disability was the most commonly reported form of disability reported at 47 percent,itwascloselyfollowedbyhearing impairment reported at 32 per cent and blindness reported at 11 per cent. Figure 1 below details the different forms of disability within the study districts.
  18. 18. 18 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Figure 1: Types of disabilities within study districts Source: Calculated from household questionnaires administered in the study districts The study found that 75% of the total number of children having the above impairments, attend school while 25 per cent do not attend school. (See figure 2 below). The number of children with learning disabilities that attend school was highest in Kibaale largely due to the existence of specialized schools and a deliberate community sensitization campaign. Figure 2: School attendance by children with disabilities in the study districts Source: Calculated from the questionnaires administered in the study districts
  19. 19. 19Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. A more detailed aggregate statistics from the MoES indicates that in the three study districts, 6,362 children with special needs are in school. This analysis proves that indeed a significant number of children with disabilities are attending school. In the later sections of this report, CSBAG discusses the types of schools these children attend i.e. both inclusive and special schools, an analysis is done on whether beyond attending school, the childrenareprovidedanequalopportunity to learn like all other children. 3.2 HISTORY OF SNE IN UGANDA Special Needs Education (SNE) in Uganda can be traced from the 1950’s when separate ‘Special Schools’ were constructed by the Colonial Government to provide education for children with visual, hearing, learning and motor impairments. This was because many children and youth with disabilities were not benefiting from the available educational services at the time and until the 1990’s SNE was provided only within these “Special Schools”. In 1991, an Act of Parliament mandated the Uganda National Institute of Special Education, (UNISE) now Faculty of Special Needs and Rehabilitation, Kyambogo University to train special needs education teachers, a move that set the stage for a wider strategy of responding to special needs education in Uganda. This was later followed by the passing of a policy in 1992 on ‘Education for National Integration and Development. This policy provided for inclusive education that encouraged children with learning disabilities to be taught within the same environment with the “normal” children to eliminate discrimination and promote inclusion. To date, this is the model promoted among all schools, particularly those under the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme. This however did not replace the special schools for persons with learning difficulties as the two approaches are being used by government. Between 1997-1998, DANIDA implemented a country wide Education Assessment Resource Services (EARS) project which supported training of Special Needs Some of the special schools constructed within thisperiod include; a) Ntinda School for the Deaf (Kampala) b) Kireka School for the Mentally Handicapped(Wakiso) c) Mulago School for the Deaf (Kampala) d) Masindi Centre for the Handicapped (Masindi) e) St. Mark Seventh Day school for the Deaf inBwanda (Masaka) f) Nancy school for the Deaf (Lira) g) Ngora school for the Deaf (Ngora) h) St. Francis school for the Blind (Soroti) i) Salama school for the Blind (Buikwe)
  20. 20. 20 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Education teachers, provided materials and supported the establishment of special units within various schools to coordinate the implementation of Special Needs Education in Uganda. Kibaale district was a beneficiary of this program and three schools i.e. Bishop Rwakaikara Primary School, St. Theresa Primary School and St. Kizito Primary school, Kakumiro, were constructed in Kibaale District. In Abim a unit for Special Needs Education was meant to be established at Abim Primary School but until today this has never taken off. The Government of Uganda in 1997 enacted the Decentralization Act and provision of education services was assignedtothedistricts.Aspecificposition for Education Officer-Special Needs was created within the various district structures whose responsibility was to coordinate assessment, provision and monitoring of Special Needs Education at local government level (including districts and sub-countries). Again in 1999, DANIDA spearheaded the creation of the Special Needs Education Department within the Ministry of Education and Sports. By 2005, a component of Special Needs had been integrated as part of the training curriculum for Primary Teacher Colleges (PTCs). All teachers trained at PTCs from then until today are required to receive training on special needs education. Likewise, instructional materials for visual, hearing, sight, physical, and other impairments were procured and supplied to various schools in the then 45 districts of Uganda. All the districts had a motor vehicle to coordinate Special Needs Education activities although very few if any remain functional. The Ministry of Education and Sports carried out several reforms in the period 2006-2012 and these included: • The formulation and approval of the Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy by the Ministry’s top management in 2011, this Policy is yet to be tabled before Parliament and Cabinet for approval before it can be implemented. • Creation of the Special Needs Education Department headed by a Commissioner for Special Needs Educationwasanotherreform.The SNE department was created with two sub divisions of Inclusive and Non-Formal Education and Special Needs Education. Each is headed by an Assistant Commissioner. In addition two (2) positions of Principal Education Officers with one in charge of Inclusive Education and another for Special Education were established and an additional three (3) Senior Education Officers in charge of Non-Formal Education, Inclusive Education and Special Education were established respectively. • In addition, two (2) other positions of Education Officers for inclusive education and special education were also created. At the time of the study, the department had two (2) vacant Senior Education Officer Positions for Inclusive Education and Special Education. • Other statutory bodies such as the Uganda National Examinations
  21. 21. 21Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Board (UNEB) also embraced the need for an inclusive environment and created 2 positions to cater for special needs services. There are 2 officers in UNEB who are directly responsible for special needs in Primary and Secondary Schools respectively to ensure that examinations for children with special needs are provided in the mostappropriatemeansinrelation to their needs. Similarly, the National Curriculum Development Centre also appointed 2 officers for special needs education. 3.3 MODELS OF DELIVERING SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION The Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy (2011) provides for a number of approaches for delivering SNE namely; Home based care programs, special schools where children with particularly severe and multiple impairments receive specialized support in methodology, instructional materials and assistive devices; Units/Annexes where children are integrated within regular schools but targeting learners with particular disabilities and inclusive schools where children with special needs (not necessarily having specific disabilities) study with other children. It is important to note that among these, emphasis has been placed on promoting inclusive education and to realise this, the ministry pledges to ensure that all initiatives and provisions for affirmative action for children with learning needs shall be put in place. Among the study districts, only Kibaale and Abim have inclusive schools. There are neither home based care programs nor units/annexes for children with Learning Needs. In Kibaale, there are both inclusive schools and special units/annexes that cater for special learning needs of children with disabilities. Kibaale district has three SNE centres i.e. Theresa Bujuni Primary school, Bishop Rwakaikara Primary School and St. Kizito Primary School and because of this, the district has the highest number of SNE primary pupils among the three districts coveredunderthisstudy.The2011Uganda Education Statistical abstract indicated that in 2011, the district had over 1000 children in primary one. Of all the special needs children in primary one, 55.6% of these were male while the rest were female. Overall, the district was found to have 4,219 special needs children, of which 51.5% were male and 49.5% were female. Agago district had 1,716 special pupils of which 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female. Abim district had the least number of special needs children with only 427 pupils of which about 61.6% were male and the rest were female. As already stated before, with the exception of Kibaale that has special units for children with special needs, in Abim and Agago districts, all children with special needs indicated as attending school do so in inclusive school arrangement.
  22. 22. 22 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 3: Number of special needs children District Total number of special children Male (%) Female (%) Agago 1,716 48.4% 51.6% Kibaale 4,219 51.5% 49.5% Abim 427 61.6% Figure 3 below shows that while many children enrol in primary one, there is a clear pattern that the number enrolled per class reduces significantly from class to class. There were many children in lower classes (P1-P5) while the number in upper primary (Primary six and seven) was significantly low. A number of factors accounted for the drop out including the lack of trained teachers in SNE, lack of facilities, negative attitudes by parents, teachers and society towards children requiring special needs education. With the exception of Kibaale which has special units, the districts of Abim and Agago, had no additional support provided to children with learning disabilities, the expectation from the teachers is that children with learning difficulties would easily fit within the existent environment and facilities and when this does not happen, the children consequently drop out of school. Figure 3: Class distribution of Children with special Learning needs in the study districts Source: Authors’ extraction from the Education statistics abstract 2011
  23. 23. 23Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 4.0 THE LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION This section contains the existent international, regional and national legal and policy frameworks and the extent to which these have been implemented. 4.1 INTERNATIONAL LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS Special Needs Education is drawn from the fundamental right of every child to education that is proclaimed in a number of international instruments to which Uganda is a signatory. These instruments include; the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (1994); United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) and the African (Banjul) Charter on Human Rights and People’ Rights (1986). Table 3: International instruments guaranteeing the right to SNE Convention Commitment in relation to SNE Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Provides for the right of every child to education The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) Article 2 of the CRC provides an explicit obligation on governments to ensuretherealizationofallrightstoeverychildwithoutdiscrimination, including on grounds of disability. In addition, Article 23 specifically addresses the right of children with disabilities to assistance to ensure that they are able to access education in a manner that promotes their social inclusion. The World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs (1990) Provides that every person, child, youth and adult shall be able to benefit from Educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (1994) Ratifying countries agree to provide inclusive education for all children with particular focus on children with special educational needs. Specifically provides for the right of all children, including those with temporary and permanent needs for educational adjustments to attend school, the right of all children to attend school in their home communities in inclusive classes, the right of all children to participate in a child-centered education meeting individual needs and the right of all children to participate in quality education that is meaningful for each individual.
  24. 24. 24 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) Re-affirms the right of people with disabilities to inclusive education, at all levels, without discrimination and on the basis of equality of opportunity. It specifically calls on states to ensure that children with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system and can access inclusive, quality and free primary and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the communities in which they live; are provided with reasonable accommodation of their needs; receive the support they need within the general education system and are provided with individualized support measures, consistent with full inclusion. African Charter on the Rights & Welfare of the Children (1990) Provides in Article 11 that Every child shall have the right to an education. Uganda is a signatory to all these conventions and is thus bound to ensure that it protects and guarantees the rights of persons with disabilities. A number of actions have been undertaken to implement these commitments and these include; a) The Special Needs and Inclusive Education Department within the Ministry of Education and Sports mandated to deliver Special Needs & Inclusive Education services in a coordinated and adequately resourced manner. b) The Persons with Disabilities Act (2006) which integrated a number of the commitments and also provided a framework for increasing access, equity and quality of education for children with disabilities. This and other national policies are discussed below. 4.2 NATIONAL LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS At the national level, the special Needs Education (SNE) program is anchored in the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda (1995), the Education White Paper (1992), Disability Act (2006), Children’s’ Act (2006), the National Development Plan (2010/11-2014/15), the Special Needs and Inclusive Education policy (2011) among others.
  25. 25. 25Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 4: National laws and policies Law/policy framework Description of commitments The Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, 1995 • Article 30 provides for the right to education for all persons. • Similarly, the Principals and Objectives of State Directive XVIII states that (i) The State shall promote free and compulsory basic education, (ii) The State shall take appropriate measures to afford every citizen equal opportunity to attain the highest educational standard possible. • Objective (xxiv) provides for the provision for sign language for the deaf. • Article21 (2) provides that a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of disability and Article 32(10) empowers the state to take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalized on the basis of disability. The White Paper on Education (1992) The White Paper was an outcome of the Education Review Commission, chaired by Prof. Senteza William Kajubi which sought to provide solutions to the education sector. The White Paper recommended for the adoption of education as a human right and recommended for free universal education in Uganda. It is from this White Paper that UPE, USE and other education policy reforms were shaped. The Disability Act (2006) • Section 5, states that government shall promote the educational development of persons with disabilities. • Article iv section 21 (1) stipulates that the government shall hold duty and responsibility to promote the rights of people with special needs to access information through; the development and use of sign language; tactile, sign language interpreters in all public institutions and at public functions, brailing of public documents information such as government documents, government newspapers and other publications should be availed. • Similarly, it provides that 10%of the education budget shall be allocated to support Special Needs Education.
  26. 26. 26 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. The Children Statute 2006 • This Act operationalizes the Constitution regarding the protection of children. It provides that all children must have access to education and places responsibility on the state to ensure that all children attend school. • Section 10 focuses on children with disabilities and states that parents of children with disabilities and the state shall provide facilities for rehabilitation and equal opportunities to education; • Section 11 (5) provides that Local Government Councils shall keep a register of the disabled within its area of jurisdiction. Education (pre-primary, primary and post-primary) Act, 2008 This Act states that “basic education shall be provided and enjoyed as a right by all persons”. The Business, Technical, Vocational Education and Training (BTVET) Act, No. 12, 2008 This Act seeks to promote equitable access to education and training for all disadvantaged groups, including disabled people. Under the BTVET Act, Government put in place a rehabilitation and resettlement scheme that includes vocational rehabilitation services, sheltered workshops that focus on employable skills training and orthopaedic workshops for provision of assistive devices to PWDs. The National Development Plan (NDP) 2010/11-2014/15 The NDP commits to increasing access and equity of primary education for girls and boys at all levels of education. To do so, Government proposes a range of interventions, including; a) Development of a policy framework and other related policies, plans and guidelines; b) Advocating and creating awareness through development of an advocacy strategy for SNE, sensitization of stakeholders and enhancing their participation; c) Building capacity for SNE through reviewing of various curricular to integrate SNE issues; enhancing training of SNE teachers, head teachers and the community and improving community interest and participation.
  27. 27. 27Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. The Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy (2011) The specific objectives of the policy include; increase enrolment, participation and completion of schooling by persons with special learning needs;strengthenandsystematizeinitiatives/programsonSNEandenhance participation of stakeholders in the management and implementation of SNE programs in Uganda. To achieve this, the policy provides for the following; • Provision of specialised instructional materials equipment and services; specifically, the state commits to provide tax exemptions for all specialised materials/equipment procured for SN&IE • Provision of equitable access to SN&IE services; the policy shall require and provide for user-friendly facilities and infrastructures in all schools. • Strengthen establishments, structures and systems for providing SN&IE • Provision of specialised support services • Uphold and develop affirmative provisions for persons with special learning needs/disabilities Similarly, the focus of delivering special needs education has been towards encouraging inclusive education through integration with learners in normal schools. This notwithstanding, only five per cent of children with disabilities are able to access education within inclusive setting in the regular schools while 10 per cent access education through special schools and annexes’ (UNICEF 2012: 1). As government promotes inclusive schools over special schools, enforcement of standards as spelt out in the laws to provide an enabling environment to integrate children with special needs has been weak. For example, physical structures including the walkways, toilets, corridors are not accessible, and special educational equipment such as Braille machines, sign language facilities and hearing aids are not available in most schools. Despite the proclamation of the right to access special needs education and for specific attention to children with learning Policy Review: The review of the Policy and LegalFramework indicates that Uganda hasa very good legal framework protectingthe right to education for all andparticularly children with special needs.This is guaranteed in the 1995 UgandaConstitution, and national policies andspecific Acts of Parliament. Existence ofthese laws however has not translatedinto increased opportunities forchildren with special learning needs.For example, sign language for thedeaf is not in all public places includingschools as provided by the Constitution,special needs department is amongthe least funded within the Ministry ofEducation and Sports, as later discussedin this report, allocations for specialneeds have never exceeded 0.5% of theMinistry of Education budget contraryto the required 10% according to theDisability Act (2006).
  28. 28. 28 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. needs, state investment in meeting the educational and learning needs of persons with disabilities has been low, and substituted by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). DANIDA has been the largest funder of special needs education under the EARS project but since it phased out, the infrastructure and facilities have never been replaced. SNE remains at an embryonic stage because rights as stipulated in the policies and legislation have not been translated into practical entitlements.
  29. 29. 29Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 5.0 THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION IN UGANDA 5.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AT NATIONAL LEVEL Ministry of Education & Sports has a Department responsible for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. The department is mandated to deliver Special Needs and Inclusive Education services in a coordinated and adequately resourced manner. The specific objectives of the department include; a) To increased enrolment, participation and completion of schooling by persons with special learning needs.  b) To strengthen and systematize existing initiatives/programs on SN&IE. c) To enhance participation of stakeholders in the management and implementation of SN&IE programs in Uganda. d) To promote sporting programs for learners with special learning needs. Furthermore, the department provides policy and program oversight, support monitoring and supervision of implementation at local government level as well ensure adequate budgeting for special needs education. In addition to the Department of Special Needs and Inclusive Education, special needs education has been integrated into other structures in semi-autonomous units to support delivery of special needs education. For example, the Uganda National Examinations Board has 2 officers for special needs education. Their role is to ensure that examinations for learners with special needs are provided in a suitable and convenient manner. Similarly, the National Curriculum Development Centre has recruited 2 officers for special needs education to provide space for integration of special needs into the curriculum development process. In inspection, the EducationStandardsAgencyhas2regional officers to monitor standards in relation to delivery of special needs education. These structures and the department within the Ministry of Education are complemented by structures at local government level as discussed below. 5.2 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AT LOCAL GOVERNMENT LEVEL The Local Government Act (LGA) 1997 and the structures provided by the Public Service Commission provides for 2 Special Needs Education Officers in charge of the special needs in the Local Government’s Education Department. These officers collaborate with the Community Development office and Councillors to ensure that children with special needs access education.
  30. 30. 30 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Whereas the Special Needs and Inclusive Education Department at the Ministry level are fairly well resourced, at Local Government level, staffing is one of the biggest challenges for special needs education. Only Kibaale has a Special NeedsEducationOfficer.Theotherdistricts of Agago and Abim, have never recruited persons to fill these positions since the creation of the 2 districts. As noted above, in these 2 districts, responsibility for implementation of Special Needs and Inclusive Education has been delegated to the District Education Officers and District Inspector of Schools. The study noted that a number of structures at district level do play a part in supporting delivery of special needs education. Among these include the following; Table 5: Stakeholders involved in delivery of SN&IE at local level Stakeholder Roles DEO/DIS • Contact points between schools and MOEs • Advises teachers to encourage children with special needs to participate in sports • Advocates for increased budget allocations to SNE department • Sensitizes community and encourages parents to send children with special needs to schools SNE officer • Provide supervision, technical guidance and coordination between school and the District Education Officer • Responsible for planning in consultation with teachers and other officers • Monitors service delivery in the district • Supervises SNE units • Identifies persons with special needs in the district and places them in a SNE unit • Follow up on wages for support staff at the district PTC • Tutors (CCT) coordinate schools in a district. They are zoned and report to the PTC and DIS CDOs • Mobilize and identify children with disabilities at lower Local Government level. • Plan, implement and monitor Government Programs at sub county level. Disability desk • Mobilizes parents to send children with special learning needs to schools. Sub County Councillors • Responsible for children welfare
  31. 31. 31Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Sub county CDOs • Supports 12 vulnerable children (orphans, HIV infected, Hopelessness) with school fees • Mobilizes parents to send the children with special needs to UPE school and SNE units in districts • Advises head teachers to identify SNE children and refer them to Bishop Rwakaikara primary school. • Sensitizes community about existing SNE programs although not facilitated • Participates in monitoring schools but is un aware of SNE indicators to monitor or inspect • Advises head teachers to identify children with special needs and refer them to schools Duetolackofpriortraining,thestudynotedthatinpracticalterms,theDistrictEducationOfficersand District Inspector of Schools are only involved in attaining the number of children with impairments in the various schools and liaising with UNEB to ensure that their examinations are set. This partly explains the ‘absence’ of a clear focus for special needs education in Agago and Abim compared to Kibaale. Unlike in Abim and Agago, Kibaale receives significant support from a number of NGOs who are supporting various initiatives to promote special needs education. These are profiled in Box 1. None of the NGOs operating in Abim and Agago implements programs on special needs education. Part of the reason cited was that NGOs in Abim and Agago mainly focus on relief, rehabilitation programs given that both districts are just recovering from a 20 year civil conflict. Box 1: NGOS supporting Special Needs Education in Kibaale District Sight Savers International (SSI); Operated in Kibaale district in 2004-2011. It focused on children with visual impairment. SSI specifically provided bicycles to teachers, provided Braille machines, walking sticks/white canes, supportive learning materials, talking computers, Braille papers and Braille text books. They also built capacity of teachers to handle visually impaired and blind learners. On a quarterly basis, SSI provided support to St. Theresa Bujuni Primary Boy’s School basing on SNE needs identified. SSI also constructed a resource room at Bujuni primary school and stocked it with desks and lockers and sign language dictionary, selected 2 teachers from each school and equipped them with skills to be able to identify and place children with visual impairments in schools and provided bicycles to teachers that mobilized children that had visual impairment. The Church through the Bible Society donated 3 brailed bibles for blind children in St Thereza Bujuni primary school. The Catholic church owns a health centre at grade 3 and provides treatment to children with special needs at Bujuni Primary School, provided financial assistance to SNE unit in 2009, provided wooden beds for dormitory for children with special learning needs that was contracted by the government although before construction of the same dormitory, the church provided accommodation to children with special learning needs at its premises.
  32. 32. 32 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Kagadi hospital; this treats children with special needs at Bishop Rwakaikara primary school and also has an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) specialist who conducts routine screening for children with special needs. Bunyoro Kitara Diocese created awareness about SNE unit, initiated vocational training, constructed 2 class rooms for Bishop Rwakaikara primary school and a barbed wire fence. EMESSO Development Foundation donated a water tank in 2011, and a hand washing facility in 2013. Bishop Rwakaikara primary school supplied wheel chairs to physically impaired children in 2011. Uganda Rural Development and Training Centre donated a water tank in 2011, provided beans and maize in 2008/09, provided airtime and worked closely with Kagadi- Kibale community radio to create awareness on disability (every Wednesday) and do mobilization and sensitization for development programmes targeting people with disabilities. World Vision International currently works with hired SNE instructors to train teachers responsible for SNE in 8 sub counties of Kibaale district. Source: From the field study interviews conducted in Kibaale District By and large, the institutional framework for delivery of special needs education looks impressive on paper but is non- functional at district level. The actual impact on the ground is limited due to a number of factors including the following; a) Two out of the three study districts have not recruited SNE officers, b) Position for Senior Education Officer for Inclusive Education and Special Education atMinistrylevelarevacant c) The available institutions lack facilitation to plan, deliver and monitor SNE. The district and sub county technical staff reported that they have limited support from the sector ministry in terms of sensitization on SNE, and limited funding to enable the districts recruit the required staff. d) With the exception of Kibaale district which has a functional system the other districts are not aware of their roles regarding SNE. In Agago and Abim districts, apart from the DEO and DIS, all the other stakeholders were unaware of their roles in relation to the delivery of special needs education. e) Presence of NGOs supporting special needs education is only limited to Kibaale.
  33. 33. 33Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Figure 6: National Stakeholders involved in the delivery of Special Needs Education Ministry of and Sports Department of Special Needs Asst. Commissioner, Inclusive and Non- Formal Asst. Commissioner, Special CAO DIS DEO Disability Desk Community /Parents Head Teachers SNE Teachers DCDO Sub County CDOs UNEB District councilors S/C Councillors department Health Assistants, and (LC 1- LC3) PTC/CCT
  34. 34. 34 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 6.0 PLANNING AND BUDGETING FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION This section of the report presents an analysis of the education sector budget and its expenditures on SNE over the last 3 years, including a discussion on allocation criteria of resources for SNE at district level and a presentation of beneficiary satisfaction with implementation of SNE. 6.1 PLANNING The study sought to assess the extent to which planning for SNE is integrated into the local government planning processes. Findings in this regard varied across the study districts. In Abim and Agago, it was noted that SNE did not feature at all in all the local governments and sub-county developmentplans.Astheplanningprocess is bottom-up with priorities emanating from the communities, the study findings
  35. 35. 35Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. revealed that the communities during their planning processes were not aware about the right to SNE and therefore did not think it was prudent to demand for it from local and central government. Similarly, it was noted that because there are no SNE officers recruited yet, Abim and Agago had no one to push for SNE within the planning process. Specifically in Kibaale, unlike Abim and Agago, the review of the local government and sub-county plans revealed the inclusion of SNE during the planning process and resources are allocated from the local revenue of the district to support implementation of SNE. For example, the Sub-County Development Plans for Kagadi Town Council, Muhoro and Ruteete sub-counties, explicitly mention special needs education among the priority areas of the education sector and defines specific objectives, strategies and expected results. SNE is planned for under the Education Department and particular interventions have been identified to support its implementation. Table 7: Special needs education in the Kibaale DDP (Sector 06: Education and Sports, Subsector 64: Special Needs Education) INTERVENTIONS LG ANNUAL PERFORMANCE Remarks 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Target Achievement Target Achievement Target Achievement Feeding of learners with SN 85 78 110 95 110 95 Identification and placement of learners of SN in units 100 80 110 95 110 95 Construction of SNE dormitory 3 Nil 1 1 1 1 One unit not yet constructed Purchase of beds for children with SN Nil Nil Nil Nil 100 Nil Funds were not received Inspection of SNE units 3 Units 3 Units twice a term 3 Units 3 Units twice a term 3 Units 3 Units twice a term Training of Braille teachers 20 teachers 20 teachers 20 teachers 20 teachers 20 teachers 20 teachers Source; extract from Kibaale DDP 2010/11-2014/14, pg 73 The Special Needs Education officer is part of the District Technical Planning Committee and is consulted during the overall planning for the Education Department. The SNE officer, the District Education Officer, District Inspector of Schools and Community Development Officers in Kibaale identify special needs and inclusive education issues during their field visits and these are further discussed at the department level.
  36. 36. 36 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Budget statistics indicate the actual allocations to the sector increased by 82.9 per cent , from UGX 889.3 billion in 2008/09 to UGX1645.1 billion in 2013/14 though proportion of the budget reduced from 14.8 per cent to 12.7 per cent respectively. In these three years, resources expended at the Ministry of Education at national level increased by 61.4 per cent but reduced in proportion from 27.1 per cent to 23.9 per cent. It is important to put into perspective that some functions of the sector – such as primary and secondary education, are decentralisedtodistrictswhileuniversities operate as semi-autonomous entities that control their own budgets. Locating special needs and inclusive education in the sector budget Unlike UPE and USE, Special Needs Education component is not decentralised to districts and only operates under the Department of Special Needs and Inclusive Education which is located within the Ministry of Education. As a result, budgeting and resource allocation for all activities related to special needs is done and implementation managed by the department and at the ministry level7. Because SN&IE is not decentralised, no budgetary allocations are made to local government for SN&IE even when some of them host schools and or other SN&IE facilities. At local government level, SNE schools receive a subvention grant that is directly sent to the school accounts from the department of SN&IE and the accountability procedure is such that Head Teachers send their accountabilities to the department and do not require approval or involvement of the DEO or local government. At the ministry level, special needs education is budgeted for under Vote Function 0703 – Special Needs Education, Guidance and Counselling. To understand expenditures on special needs education, the study made a distinction between expenditures on special needs education and those of guidance and counselling. Table 6 below shows how special needs education fares with other departments within this sector in terms of budgetary allocations. 6.2 BUDGETING AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION 7 Central ministerial operations refer to operations that are not decentralised to districts. These are operations that are completed from the ministry without making any disbursement or budget function delegated to a district/ local government budget office.
  37. 37. 37Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 8: Comparison of Special needs with other ministry departments Department 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 0701 Pre-Primary and Primary Education 26,225.4 36,454.3 41,009.6 51,353.4 46,956.6 46,088.0 0702 Secondary Education 138,622.7 225,965.9 240,464.4 190,921.1 178,694.5 149,949.7 0703 Special Needs Education, Guidance and Counselling 716.8 1,270.5 2,302.0 2,113.4 2,114.0 2,161.7 Special Needs Education 716.8 480.4 1,301.2 1,209.7 1,209.6 1,209.7 0704 Higher Education 3,703.0 14,609.3 10,883.5 12,106.1 73,956.1 57,035.2 0705 Skills Development 41,991.1 42,022.9 57,994.0 86,810.0 106,314.5 70,312.8 0706 Quality and Standards 18,164.2 19,163.6 24,458.8 25,840.0 29,905.0 43,516.7 0707 Physical Education and Sports 1,790.3 3,443.6 4,030.9 4,260.1 7,756.7 5,275.3 0749 Policy, Planning and Support Services 12,507.9 11,132.3 9,887.8 9,354.0 9,935.3 19,065.0 Ministry of Education and Sports 243,721.4 354,062.6 391,031.1 382,758.0 455,632.7 393,404.5 % of Special Needs 0.29% 0.14% 0.33% 0.32% 0.27% 0.31% Source: Authors’ calculations from Annual Approved Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure 2008/09- 2012/13 As indicated in Table 8, when compared to the other 8 departments in this Ministry, the Special Needs Education, Guidance and Counselling Department was the least funded between FY 2008/9 and FY 2013/14. In FY 2013/14 for example, the department which has 2 distinct expenditures i.e. special needs and guidance and counselling as presented in the table below received a total allocation of Ug. Shs 1.2 bn. Table 9: Disaggregated expenditures between special needs and guidance and counseling   2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 Special needs education 716,780,000 470,440,000 1,301,243,000 1,209,657,000 1,209,647,000 Guidance and counseling 0 790,106,000 1,000,803,000 903,760,000 903,760,000 Department total 716,780,000 1,260,546,000 2,302,046,000 2,113,417,000 2,113,407,000 Source: Authors’ calculations from Annual Approved Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure 2008/09- 2012/13 Table 9 indicates that in FY 2008/9 Ug. Shs 716 million was allocated to SNE, this amount reduced to Ug. Shs 480 million in FY 2009/10 (representing a 34.4%). The reduction was due to a decrease in transfers to SNE schools and lack of budget lines for some items such as educational materials (books and periodicals). However, with the reinstatement of these items in the budget and increase of transfers to schools, allocations in FY 2010/11
  38. 38. 38 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. increased to Ug. Shs 1.3billion an increase of over 176% from the previous year’s budget. However, in FY 2010/11, there was a 7% reduction (UGX 91.6 million) of total allocation to 1.2 billion. This then stagnated over the years to FY 2013/14 This analysis is for only funds allocated to special needs and not guidance and counselling. Special needs as percentage of ministry budget The figure below shows a comparison of Programme 068 with the general ministry level budget. 8 Here,it is assumed that this budget programme is specifically for special needs and further assume that programme Figure 5: Special Needs Education Budgets - 2008/09 - 2013/14 Source: Authors’ calculations from Annual Approved Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure 2008/09- 2012/13 As presented above, in relation to the ministry’s budget, SNE has, from 2010/11 to 2012/13, received only 0.33% of the total ministry budget. These proportions are not anywhere close to a minimum of 10% of the entire sector budget as stipulated in the Disability Act (2006). Where is money allocated for special needs spent? Our analysis indicates that from FY 2010/11, only 53% of the total budget had been allocated to activities that directly benefit children in need of special needs education through scholarships
  39. 39. 39Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 10: Detailed breakdown of Special Needs Education Budget for FY2009/10 - 2012/13 Votes 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 Advocacy, Sensitization and Information Dissemination 35,000,000 358,500,000 344,500,000 344,490,000 Advertising and Public relations   1,500,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 Books, Periodicals and Newspapers   322,000,000 322,000,000 321,990,000 Staff training 35,000,000 35,000,000 21,000,000 21,000,000 Monitoring and Supervision of Special Needs Facilities 189,767,000 149,296,000 89,578,000 89,578,000 Allowances 40,471,000 -     Fuel, lubricants and oils 8,000,000 8,000,000 4,800,000 4,800,000 Maintenance of vehicles 3,000,000 3,000,000 1,800,000 1,800,000 Travel Abroad 15,000,000 15,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000 Travel Inland 123,296,000 123,296,000 73,978,000 73,978,000 Policies, laws, guidelines and strategies 101,700,000 149,474,000 131,607,000 131,606,000 Advertising and Public relations 1,500,000 - - Allowances 40,471,000 24,283,000 24,283,000 Computer supplies and IT services 11,000,000 11,000,000 11,000,000 11,000,000 General Staff salaries 85,000,000 93,803,000 93,804,000 93,803,000 welfare and entertainment 4,200,000 4,200,000 2,520,000 2,520,000 Special Needs Education Services 143,973,000 643,973,000 643,973,000 643,973,000 Scholarships and related costs 10,000,000 10,000,000 10,000,000 10,000,000 Transfer to Schools 133,973,000 633,973,000 633,973,000 633,973,000 Grand Total 470,440,000 1,301,243,000 1,209,658,000 1,209,647,000 and transfers to schools, captured under special needs education services. The rest of the budget is retained at the head quarters to cater for activities such as advocacy and sensitisation, monitoring and development of policies. Also to note is that there is a bigger proportion of the budget that is allocated to special needs education schools and procurement of books periodicals and other teaching materials. Visits however made by the team to schools indicated a shortage of learning materials. See table below for detailed breakdown of the SNE budget in the last three years.
  40. 40. 40 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Wage versus non-wage expenditure The review of budgets indicates that all special needs resources are recurrent expenditures. Figure 6 below shows the distribution of special needs resources to wage and non-wage budget allocations. Figure 6: Wage and Non-wage allocation for Special Needs Education Source: Authors’ calculations from Annual Approved Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure 2008/09- 2012/13 Figure 6 shows that Non-wage allocations accounted for a large proportion of the budget, rising from 87.2% in 2008/09 to 92.2% in 2012/13. The two highest non-wage allocations were transfers made to special needs facilities for their maintenance, and resources allocated to the procuring of materials such as books. Allocation to wages was maintained below UgShs 100 million in all the three years. To put this in context, salaries for teachers in all the 113 special needs education centres are paid under the district mainstream civil service teachers payroll. This therefore means that the wage allocation covers a small team in charge of special needs education based at the Ministry of Education. Analysis of special needs education services and Transfers to schools Special Needs Education services budget line is the core of special needs education because it is from this that transfers to schools also known as subvention grants are made. Despite its importance, this vote function is only allocated 53% of the
  41. 41. 41Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. special needs budget. Within this budget, there are 2 expenditure lines-transfers to schools and scholarships as indicated in Table 10. Transfers to schools in the last three years have received the highest percentage compared to scholarships, Like capitation grant, the subvention grant/transfers to schools are based on enrolment at a fee of Ug. shs 15,000 per child per term. But given that there are 113 special needs schools in the country, each school would receive an annual grant of just Ug. Shs 4.7 million per year. Inclusive schools do not receive any additional resources other than the capitation grant notwithstanding that policy instructs the integration of learners with special needs in inclusive schools. For all the schools visited in Kibaale, subvention grant is sent once a year. In 2012 for example, Bishop Rwakaikara Primary School received 2 million shillings. St Thereza Bujuni primary school on the other hand received only 1.3 million shillings According to the Assistant Commissioner- Special Needs Education Department, the subvention grant is not regular and is only provided when the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development releases the funds to the Ministry of Education and Sports and later to the different special needs education units in different districts of Uganda. In some instances, schools take 2-3 terms without receiving the subvention grant. Donor funding for Special needs education For all the three years analysed, there is no donor funding for special needs shown on the budget. In order to ascertain any donor funding for special needs, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’s Creditor Reporting System database9 was reviewed and this revealed only one donor project for special needs education implemented between 2008 and 201110. The project, funded by the Norwegian government through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), was titled “Capacity building in teacher education for children with disabilities and special needs”. The figure below shows aid disbursed on this project for the four years – 2008 to 2011. 9 The OECD’s CRS record all international aid from the Development Assistance Committee countries that flows to developing countries in all form such as grants, loans, equity or mixed project aid. This database is the single most comprehensive aid database but it does not include aid from new donors such as the BRICS countries.
  42. 42. 42 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Figure 7: Aid funding for Special Needs education 10 The OECD CRS database is updated every two years. This means that in 2013, the earliest data available is for 2011. Source: Authors Calculations based on OECD CRS database Figure 7 shows that, the project disbursed US$558,000 over a four year period oscillating US$112,000 and US$117,000. An analysis of the total donor funding to the education sector further reveals that special needs education is not highly prioritised, even from the donor support as Table 12 elaborates. Table 12: Aid funding for special needs in comparison to education sector Special Needs Education Total aid to Education sector % of special needs education 2008 131,542.06 126,451,803 0.1040% 2009 112,464.96 108,632,243 0.1035% 2010 177,386.22 171,281,506 0.1036% 2011 136,904.33 70,825,409 0.1933% Total 558,297.57 477,190,961 Source: Authors Calculations based on OECD CRS database
  43. 43. 43Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table 12 shows that the total donor funds to the Education Sector between 2008 and 2011 was US$477 million, of this less than US$0.6 million (0.2) was earmarked for special needs education in the three years analysed. Budget actualization– 2010/11 financial year To capture whether and to what extent the government was meeting its planned budget, this study utilized data presented in the annual budget performance reports of FY 2008/9-FY 2012/13. Table 13: Budget performance for special needs SNE Budget SNE Actual release % of release 2008/09** 717,000,000 700,000,000 97.6% 2009/10 470,000,000 340,000,000 72.3% 2010/11 1,301,000,000 910,000,000 69.9% 2011/12* 1,210,000,000 650,000,000 53.7% 2012/13* 1,210,000,000 620,000,000 51.2% Source: Authors’ calculations from Annual and Semi-annual budget performance report 2008/09-2012/13 ***As earlier stated, budgets for SNE are under the same budgeting vote with guidance and counselling. Because of data presentation challenges, both budget and actual release data for 2008/09 could not be disaggregated to separate SNE and guidance and counselling allocations as required. In addition, data for financial years 2011/12 and 2012/13 was for half year/ semi-annual results making it hard to get conclusive analysis. In FY 2009/10, only 72.3 percent of the budget was realized and this figure further dropped to 69.9 percent in FY 2010/11 when only Ugshs 0.91 billion was spent of the total Ugshs1.3 billion. This therefore indicates that the government is a distance away in terms of delivering on its planned output for SNE. The table below gives a snapshot into some of the activities and their progress as reported in the Annual Performance Reports. What is outstanding in almost all the three years was that allocations were often below targets and there are many instances where nothing was reported on the status of a planned action for a given financial year. For instance, in FY 2009/10, the ministry planned to construct two SNE schools at a cost of Ugshs 898 million and whilealargesumofthismoneyisreported to have been released, the report does not indicate progress on the construction of the planned schools. Likewise, in FY 2011/12, construction of three SNE schools is mentioned in the budget and the Semi-Annual Budget Performance Report indicates that construction had not started as resources had not accumulated enough to start the construction. Table 14 details progress on some of the planned SNE activities over the three financial years.
  44. 44. 44 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Table14: ProgressonsomeplannedSNEactivities YearPlan Budget (millionUGX) Outturn (millionUGX) Budget Performance(%) Output 2008/09 • SpecialNeedsEducationServices • Conductsupervisionand monitoringtoschools; 71770097.6% • Procuredanddistributedassortedequipment (braille’s,braillebooks)tolearnersinspecial schools. • Paidcapitationgrantsfor3000children. • Carriedoutsupportsupervisionand monitoringinallthe5CorePTCsandthe districtsthatareaffectedbythewarand1324 NFEteachers. 2009/10 • DeveloppolicyonSNE,print anddistributetoschools andstakeholders;Develop Department’sStrategyand5yr. Planofactivities • Trainteachersonspecificareas ofSNE(autism) 47034072.70% • Noreportonspecialneedspolicydeveloped anddisseminatedtostakeholders • Noreportofteacherstrained 2010/11 • Support100SNEinstitutions1498154.50% • 40SNEschoolsvisitedin55districtsunder monitoringandsupportsupervision. • 2specialschoolsfortheblindto beconstructed 89872680.30%• Noreportonschoolsconstructed
  45. 45. 45Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 2011/12 • Constructionof3schoolsto increaseaccessforlearnerswith SNEespeciallyseverelearning disabilitiesrequiringshs.3 billion,buttostartwithshs.1 billion. 89812914.4% • Procurementprocessunderway;Fundsbeing accumulatedtocommenceconstructionin subsequentquarters • Increaseaccesstoeducationby learnerswithdisabilities. • Equip8secondaryschools regionallyforvariousdisabilities toincreaselearningspacesfor learnerswithSNE. • Rehabilitationof2secondary schools. • Trainanddeployteachersof specialneeds; • Retrainexistingteachersin primaryschoolstohandlespecial needs; • Finalizebasiceducationpolicy oneducationallydisadvantaged children; • CreatePostofSNEOfficerat districtlevel Noreportontheseactions 2012/13 • Recruitanddeploy10sign languageteachersto2SNE schools 1216251.3% • Therecruitmentprocessforthesignlanguage teachersisongoing Source:AnnualandSemi-annualbudgetperformancereports2008/09-2012/1
  46. 46. 46 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Figure8: Quarterlyreleaseprocess Cashlimits prepared by MOFPED budget directorate Submittedto MDAs Lettertothe Accountant General MOFPED Stage1Stage2Stage3Stage4 MDAs adjust workplans internally MOFPED Accountant General reviewscash limitsfor eachMDA andsends fundstoBOU Issue warrant forBOUto release funds Bankof Uganda releases fundsto commercial banksand MDAs Funds received at commerci al banks where accounts areheldforthosethat havemet requirement
  47. 47. 47Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. 7.1 INCREASING ACCES TO EDUCATION BY CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS- HOW INCLUSIVE IS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION? county education departments literally understood the inclusive approach to imply that schools should enrol such children, never minding whether the schools have the requirements to provide adequate special needs education. Many schools that adopted the inclusive approach have failed to offer remedial classes as recommended by the SNE Policy and the Disability Act (2005) and children with varied impairments are taught using the same instruction materials as the children without disabilities. 7.0 PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF SPECIAL NEEDS AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN UGANDA This section documents the progress made in rolling out special needs and inclusive education in Uganda and also presents people’s experiences and their assessment of program implementation of special needs education. Among the three study districts of Abim, Agago and Kibaale, it was only Kibaale that has specialized units namely, St. Thereza Bujuni primary school, Bishop Rwakaikara Primary School and St. Kizito primary school. These are mainstream schools with specialized units, enabling children with and without learning needs to study in the same physical environment. Agago and Abim districtsimplementtheinclusive education model. Field visits to schools within the study districts indicated that regular schools where children with disabilities were integrated didn’t have the required materials for learners with special needs. Similarly, there were no ‘Special Needs Teachers’ in all the schools visited in Abim and Agago and only a few in Kibaale. There was an assumption that schools would be able to draw from the capitation grant to finance extra needs of meeting special needs education, this has however not happened as capitation grants come with strict conditions with expenditures on SNE not being among the conditions. In many instances, the study teams found out that officials in the district and sub- “The children with special learningneeds are expected to adjust or learnthe difficult way”, said one of the district leaders in Agago district, “……despite these efforts these childrenstill lack the special attention that shouldbe given to them during activities suchas remedial classes”, said the CAO ofAbim district.
  48. 48. 48 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. The establishment of a Special Needs Department in Kyambogo University has been instrumental in training SNE Teachers. Similarly, at Primary Teachers’ Colleges, it is compulsory that all students training to be teachers must study and be examined on special needs education. The study established that indeed a number of teachers have undergone training. In Kibaale, 70 teachers had been trained in SNE skills, 2 of these being graduate teachers in SNE from Kyambogo University.Ofthetotalnumberofteachers trained in Kibaale, 6 teach at Bishop Rwakaikara primary school while 1(one) helps with repairing Braille machines at St TherezaBujuni Primary Sschool. In Abim, twenty (20) teachers had undergone specialized training in SNE while in Agago district, less than 10 teachers had received specialized SNE training. 7.2 ENHANCING AND EQUIPPING TEACHERS WITH SKILLS TO DELIVER SPECIAL NEEDS AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Table 15: Number of teachers trained in SNE Vs teachers engaged in SNE District Teachers trained in SNE No. of teacher teaching in SNE Kibaale 70 20 Abim 20 0 Agago 10 0 While this indicates a large number of trainedteachersforSNE,lackofteachersto the contrary emerged as the major barrier to provision of SNE during discussions at community, school and district level. The study noted that contrary to the records of availability of trained teachers, only 20 of the trained 70 teachers in SNE in Kibaale for example are actively engaged on SNE matters. This translates into a deployment rate of only 28%. In Abim and Agago districts none of the trained teachers had ever practiced SNE since completing their trainings. Discussions with the District Inspector of Schools in Abim indicated that the general shortage of teachers as a whole means that SNE teachers are instead drawn to teach the mainstream classes thus leaving the teachers with no time to pursue training of pupils in SNE. Similarly, a number of them are given administrative functions like being head teachers. For instance, the Head Teacher of Abim Primary School is a trained SNE teacher but is now involved in school administration work. She attributed her none participation in SNE to lack of time as she has to juggle between administrative work and teaching the mainstream classes. For many teachers, not teaching SNE Schools has led to many lose their practical skills in SNE as remarked by the head teacher Rutete primary school. “IamtrainedinBraillebutbeingaHead Teacher I am involved in management and not teaching and due to lack of practice I have lost the skill. I only have basic skills”
  49. 49. 49Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. The challenge of finding teachers for SNE is further compounded by a number of factors including the following; • Quality of teachers; it was noted the current curriculum abolished specialization in training of SNE. Teachers while undergoing training thus do not specialize but are introduced to all forms of SNE. This according to the respondents’ analysis on disability and SNE has led to graduation of half- baked teachers who are unable to effectively support children with SNE. In Kibaale for instance, the DEO and the SNE officer noted that the available teachers are not very skilled in Braille and sign language. It was also observed in Abim primary school that teachers were not aware about the school owned special instruction materials (Braille books) and did not have the knowledge and skills to identify that they were braille materials and how to use them. • Motivation; as noted in the budget analysis section, while other activities of SNE are budgeted for at the ministry level, salaries of SNE teachers is drawn from the UPE pay roll. Teachers interviewed notedthatspecialneedseducation requires patience, interest and extra time, and because teachers don’t receive top-up for SNE in addition to teaching other mainstream classes, many had lost interest and abandoned SNE to concentrate on mainstream classes.ItwasnotedthatinKibaale and Abim, some of the previously trained SNE teachers had migrated to other countries and professions for better payment. A teacher with an additional SNE qualification is paid a gross salary of 310,000/= like other teachers and even when they upgrade to diploma level, their salary remains at the same scale. According to the outgoing Head of Department, Special needs at Kyambogo University, over the years, few teachers are seeking to train in specialised SNE training because there is no motivation for them during and after the training. • “Out-dated” Training Curriculum; despite the attempts made by the Central Government to train teachers in SNE, it was noted that the SNE training curriculum has never been reviewed since 2000 even when the context and provision of SNE has evolved since then. 7.3 RECRUITMENT OF PERSONNEL Only Kibaale district had recruited an Officer for SNE. In Agago and Abim, this remains a vacant position. This was attributed to a Ministry of Public Service ban on recruitment of staff. Similarly, at Primary Teacher College(PTC) level, it was noted that despite the fact that the training is compulsory, only 4 PTCs countrywide have recruited tutors for SNE. These include Iganga PTC, Loro PTC, Soroti PTC and Bishop Stuart PTC.
  50. 50. 50 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Staff shortage is a key challenge in the districts visited. The District The Education Department in Agago for example is required to have a minimum “when ever we request for additionalstaff, we are advised not to raise the district wage bill by recruiting new staff. The district has to seekpermission from the Ministry of PublicService to allow us recruit personnelto fill the three vacant positions of theeducation department, said the DistrictEducation Officer, Agago District. of five (5) people with the responsibility of overseeing 112 schools in the districts. Due to a ban on recruitment, the District Education Department is serviced by only two officers i.e the District Education Officer (DEO) and District Inspector of Schools (DIS). Refusal to recruit personnel had affected effective implementation of the inclusive approach in terms of assessment of children’s needs, monitoring teachers’ management of children with special needs education, advising on referrals and integrating special needs education in the planning process. Furthermore, this had created a weak linkage between the District Education Department and the corresponding office at sub-county level. 7.4 INCREASING AWARENESS AND ATTITUDINAL CHANGE ON SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION The study observed that in the last three years, whereas a significant amount of resources had been allocated to advocacy and sensitisation, information about special needs education is scanty among the communities the study team interacted with. While parents of children with special needs expected to receive care and support from government, schools, community and other stakeholders like non-governmental organizations, many were not aware of existence of such support. We asked parents about services offered within the various schools for children with special learning needs Figure 9: Knowledge on availability of special needs education in the three districts and 75% of the respondents indicated they were not aware while only 21% had knowledge of how the schools supported children with special needs. 4% of the respondents were not sure.
  51. 51. 51Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. children is often negative, which affects the learning ability of these children and because of this many parents resort to keeping the children at home rather than send to school to be subjected to abuse. In the various community meetings held, several parents narrated their ordeals; The study also observed that majority of children with special education needs expressed deep concern about the lack of care and support given to them, more especially those with severe and sometimes multiple impairments. It was noted that teachers, local authorities and community members were not very supportive to households with such children. Parents complained about absence of trained teachers to handle their epileptic children, lack of community sensitization/awareness campaigns by local government and the loss of hitherto traditional community support systems. This has reportedly led to stigmatization and isolation of such children by peers and the adults in the communities. In other instances, parents of children with special needs were dissatisfied with the school support system. Many noted that the teachers’ attitude towards their “I have a child of 10years who no longer goesto school because teachers used to harasshim”, said a parent in Paimol sub-county. “My 15 year old child is epileptic, and gets 4attacks a week and that’s why I stopped himfrom schooling”, said a parent in Lokole sub- county “My child needs special shoes so that sheis able to continue attending school whileanother child hindered by lack of shoesmisses school when their feet are injured,said a parent in Lokole sub-county. 7.5 THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION PROVIDED TO LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS Although the Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy (2011), states that the teacher: student ratio for blind is 1:3 and that of the physically impaired is 1:20, none of the schools studied observe this policy requirement. At Bujuni Primary School for example, SN&IE teachers reported that the current ratio stands at 3:17 pupils and this is attributed to lack of financial resources to recruit more teachers at the SNE unit. Children with special learning requirements in Abim and Agago schools study with other non-impaired learners in an inclusive model. However, in all these schools, there was no infrastructure and learning equipment to suit learner’s needs. Unlike in Kibaale where specialised attention is provided, in Abim and Agago districts, the only support provided to children with learning difficulties is occupying front-row seats during class, getting an extra 30 minutes during Primary Leaving Examinations (PLE)and also printing the PLE examinations in big font letters. The special consideration provided at Primary Leaving Examination(PLE) though welcome, was found to be a late intervention, since there is reportedly
  52. 52. 52 Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. minimal attention provided at the lower level of the learner’s education career in the school where majority drop out from and only encounter the special examinations when doing PLE exams. The study team noted that while children with special needs are enrolled in schools, a significant number of them attend school just to pass time and are not involved in learning. Several cases of such children staying in the same class for several years were reported.. A case in point is at Paimol sub-countyof Agago district, a boy with multiple disabilities has attended PrimaryFour for the last seven years, whileanother child instead of staying in oneclass during the school calendar, hemeanders in different classes and hasbeen allowed to do this for 7 years. InAbim Primary School, one Akwenyo,aged 17 years has been in Primary Fourfor the past 10 years and continues to come to school every day.
  53. 53. 53Financing Special Needs Education in Uganda. Financing; resource allocation to Special NeedsEducationremainslowatanaverage of 0.35% of the entire Ministry budget, below the recommended 10%. In addition to this, the huge variance between funds approved and funds released reduces further the resource envelope to support effective implementation of Special Needs Education. In FY 2009/10, only 72.3% of the budget was realized. This later fell to 69.9% in FY 2010/11 when only UGX 0.91 billion of the UGX1.3 billion budgeted was released and spent. Evidence from Kibaale indicates that subvention grant is irregular and falls below the budgeted amounts. Inadequate facilities and limited capacity to use the available equipment- the schools are faced with shortage of equipment due to irregular supply of equipment and the lack of capacity of the special needs teachers to operate this equipment which affects the quality of special needs education provided. The Headmistress at Abim Primary School noted the school had no special needs education equipment besides the Braille books. Furthermore, the training provided at the PTCs does not furnish teachers with specialised skill to use the equipment. As a result, while some schools had special needs education equipment such as Braille books, the teachers responsible had limited knowledge on how to use them. In other instances, schools in Kibaale district do not receive regular supplies of equipment for the blind from Government; instead they rely on donations from agencies such as Sight Savers. Meanwhile at Kyambogo University Special Needs Education Department, the study team was informed that SNE equipment is expensive and currently there is no provision of equipment from government since the end of DANIDA- funded EARS project. Limited availability of special schools– Uganda has only 113 special schools and thesearenotevenlydistributedamongthe 112 districts of Uganda. Some districts like Abim and Agago do not have such schools in their districts and Kibaale district has only 2. Although there were attempts to establish a unit in Abim, this was never successful. While the government policy is to promote inclusive schools, the reality is that not all pupils can attend inclusive schools due to their vulnerability. Every region of this country could therefore be supported to establish a specialised unit where students from that region who are unable to attend inclusive schools can access quality special needs education. Lack of adequate infrastructure– in Kibaale, despite the presence of specialised units, schools like Bishop 8.0 CHALLENGES FACED IN THE PROVISION OF SNE A number of challenges were identified at household, school, community, local government and national levels that make it difficult for the realisation of the right to education for persons with disabilities. These include the following;

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