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Multiple Lines of Evidence of PAH Fingerprinting and Source Apportionment of Crude Oil Spills - Dioxin 2017

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment. They are produced naturally through forest fires with some congeners having biogenic origins. They are also produced anthropogenically through all burning or combustion processes.

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Multiple Lines of Evidence of PAH Fingerprinting and Source Apportionment of Crude Oil Spills - Dioxin 2017

  1. 1. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Making environmental data meaningful Multiple Lines of Evidence of PAH Fingerprinting and Source Apportionment of Crude Oil Spills Court D. Sandau and Phil Richards
  2. 2. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Copyright Statement 2 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of Chemistry Matters Inc. Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  3. 3. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Oil Spills • Stages of oil spill response • 150,000+ L of heavy oil spilled into river during high flow season (>2000 m3/s) • After oil is visibly removed, can you find the oil signature? • Sampled sediment at various locations of the river 3Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  4. 4. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Conventional GC Analysis of Crude Oil Nelson et al. Environmental Forensics, 7:33–44, 2006 Unresolved Complex Matter Straight chained alkanes PAHs Biomarkers The rest 4Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  5. 5. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography of Crude Oil Nelson et al. Environmental Forensics, 7:33–44, 2006 5 PAHs are present at concentrations of 0.5 to 5% by weight in crude oil Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  6. 6. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Susceptibility to Biodegradation C5-C6 Hydrocarbons Olefins n-Alkanes Monoaromatics Isoalkanes Parent PAH > 2 ring C1-alkyl PAH C2-alkyl PAH C3-alkyl PAH C4-alkyl PAH Triterpanes Steranes Diasteranes Aromatic Steranes Porphyrins Most susceptible Less susceptible Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada 6
  7. 7. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Water Solubility and Partitioning 7 Name Water solubility (mg/L) Organic carbon partitioning (Koc) Structure Benzene 1790 80 Naphthalene 31 900 Phenanthrene 1.1 14,000 Pyrene 0.13 38,000 Benzo[a]pyrene 0.00162 549,500 Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada PAHs end up in sediments
  8. 8. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 8 US EPA 16 Priority Pollutants PAH CompoundsWhen were the 16 PAHs selected? acenaphthene 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene 1,8-ethylnaphthalene Naphthyleneethylene peri-ethylenenaphthalene acenaphthylenenaphthalene anthracene paranaphthalene phenanthrene 3-Helicene ravatite 9H-fluorene Fluorene 2,2’-methylenebiphenyl o-biphenylenemethane diphenylenemethane chrysene 1,2-benzophenanthrene benzo(a)phenanthrene fluoranthene Pyrene benzo(def)phenanthrene tetraphene benz(a)anthracene benzo(a)anthracene 1,2-benzanthracene 2,3-benzophenanthrene benzo(b)phenanthrene benzo(e)acephenanthrylene benzo(b)fluoranthene 2,3-benzfluoranthene 3,4-benz(e)acephenanthrylene benzo[k]fluoranthene 11,12-benzofluoranthene 2,3,1’,8’binaphthylene dibenzo(b,jk)fluorene 8,9-benzofluoranthene benzo(k)tetraphene 1,2:5,6-dibenzanthracene dibenzo(a,h)anthracene benzo(pqr)tetraphene benzo(a)pyrene 3,4-benzpyrene 1,2-benzpyrene benzo(def)chrysene benzo(ghi)perylene 1,12-benzoperylene indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene 1,1-(1,2-phenylene)pyrene 1,10-(o-phenylene)pyrene 2,3-o-phenylenepyrene *Established in 1976 Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  9. 9. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 16 EPA PAHs: Why? • List created in 1976 and has not changed since – Based primarily on water analyses – List took one month and two meetings to create • Criteria used to select the PAHs: – Availability of analytical standards and measureable using 1970s technology – Occurred in >5% of environmental samples – Known to have adverse effects 9 Keith, L. H. 2014. The Source of U.S. EPA's Sixteen PAH Priority Pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 35, 147-160. Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  10. 10. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Example Chromatogram of PAHs in Air in 1978 10 KATZ, M., SAKUMA, T. & HO, A. 1978. Chromatographic and spectral analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - quantitative distribution in air of Ontario cities. Environmental Science & Technology, 12, 909-915. Analyzed by GC-FID, 12 feet long, 0.125 inch diameter Dexsil 300 80/100 mesh Chromosorb W(HP) PYR FLRN B(ghi)P BAA/CHRY BaP Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  11. 11. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Expanding the List of PAHs Alkylated-PAHs and Other PAHs C1-Phenanthrenes 1 2 3456 7 8 9 10 CH3 C2-Phenanthrenes Phenanthrene CH3 CH3 CH3 H3C CH2 CH3 C3-Phenanthrenes C4-Phenanthrenes… (?) CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2 H2C CH3 (5) (30) (?) 11Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  12. 12. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Chromatography Gets Busy C1-DBT C2-DBT C3-DBT C4-DBT 12Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  13. 13. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Expanding the List of PAHs • Heteroatom PAHs need to be included (collectively called NSO-heterocycles) • Proposed 40 PAHs and 23 NSO- heterocycles 13 Anderson JT et al., PACs, 2015, 35, 330. Carbazole Benzothiophene Quinolinone Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  14. 14. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Recommended List of PAHs for Oil Spill Analysis • 16 Priority PAHs • Dibenzothiophenes (DBT) • Naphthobenzothiophenes – if possible (for heavy oil) • Alkylated PAHs (C1, C2, C3, and C4 NAP, PHEN, Fluorene, PYR/FLRN, BaA/CHRY, DBT) • Retene (natural PAH marker) 14Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  15. 15. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 15 Background PAH Exceedances • PAH exceedances in upstream sediment samples for 2- methylnaphthalene 0" 0.05" 0.1" 0.15" 0.2" 0.25" AD"("01"Aug"16" AD"("02"Aug"16" AD"("03"Aug"16" AD"("04"Aug"16" AD"("05"Aug"16" AD"("06"Aug"16" AD"("07"Aug"16" AD"("08"Aug"16" AD"("09"Aug"16" BD"("01"Aug"16" BD"("02"Aug"16" BD"("03"Aug"16" BD"("04"Aug"16" BD"("05"Aug"16" BD"("06"Aug"16" BD"("07"Aug"16" BD"("08"Aug"16" BD"("08"Aug"16" BD"("09"Aug"16" CD"("02"Aug"16" CD"("03"Aug"16" CD"("04"Aug"16" CD"("05"Aug"16" CD"("06"Aug"16" CD"("07"Aug"16" CD"("08"Aug"16" CD"("09"Aug"16" DD"("01"Aug"16" DD"("02"Aug"16" DD"("03"Aug"16" DD"("04"Aug"16" DD"("05"Aug"16" DD"("06"Aug"16" DD"("07"Aug"16" DD"("08"Aug"16" DD"("09"Aug"16" ED"("01"Aug"16" ED"("02"Aug"16" ED"("03"Aug"16" ED"("04"Aug"16" ED"("05"Aug"16" ED"("06"Aug"16" ED"("07"Aug"16" ED"("09"Aug"16" BB"("11"Aug"16" CB"("10"Aug"16" CB"("11"Aug"16" CB"("12"Aug"16" CB"("13"Aug"16" CB"("14"Aug"16" CB"("15"Aug"16" CB"("16"Aug"16" Concentra)on*(mg/kg)* 22Methylnaphthalene* Upstream"Samples" CCME"PEL" CCME"ISQG" Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  16. 16. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 16 Normal (parent) PAH analyses PAH Data Guideline Exceedances? 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% NAP 2-M e-NAPH ACY ACE FLU ANT PHE PYR FLRN BaA CHR BaP DahA Fresh Oil Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  17. 17. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 17 Extended (alkylated) PAH analyses PAH Data Guideline Exceedances? Fingerprint Sources and history Diagnostic Ratios Statistical Analysis Environmental Forensics Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  18. 18. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 18 PAHs – fingerprinting 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16Tan oil 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% NAP 2-M e-NAPH ACY ACE FLU ANT PHE PYR FLRN BaA CHR BaP DahA Fresh Oil Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) are an important group for fingerprinting oil. Source Oil Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  19. 19. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 19 Petrogenic Background 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16-SW2CD - 23899160801714 Throughout the river there is a background of PAHs that has a petrogenic origin. Background Sample 1 Background Sample 2 Background Sample 3 Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  20. 20. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 20 Pyrogenic 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16-CR10 - 23899160812K10 A small number of samples present a very different PAH origin – related to combustion. Pyrogenic Sample Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  21. 21. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 21 Forensic Analysis of Sediment Results Multivariate Statistical Analysis: Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) • Non-specific data interpretation • Looking for trends and groupings of samples • Apply other specific techniques to understand origins of each group and trends with time. Diagnostic PAH Ratios Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  22. 22. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 22 HCA Results 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 Pyrogenic Source Background Mixed (Source) Mixed (pyro) Mixed (Source)Different mixed groups • Three-component mixing (background, pyrogenic and source crude oil) • Each link is a sample • Similar samples have short connections • Groups of samples show common origins Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  23. 23. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 23 Eigenvalue 20.5355 8.4174 5.1403 3.3769 3.0192 2.6165 1.8571 1.4766 1.1833 0.9030 0.7828 0.6523 20 40 60 80 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Component2(15.3%) -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Component 1 (37.3 %) -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Component2(15.3%) -1.0 -0.5 0.0 Component 1 (37.3 %) Pyrogenic Source Background PCA Results • Each dot is a sample • Similar samples are clustered together Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% NAP C1 N AP C2 N AP C3 N AP C4 N AP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 P HE/ANT C2 P HE/ANT C3 P HE/ANT C4 P HE/ANT DBT C1 D BT C2 D BT C3 D BT C4 D BT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 B aA/CHR C2 B aA/CHR C3 B aA/CHR C4 B aA/CHR 16-SA20 - 23899160807H12 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16-CR10 - 23899160812K10
  24. 24. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 24 Differentiating Origins of Petrogenic Patterns 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16-SA20 - 23899160807H12 Background Source Sulfur content is key tool • Used for Exxon Valdez spill Phenanthrene Dibenzothiophene Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  25. 25. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Exxon Valdez 25 7 of these relate to EVC A key component is the relative concentration of DBTs Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  26. 26. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Exxon Valdez 26 Phenanthrene Dibenzothiophene Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  27. 27. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Exploring the Diagnostic Ratios 27 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 C2Dibenzothiophene 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 C2 Phenanthrene/Anthracene Pyrogenic Source Background DBT/PHEN ratios are capable of distinguishing source from other PAH sources in the river. Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  28. 28. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 28 Apportionment Software Positive Matrix Factorization • Independently determines source fingerprints for PAHs from complex data. • Apportions the relative amount of each source in all samples. • We use this to distinguish the amount of crude oil related PAHs in the river samples (n=175) samples in the dataset. • Provides guidance for selection of sampling locations. • This is completely independent of source assignments. Thus is also a validation method. Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  29. 29. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 29 Apportionment Factor for Petrogenic Background 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR PMF Factor - Petrogenic Pa/ern 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR 16-SW1AD - Petrogenic 23899160804762 Sample Data Apportionment Output Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada Petrogenic Sample
  30. 30. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 30 Apportionment Factor for Source 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR PMF Factor - 16Tan Oil Pa2ern 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% NAP C1 NAP C2 NAP C3 NAP C4 NAP FLU C1 FLU C2 FLU C3 FLU PHE/ANT C1 PHE/ANT C2 PHE/ANT C3 PHE/ANT C4 PHE/ANT DBT C1 DBT C2 DBT C3 DBT C4 DBT FLRN/PYR C1 FLRN/PYR C2 FLRN/PYR C3 FLRN/PYR C4 FLRN/PYR BaA/CHR C1 BaA/CHR C2 BaA/CHR C3 BaA/CHR C4 BaA/CHR Product Sample Source 1 Sample Data Apportionment Output Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada Product Sample Product Sample
  31. 31. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 16-SA73 - 0 km 16-SA70 - 0 km 16-SA20 - 3.47 km 16-SA23 - 3.74 km 16-SA21 - 3.79 km 16-SA22 - 3.81 km 16-SA24 - 4.61 km 16-SA26 - 6.96 km 16-SA25 - 7.4 km 16-SA28 - 8.38 km 16-SA27 - 9.35 km 16-SA30 - 11.59 km 16-SA29 - 11.63 km 16-SA46 - 26.12 km 16-SA44 - 27.39 km 16-SA43 - 28.45 km 16-SA31 - 28.93 km 16-SA40 - 29.2 km 16-SA40 - 29.2 km 16-SA42 - 29.51 km 16-SA38 - 30.08 km 16-SA33 - 30.74 km 16-SA37 - 31.8 km 16-SA36 - 32.44 km 16-SA32 - 32.44 km 16-SA35 - 32.74 km 16-SA51 - 48.63 km 16-SA55 - 51.93 km 16-SA54 - 52.37 km 16-SA52 - 52.37 km 16-SA56 - 52.84 km 16-SA59 - 56.67 km 16-SA58 - 58.43 km 16-SA57 - 60.51 km 16-SA60 - 60.7 km 16-SA61 - 62.22 km 16-SA62 - 63.49 km 16-SA49 - 68.1 km 16-SA47 - 68.29 km 16-SA48 - 69.83 km 16-SA67 - 81.33 km 16-SA66 - 81.64 km 16-SA63 - 82.37 km 16-SA64 - 82.62 km 16-SA68 - 85.91 km 16-SA69 - 86.85 km 16-SA71 - 86.93 km 16-SA72 - 87.67 km 16-SA75D - 88.33 km 16-SA77D - 88.77 km 16-SA78D - 89.22 km 16-SA79D - 89.37 km 16-SA82D - 89.94 km 16-SA86D - 90.29 km 16-SA87D - 90.38 km 16-SA84D - 90.95 km 16-SA91 - 114.62 km Sum PAH (mg/kg) Bo/om Oil Samples Crude Oil in Sediment Samples 31 Source River Background 91 km furthest downstream detected oil 18 km Downstream 73 km Downstream 115 km Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  32. 32. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 32 PCA including end-members Source Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  33. 33. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 33 % Crude Calculated by Apportionment % Source from apportionment in agreement with PCA. Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  34. 34. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 34 % Source Calculated by Apportionment Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada Source Source Source Source
  35. 35. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. 35 Conclusions • PAHs are already present in the river due to other sources. It is important to demonstrate where PAHs due to release may be present • Environmental forensics and source apportionment helped guide locations for future monitoring and adverse effects studies Dioxin Conference 2017 – Vancouver, Canada
  36. 36. © 2017 Chemistry Matters Inc. Thank you for your attention Contact Info: Chemistry Matters Inc. Court Sandau Cell: 403.669.8566 Email: csandau@chemistry-matters.com URL: chemistry-matters.com Visit our website and sign up for email for automatic receipt of the blog! Twitter: @Chem_Matters Slideshare: www.slideshare.net/csandau 36www.chemistry-matters.com

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