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  1. 1. Plate Boundaries and Faults
  2. 2. Animation of Earthquake and Tsunami in Sumatra.Subduction Zone
  3. 3. Mercalli Scale
  4. 4. Richter magnitude scale In all cases, the magnitude is a base-10 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the amplitude of waves measured by a seismograph. An earthquake that measures 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10 times larger than one that measures 4.0. Great earthquakes occur once a year, on average. The largest recorded earthquake was the Great Chilean Earthquake of May 22, 1960, which had a magnitude of 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Following, 31.623 to the power of 0 equals 1, 31.623 to the power of 1 equals 31.623 and 31.623 to the power of 2 equals 1000. Therefore, an 8.0 on the Richter scale releases 31.623 times more energy than a 7.0 and a 9.0 on the Richter scale releases 1000 times more energy than a 7.0.
  5. 5. How thick is the Earth Crust? Contour map of the thickness of the Earth’s crust , at 10 km interval.
  6. 6. Crustal Structure of China from Deep Seismic Sounding Profiles Seismic energy for this profile was provided by twelve chemical explosive shots fired in boreholes. The charge size ranged from 1500 to 4000 kg, sufficient to provide clear first arrivals to a maximum distance of 300 km. The distance between shotpoints ranged from 63 to 205 km, and the interval between portable seismographs was between 2 and 4 km. The profile was recorded along existing roads, and provided nearly straight profile segments. Continental crust:Oceanic crust: The earths crust is the thickest below the continents, withThere, the crust is 4-7 miles (6-11 km) thick. an average of about 20 to 25 miles (30 to 40 km) and withThe rocks of the oceanic crust are not older than 200 a maximum of 45 miles (70 km).million years. The continental crust is older than the oceanic crust, someThe material of which the oceanic crust consists is for rocks are 3.8 billion years old.the greater part tholeiitic basalt (this is basalt without The continental crust mainly consists of igneous rocks andolivine).The average density of the oceanic crust is 3g/cm³. is divided into two layers. The upper part mainly consists of granite rocks, while the lower part consists of basalt and diorite. The average density of the continental crust is 2.7g/cm³.
  7. 7. Volcanoes in Japan
  8. 8. Earthquake Epicenter in Japan in June 14, 2011, 6:48 PM EST
  9. 9. Frequency of Ocurrence Animation
  10. 10. Seismic magnitude 9.5 in Honshu, Japan, Aug 19, 2011
  11. 11. Seismic Activity in the Caribbean Tectonic Plate
  12. 12. Puerto Rico and Hispaniola Trench Jan 12, 2010 21.:53:10 UTC Depth = 13 km
  13. 13. Puerto Rico Trench
  14. 14. Puerto Rico Geologic Units and Fault System
  15. 15. Puerto Rico Fault System and Water Resources
  16. 16. Fault Systems in the Vicinity of Carolina County
  17. 17. Recent Seismic Activity in the Caribbean Tectonic Plate
  18. 18. Seismic Activity in the Japan Area
  19. 19. Where to go during an Earthquake?In a school in Mexico City during the 1985 earthquake, every Simply stated, when buildings collapse, the weight of thechild was under its desk. Every child was crushed to the ceilings falling upon the objects or furniture inside crushesthickness of their bones. They could have survived by lying these objects, leaving a space or void next to them – NOTdown next to their desks in the aisles. It was obscene — under them. This space is what I call the ‘triangle of life’.unnecessary. The larger the object, the stronger, the less it will compact. The less the object compacts, the larger the void, the greater the probability that the person who is using this void for safety will not be injured.
  20. 20. When buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings falling uponthe objects or furniture inside crushes these objects, leaving aspace or void next to them. Wooden buildings are the safest type of construction to be in If you are in bed during the night and an earthquakeduring an earthquake. Wood is flexible and moves with the occurs, simply roll off the bed. A safe void will existforce of the earthquake. If the wooden building does around the bed. Hotels can achieve a much greatercollapse, large survival voids are created. Also, the wooden survival rate in earthquakes, simply by posting a sign onbuilding has less concentrated, crushing weight. Brick the back of the door of every room telling occupants to liebuildings will break into individual bricks. Bricks will cause down on the floor, next to the bottom of the bed duringmany injuries but less squashed bodies than concrete slabs. an earthquake.
  21. 21. If you are inside a vehicle, come out and sit or lie down nextto it. If something falls on the vehicle, it will leave an emptyspace along the sides. People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the road above falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is exactly what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz Freeway. The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside of their vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived by getting out and sitting or lying next to their vehicles. Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get out of their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had voids 3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns fall directly across them.
  22. 22. Get near the outer walls of buildings or outside of them if possible – It ismuch better to be near the outside of the building rather than the interior.The farther inside you are from the outside perimeter of the building thegreater the probability that your escape route will be blocked.Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different ‘moment of frequency’ (they swing separately from the main part of thebuilding). The stairs and remainder of the building continuously bump into each other until structural failure of the stairstakes place. The people who get on stairs before they fail are chopped up by the stair treads – horribly mutilated. Even ifthe building doesn’t collapse, stay away from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the building to be damaged. Even ifthe stairs are not collapsed by the earthquake, they may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people. They shouldalways be checked for safety, even when the rest of the building is not damaged.
  23. 23. If an earthquake happens and you cannot easily escape by gettingout the door or window, then lie down and curl up in the fetalposition next to a sofa, or large chair. If you stand under a doorway and the doorjamb falls forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If the door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In either case, you will be killed! In 1996 ,The Turkish Federal Government, City of Istanbul, University of Istanbul Case Productions and ARTI cooperated to film this practical, scientific test. They collapsed a school and a home with 20 mannequins inside. Ten mannequins did ‘duck and cover,’ and ten mannequins used in the ‘triangle of life’ survival method. After the simulated earthquake collapse the investigators crawled through the rubble and entered the building to film and document the results. The film showed there would have been zero percent survival for those doing duck and cover. By other hand there would likely have been 100 percent survivability for people using the method of the ‘triangle of life.’ This film has been seen by millions of viewers on television in Turkey and the rest of Europe, and it was seen in the USA , Canada and Latin America on the TV program Real TV.
  24. 24. What to do After an Earthquake?
  25. 25. THE END