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PAHs_are_families_Watertech2014

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This presentation was presented at Watertech 2014 conference in Banff, AB earlier this year. The presentations shows the use of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an environmental forensics investigation to identify PAHs from a crude oil release into a river. The presentation covers how pattern assessment, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis of extended PAH analysis of sediments can be used to identify PAHs from the crude oil release from those present in the sediments from other anthropogenic sources.

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PAHs_are_families_Watertech2014

  1. 1. PAHs are families, not orphans Interpretation of PAH data from an inland water body Presented by: Phil Richards, PhD, PChem at Watertech 2014, Banff, Alberta Click here for related case study
  2. 2. So, there is an oil release into a water body… • Highly variable conditions – flow rate, turbidity • Large contact area with shoreline • Backwater pooling • Vegetation contact • Suspended solids / dissolved organics • Eventually deposition Evaporation, Biodegradation (food source), Photolysis Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  3. 3. Primary remediation efforts and monitoring Trapping and collecting •Booms, sponges, hydrovac. Impacted area •Aerial recon Health guidelines •Water sampling So, there is an oil release into a water body… Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  4. 4. • What next…? Long Term Monitoring Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  5. 5. • Water via SPMDs Very low solubility, very low concentrations, affected by very small effects • Fish Biological processes impact PAH concentrations in tissue • Sediment PAH reservoir Still need upstream controls (PAHs are ubiquitous) Why Sediment? Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  6. 6. Lifespan of chemical residues after a spill Days Weeks Months Years BTEX Alkanes Biomarkers PAHs Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  7. 7. Residue after a spill Days Weeks Months Years BTEX Alkanes Biomarkers PAHs Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  8. 8. Analysis for PAHs Parent PAHs 17 CCME Naphthalene Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  9. 9. Analysis for PAHs Parent PAHs 17 CCME Extended PAHs 50+ Naphthalene C1-Naphthalenes C2-Naphthalenes C3-Naphthalenes … … … Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014 vs.
  10. 10. Interpretation of Parent PAHs Data Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  11. 11. Interpretation of Extended PAHs Data Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  12. 12. Environmental Forensics Interpretation of Extended PAHs Data Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  13. 13. Environmental Forensics Fingerprint Diagnostic Ratios Statistical Analysis Visual comparison of PAH data Relative concentration of key PAHs Comprehensive analysis of all PAH data Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  14. 14. PAH Fingerprints Visual comparisons •PAH groups •Types of oils and refined products. • light crude, heavy crude, gasoline, diesel… •Nature of background Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014 Visit one of our past blogs on a natural PAH, called retene: http://chemistry-matters.com/aha-moment-environmental-forensics/
  15. 15. Parent PAH Fingerprint Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  16. 16. Extended PAH Fingerprint Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  17. 17. Diagnostic Ratios The relative concentration of specific PAHs can be indicative of a potential source. Often, dibenzothiophene (DBT) is a good indicator for crude products, and the ratio of alkylated DBTs with alkylated phenanthrenes (Phen) is a powerful diagnostic tool. Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  18. 18. Double Ratio Plot Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  19. 19. Double Ratio Plot Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  20. 20. Double Ratio Plot Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  21. 21. Better interpretation? Diagnostic ratios are indicators for 2 chemicals, and a double ratio plot is good for 4 chemicals. But, we can do better… we can develop analysis to consider variability within all chemicals – Principle Components Analysis (PCA) Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  22. 22. Statistical tool that considers all variability within our PAH dataset. PCA takes the concentrations of all of our PAHs and presents an output that represent the major differences within all of that data. Principle Components Analysis Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  23. 23. Principle Components Analysis Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  24. 24. Principle Components Analysis Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  25. 25. PAHs from release PAHs not from release Principle Components Analysis Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014
  26. 26. Summary • PAHs are the focus of monitoring post-spill • Extended PAH analysis provides much more information • Fingerprinting • Diagnostic Ratios • Statistics Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014 For more information on PAHs and PAH fingerprinting visit our website on PAHs: http://chemistry-matters.com/chemicals/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pah/
  27. 27. Questions? Contact Info: Chemistry Matters Inc. Court Sandau Twitter: @Chem_Matters Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/csandau Watertech 2014 - © Chemistry Matters Inc. 2014 Please visit our website for related information, case studies and blogs. www.chemistry-matters.com

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