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Hidden Figures - AGAT 2018 TechTalks

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Hidden Figures - Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something; presented by Dr. Court Sandau of Chemistry Matters Inc. and Tom Knapik of Plains Midstream Canada. Presented in Calgary (Jan 2018) and Edmonton (Feb 2018).

Chemical patterns are everywhere. When a spill occurs, the signature of that spill is distinct and can be characterized in order to monitor the spill accordingly. Even very old releases can be chemically fingerprinted to determine where the impacts on the site exist and to focus the remediation on the appropriate issues instead of monitoring for the sake of monitoring. This is true for metals, salt, and petroleum hydrocarbons alike. Monitoring data can be more than just above or below guidelines.

This talk will present a case study where monitoring data from a large site and collected over a decade were statistically re-evaluated to look at chemical patterns and trends to determine what impacts were truly present on site. Both metals and salinity impacts in soil boreholes and groundwater were analyzed using chemical fingerprinting and multivariate statistical analysis to determine natural salinity patterns and metals on the site. Salinity was assessed using both radar plots and principal component analysis to determine that multiple natural salinity profiles existed for the site that were not related to the current day or historical operations. This information was used to develop site specific guidelines that were used to focus remediation strategies for the site going forward and reduce the amount of needless monitoring conducted each year at the site. This will help reduce monitoring costs going forward and allow the appropriate, targeted remediation on chemicals of concern that pose the biggest environmental concern to the site.

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Hidden Figures - AGAT 2018 TechTalks

  1. 1. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Making environmental data meaningful Hidden Figures – Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Court Sandau, PhD, P.Chem, Principal, Chemistry Matters Tom Knapik, P.Eng., Manager, Environment, Plains Midstream Canada 2018 AGAT Science and Technology Talks
  2. 2. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. 2Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Copyright Statement All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of Chemistry Matters Inc.
  3. 3. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Hidden Figures Outline • Review site management • Review soil data • Apply some statistics • Review a case study that incorporates all three 3Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  4. 4. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Hidden Figures 4Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  5. 5. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Hidden Figures 5Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Site Details/Context • 50+ year old facility operating under EPEA Approval • Many years of meeting soil management directive (lots of soil data available) • Newly acquired • Assumed previous owners’ commitments made to regulator
  6. 6. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Hidden Figures Pain Points • Lots of colour on the lab summary table (can’t be good) • Many reports over the years with data highlighted • Wheels in motion for a significant remediation spend 6Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/five-most-common-pain-points- software-development-projects-ken-myers/
  7. 7. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Data Compared to Guidelines 7Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Sample ID Date SampleDepth ElectricalConductivity SodiumAdsorptionRatio pH SolubleCalcium SolubleChloride SolublePotassium SolubleMagnesium SolubleSodium SolubleSulphate Calcium Chloride Potassium Magnesium Sodium Sulphate IonBalance %Saturation (dd-mmm-yyyy) (dS/m) (none) (pH units) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (Balance) (%) AEP (2016a) Tier 1 Topsoil (≤0.3 mbgs) 2 4 (6 - 8.5) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- AEP (2016a) Tier 1 Subsoil (>0.3 mbgs) 10 8 (6 - 8.5) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- PS-S15-3 30-Jun-2015 1.5 - 2.0m 35 800 11.7 8.8 7100 8.4 2.1 10000 69000 4.1 3300 3.9 0.96 4700 32000 0.27 47 S08-04 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 25 13 8.6 430 1700 110 4000 3800 21000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 43.7 S08-05 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 18 7.8 8.5 430 200 58 2700 2000 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 61.4 S08-45 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 18 13 8.2 400 570 55 2400 3000 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 39 S08-09 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 17 9.4 7.9 400 410 24 2300 2200 14000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 48.6 S08-12 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 17 9.8 8.5 450 400 94 2500 2400 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 49.6 S10-16 23-Jul-2010 0.6 - 1.0m 16 15 7.81 600 2900 39 680 2300 4000 250 1200 17 290 960 1700 1.1 42.5 S08-44 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 16 12 8.4 360 520 20 1300 2200 9600 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 44.3 FA-S16-2 29-Sep-2016 0.6 - 1.0m 15 6.5 8.11 440 24 31 2500 1600 14000 200 11 14 1100 710 6100 1 44 S08-46 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 15 6.7 8.6 340 130 12 2500 1600 13000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 45.8 FA-S16-3 28-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 14 3.8 7.96 470 5.6 50 2800 990 13000 210 2.5 22 1200 430 5600 1.1 44 S08-08 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 14 10 8 380 190 20 1300 1800 9100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 43.2 SZ-S15-25 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 14 19 7.7 480 1600 77 460 2500 6300 240 790 38 230 1200 3200 0.97 50 S08-15 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 12 7.5 8.3 380 460 15 1400 1400 8400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 49.2 S10-5 22-Jul-2010 0.3 - 0.6m 11 5.5 8.14 390 240 15 1600 1100 8500 200 120 8 840 560 4400 1.1 51.5 FA-S15-7 29-Jun-2015 0.15 - 0.3m 11 3.7 7.97 500 80 17 1700 770 9100 250 39 8.4 830 380 4400 1 49 S08-41 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 11 12 8.3 350 590 19 840 1800 6900 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 0.3 - 0.6m 10 5 7.6 490 590 560 1000 840 6500 260 310 290 520 440 3400 1 52 WA-169A 31-Aug-2011 2.5 - 3.0m 10 7.1 7.45 440 110 27 1200 1300 8300 200 49 12 540 570 3700 1 45 S08-11 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 10 5.3 8.4 410 460 23 1100 900 6300 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 50.5 S08-19 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 5.6 8.3 380 230 16 1500 1100 8400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 35.8 S08-28 04-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 8.9 8.6 270 300 73 820 1300 6000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 41.7 S08-38 04-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 10 17 7.8 380 1200 43 230 1700 3700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 47.1 S08-43 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 8.8 8.5 330 370 43 1000 1400 7100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46.5 S08-33 04-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 9.9 13 8.3 350 650 35 590 1700 5700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 45.1 SZ-S15-20 01-Jul-2015 0.5 - 1.0m 9.8 12 7.7 460 440 180 380 1500 5300 200 190 77 170 640 2300 1 44 FA-S16-2 29-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 9.6 4.9 7.95 430 18 31 1200 890 7400 190 8.3 14 560 400 3300 1.1 45 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 1.0 - 1.5m 9.5 5.7 7.66 470 330 320 890 910 6400 240 170 160 460 470 3300 1 52 S08-06 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 9.5 6.9 8 440 160 40 980 1100 6700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 47.8 SZ-S15-17 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 9.5 13 7.82 490 380 51 320 1600 5300 190 150 20 120 610 2100 0.98 40 S08-04 02-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 9.2 4.9 8.2 410 45 19 1200 850 7000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 47.6 FA-S16-1 29-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 9 8 7.78 460 80 47 710 1200 5300 170 29 18 260 430 1900 1.2 37 S08-48 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 8.8 9.9 8.3 320 110 27 590 1300 5700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 42.1 S10-16 23-Jul-2010 0.15 - 0.3m 8.7 8.9 7.64 570 1500 31 310 1100 2700 220 600 12 120 410 1000 1 38.7 S10-18 23-Jul-2010 3.5 - 4.0m 8.6 81 9.2 28 310 7.4 12 2000 1800 12 140 3.2 5.1 880 800 1.9 43.5 S99-21 26-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 8.45 24.4 7.9 193 1530 28.4 88.6 1630 2090 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.02 46 FA-S16-3 28-Sep-2016 0.15 - 0.3m 8.4 3.9 7.91 470 5.1 15 1100 680 6500 230 2.4 7.2 540 320 3100 1.1 48 S08-02 02-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 8.4 4.4 8.2 420 140 22 970 720 5900 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 44.3 S08-13 03-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 8.4 4.9 8.1 400 180 13 1000 800 6100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 40 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 0.15 - 0.3m 8.3 4.7 7.74 530 580 450 630 680 4700 230 250 200 280 300 2100 1 44 S99-9 25-Aug-1999 0.0 - 0.15m 8.23 10.1 8.3 384 85 39.9 473 1250 5220 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.02 45 S08-09 03-Dec-2008 2.5 - 3.0m 8.2 4.3 8.1 420 210 15 970 710 5800 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46.4 S08-14 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 8.2 11 8 410 590 23 400 1300 4400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 43.3 S99-17 25-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 8.14 8.8 7.8 410 85 30.3 626 1210 3840 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.52 51 SZ-S15-18 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 8.1 13 7.72 510 740 71 210 1400 3800 260 370 36 110 680 1900 1 51 SZ-S15-22 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 8.1 9.5 7.93 490 610 57 300 1100 3800 210 260 25 130 470 1600 1 43 FA-S13-8 07-Jun-2013 0.3 - 0.6m 7.7 11 6.69 420 230 41 280 1200 4500 200 110 20 140 580 2200 0.97 48 SZ-S15-21 01-Jul-2015 0.5 - 1.0m 7.5 11 7.88 500 360 33 240 1200 3600 200 140 13 96 460 1400 1.1 39 S99-19 25-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 7.29 8.5 7.1 414 55 7 478 1070 5000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 0.98 46 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 2.0 - 2.5m 7.2 4.5 7.52 390 240 100 710 650 4900 190 110 49 340 310 2400 1 48 S08-13 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 7.2 5.7 7.7 420 130 31 550 750 4200 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 59.1 Value exceeding applied guideline
  8. 8. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. 8 Sample ID Date SampleDepth ElectricalConductivity SodiumAdsorptionRatio pH SolubleCalcium SolubleChloride SolublePotassium SolubleMagnesium SolubleSodium SolubleSulphate Calcium Chloride Potassium Magnesium Sodium Sulphate IonBalance %Saturation (dd-mmm-yyyy) (dS/m) (none) (pH units) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (Balance) (%) PS-S15-3 30-Jun-2015 1.5 - 2.0m 35 800 11.7 8.8 7100 8.4 2.1 10000 69000 4.1 3300 3.9 0.96 4700 32000 0.27 47 S08-04 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 25 13 8.6 430 1700 110 4000 3800 21000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 43.7 S08-05 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 18 7.8 8.5 430 200 58 2700 2000 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 61.4 S08-45 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 18 13 8.2 400 570 55 2400 3000 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 39 S08-09 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 17 9.4 7.9 400 410 24 2300 2200 14000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 48.6 S08-12 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 17 9.8 8.5 450 400 94 2500 2400 15000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 49.6 S10-16 23-Jul-2010 0.6 - 1.0m 16 15 7.81 600 2900 39 680 2300 4000 250 1200 17 290 960 1700 1.1 42.5 S08-44 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 16 12 8.4 360 520 20 1300 2200 9600 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 44.3 FA-S16-2 29-Sep-2016 0.6 - 1.0m 15 6.5 8.11 440 24 31 2500 1600 14000 200 11 14 1100 710 6100 1 44 S08-46 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 15 6.7 8.6 340 130 12 2500 1600 13000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 45.8 FA-S16-3 28-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 14 3.8 7.96 470 5.6 50 2800 990 13000 210 2.5 22 1200 430 5600 1.1 44 S08-08 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 14 10 8 380 190 20 1300 1800 9100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 43.2 SZ-S15-25 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 14 19 7.7 480 1600 77 460 2500 6300 240 790 38 230 1200 3200 0.97 50 S08-15 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 12 7.5 8.3 380 460 15 1400 1400 8400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 49.2 S10-5 22-Jul-2010 0.3 - 0.6m 11 5.5 8.14 390 240 15 1600 1100 8500 200 120 8 840 560 4400 1.1 51.5 FA-S15-7 29-Jun-2015 0.15 - 0.3m 11 3.7 7.97 500 80 17 1700 770 9100 250 39 8.4 830 380 4400 1 49 S08-41 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 11 12 8.3 350 590 19 840 1800 6900 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 0.3 - 0.6m 10 5 7.6 490 590 560 1000 840 6500 260 310 290 520 440 3400 1 52 WA-169A 31-Aug-2011 2.5 - 3.0m 10 7.1 7.45 440 110 27 1200 1300 8300 200 49 12 540 570 3700 1 45 S08-11 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 10 5.3 8.4 410 460 23 1100 900 6300 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 50.5 S08-19 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 5.6 8.3 380 230 16 1500 1100 8400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 35.8 S08-28 04-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 8.9 8.6 270 300 73 820 1300 6000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 41.7 S08-38 04-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 10 17 7.8 380 1200 43 230 1700 3700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 47.1 S08-43 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 10 8.8 8.5 330 370 43 1000 1400 7100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46.5 S08-33 04-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 9.9 13 8.3 350 650 35 590 1700 5700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 45.1 SZ-S15-20 01-Jul-2015 0.5 - 1.0m 9.8 12 7.7 460 440 180 380 1500 5300 200 190 77 170 640 2300 1 44 FA-S16-2 29-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 9.6 4.9 7.95 430 18 31 1200 890 7400 190 8.3 14 560 400 3300 1.1 45 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 1.0 - 1.5m 9.5 5.7 7.66 470 330 320 890 910 6400 240 170 160 460 470 3300 1 52 S08-06 02-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 9.5 6.9 8 440 160 40 980 1100 6700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 47.8 SZ-S15-17 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 9.5 13 7.82 490 380 51 320 1600 5300 190 150 20 120 610 2100 0.98 40 S08-04 02-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 9.2 4.9 8.2 410 45 19 1200 850 7000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 47.6 FA-S16-1 29-Sep-2016 1.5 - 2.0m 9 8 7.78 460 80 47 710 1200 5300 170 29 18 260 430 1900 1.2 37 S08-48 05-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 8.8 9.9 8.3 320 110 27 590 1300 5700 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 42.1 S10-16 23-Jul-2010 0.15 - 0.3m 8.7 8.9 7.64 570 1500 31 310 1100 2700 220 600 12 120 410 1000 1 38.7 S10-18 23-Jul-2010 3.5 - 4.0m 8.6 81 9.2 28 310 7.4 12 2000 1800 12 140 3.2 5.1 880 800 1.9 43.5 S99-21 26-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 8.45 24.4 7.9 193 1530 28.4 88.6 1630 2090 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.02 46 FA-S16-3 28-Sep-2016 0.15 - 0.3m 8.4 3.9 7.91 470 5.1 15 1100 680 6500 230 2.4 7.2 540 320 3100 1.1 48 S08-02 02-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 8.4 4.4 8.2 420 140 22 970 720 5900 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 44.3 S08-13 03-Dec-2008 1.5 - 2.0m 8.4 4.9 8.1 400 180 13 1000 800 6100 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 40 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 0.15 - 0.3m 8.3 4.7 7.74 530 580 450 630 680 4700 230 250 200 280 300 2100 1 44 S99-9 25-Aug-1999 0.0 - 0.15m 8.23 10.1 8.3 384 85 39.9 473 1250 5220 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.02 45 S08-09 03-Dec-2008 2.5 - 3.0m 8.2 4.3 8.1 420 210 15 970 710 5800 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 46.4 S08-14 03-Dec-2008 0.5 - 1.0m 8.2 11 8 410 590 23 400 1300 4400 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1 43.3 S99-17 25-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 8.14 8.8 7.8 410 85 30.3 626 1210 3840 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.52 51 SZ-S15-18 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 8.1 13 7.72 510 740 71 210 1400 3800 260 370 36 110 680 1900 1 51 SZ-S15-22 01-Jul-2015 0.0 - 0.5m 8.1 9.5 7.93 490 610 57 300 1100 3800 210 260 25 130 470 1600 1 43 FA-S13-8 07-Jun-2013 0.3 - 0.6m 7.7 11 6.69 420 230 41 280 1200 4500 200 110 20 140 580 2200 0.97 48 SZ-S15-21 01-Jul-2015 0.5 - 1.0m 7.5 11 7.88 500 360 33 240 1200 3600 200 140 13 96 460 1400 1.1 39 S99-19 25-Aug-1999 0.3 - 0.6m 7.29 8.5 7.1 414 55 7 478 1070 5000 --- --- --- --- --- --- 0.98 46 WA-170A 30-Aug-2011 2.0 - 2.5m 7.2 4.5 7.52 390 240 100 710 650 4900 190 110 49 340 310 2400 1 48 S08-13 03-Dec-2008 0.0 - 0.3m 7.2 5.7 7.7 420 130 31 550 750 4200 --- --- --- --- --- --- 1.1 59.1 Value exceeding applied guideline Data Compared to Statistical Background Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  9. 9. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Hidden Figures And now the technical stuff… 9Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  10. 10. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Site Investigation Salinity Data Compilation • All soil data was compiled into tables from historical reports for statistical analysis and graphing • Dataset – 506 samples in total • 89 reference soil salinity samples from outlying areas only • 230 site samples converted from mg/L to mg/kg using % saturation 10Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  11. 11. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Even Salinity Has a Pattern • Use the shape of an individual site sample plotted against the reference 11 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Not Impacted Potentially Impacted Blue – reference Pink – site sample (Based on % values) Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  12. 12. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Salinity Assessment Tool • A tool used for distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic salinity – User input • Separate reference and site samples • Separate samples based on depth (surface vs subsoil) – Normalize data (mg/kg – meq/kg - % total) – Radar plots for visualization of salinity “fingerprint” Coming soon to software near you 12 SAT Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  13. 13. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Complex Sites Need Extra Analysis • Large number of samples or multiple fingerprints • Exploratory multivariate statistical techniques help identify groups of samples • We use Principle Component Analysis (PCA) – Validates groupings defined with radar plots – Gives additional information about how the samples group (or don’t group) together – 2nd line of evidence for groupings of samples 13Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something https://acuityinstitute.com/six-sigma-statistics/
  14. 14. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. PCA from Example Site 14Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ BackgroundDissimilar
  15. 15. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Map of Site Investigation Area 15Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  16. 16. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. 16 Locations collected as representative reference samples Background (aka reference samples) are not limited to the outside of the site investigation Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  17. 17. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Steps in the Analysis • Collate all the data, standardize salinity measurements • Identify background samples, analyze by SAT and multivariate statistical analysis – Determine pattern(s?) of background • Examine all site data to identify background and potentially impacted samples – Double checked the outliers 17Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  18. 18. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Radar Plots • Data was entered into SAT – Separated by topsoil and subsoil (< 0.3 mbg and > 0.3 mbg) • Reference samples plotted against average reference to make sure samples were comparable – 4 groups of samples were identified with radar plots – Each sample put in group based on visual assessment of radar plot 18Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  19. 19. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Groups Identified in Reference Soil • All groups below shown compared to average of all reference samples • Group 1 same as average reference (66% of samples) • Group 2 less Mg2+ and more Ca2+ (28% of samples) • Group 3 show increased % Cl- (2.5% of samples) • Group 4 show increased % Na+ (3.5% of samples) 1919 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  20. 20. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Entering On-Site Samples into SAT • All site samples were added into SAT – Group 1 pattern from reference was used as the comparison fingerprint • Site sample radar plots were visually assessed • 4 groups were identified which was the same as the reference samples 20Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  21. 21. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Applying Groups to Site Samples • Group 1 – 61.5% of the samples (66%) • Group 2 – 5 % of the samples (28%) • Group 3 – 23.5% of the samples (2.5%) • Group 4 – 10% of the samples (3.5%) 21 Conducted PCA to examine statistical groupings of all samples. Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  22. 22. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Eigenvalue 2.4632 2.2549 0.9676 0.7671 0.5472 20 40 60 80 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Component2(32.2%) -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Component 1 (35.2 %) -1 -0 0 0 1 Component2(32.2%) 22 Progression of Radar Plots Compared to PCA Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  23. 23. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Eigenvalue 2.4632 2.2549 0.9676 0.7671 0.5472 20 40 60 80 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Component2(32.2%) -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Component 1 (35.2 %) -1 -0 0 0 1 Component2(32.2%) 23 Progression of Radar Plots Compared to PCA Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 1 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 2 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 3 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ Group 4 Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  24. 24. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. 24 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Elevated EC/SAR Picked for EC/SAR Comparison Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ EC – 2.8 dS/m SAR – 0.6 Cl- Ca2+ Na+SO42- Mg2+ EC – 25 dS/m SAR - 13 Range Found in Group 1 Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  25. 25. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. 25 Background Locations Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something Chloride 310 mg/kg EC 10 dS/m
  26. 26. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Map of Exceedances Based on Guidelines 26Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something EC SAR Statistical Background
  27. 27. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Conclusions 27 • Limited salinity impacts are present on the facility based on fingerprinting and statistical analysis – Concurs with site usage which site never handled produced water • There is a large range of natural salinity that was used to determine ‘normal’ concentrations for the site Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  28. 28. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Conclusions • Take time to understand your data, as • Background concentrations may be more places than you think – not just on the outskirts of your site, and • Guideline exceedences may not be as represented in past reports, and • There are some new tools available - apply the science, you may just find your ‘Hidden Figures’ 28Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something
  29. 29. © 2018 Chemistry Matters Inc. Thank you for your attention Contact Info: Chemistry Matters Inc. Court Sandau Cell: 403.669.8566 Email: csandau@chemistry-matters.com URL: chemistry-matters.com Visit my website and sign up for email for automatic receipt of my blogs! Tom Knapik, P.Eng. Plain Midstream Canada 29Your Site Investigation Data is Telling You Something

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