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  • The DMCA was enacted in October 1998 primarily to bring U.S. copyright law into conformity with provisions of two World Intellectual Property Organization treaties to which the U.S. is a signatory. --- prohibits devices designed to circumvent digital anti-copying protections.
  • Tac 08 Copyright Am

    1. 1. Teaching Academy Certification <br />Copyright and Plagiarism<br />Christine Salmon, PhD<br />Office of Educational Enhancement<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />Define copyright<br />Identify copyright infringement<br />Evaluate materials for Fair Use<br />Define academic integrity<br />Recognize characteristics of plagiarism<br />Design appropriate assessment methods<br />Identify UT-Dallas policies<br />
    3. 3. Copyright!<br />arghhhh!!! <br />Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    4. 4. Copyright and Fair Use<br />Write down everything you know about copyright and fair use.<br />In small groups, compare notes.<br />Come up with a definition of “copyright”.<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6. Copyright and Fair Use<br />CASE method<br />opynd hare verything<br />What do you know?<br />Copyright Quizzes<br />http://www.csus.edu/indiv/p/peachj/edte230/copyright/quiz.htm<br />C <br />A<br />S<br />E<br />
    7. 7. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge!<br />Work together and do questions 1 – 5 on the handout.<br />
    8. 8. Copyright?<br />
    9. 9. Copyright – the Law<br />U.S. Code (17 USC, section 106 - 1976)<br />Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998)<br />Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act (2002)<br />Comparison of above - http://www.unc.edu/~unclng/TEACH.htm<br />Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA) <br />
    10. 10. Copyright – What is it?<br />Intellectual property protection for “…original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.”<br />Copyright Law of the United States (Ch 1, p8)<br />http://www.copyright.gov/title17/<br />
    11. 11. Copyright?<br />
    12. 12. Copyright holders – exclusive rights to:<br />Reproduction<br />Adaptation<br />Publication<br />Performance<br />Display <br />Copyright – What is it?<br />My Star<br />My Star<br />
    13. 13. Copyright – When does it start?<br />Does not require publication<br />Does not require ©<br />Does not require registration<br />As soon as work is fixed <br />
    14. 14. Copyright – What is protected?<br />Literary works<br />Pictorial, graphic and sculptural works<br />Motion pictures<br />Audiovisual works<br />Sound recordings<br />
    15. 15. Copyright – What is not protected?<br />Facts<br />Ideas not in fixed form<br />Works produced by federal government employees<br />
    16. 16. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge!<br />Work together and do questions 6 – 10 on the handout.<br />
    17. 17. Copyright – UT System<br />Faculty<br /><ul><li>Scholarly works related to field
    18. 18. TeleCourse materials
    19. 19. Joint ownership
    20. 20. Works for hire</li></ul>Students<br /><ul><li>Subject to same rules for use
    21. 21. Students own copyright in their works
    22. 22. Graduate students & dissertation
    23. 23. Graduate students and joint authorship</li></li></ul><li>Copyright – What is it?<br />Non-dramatic literary or musical work<br /> (excludes audiovisual works)<br />Work uses dialogue and action to tell a connected story<br />Work is “related” - not performed.<br />Non-dramatic (full)<br /><ul><li> novel
    24. 24. essay
    25. 25. poetry / poem
    26. 26. short story
    27. 27. symphony</li></ul>Dramatic (portions)<br /><ul><li> stage play
    28. 28. theatre piece
    29. 29. music video
    30. 30. opera
    31. 31. musical</li></li></ul><li>Copyright – How long is it?<br />Life of author<br />plus 70 years<br />Created on /after January 1, 1978<br />Made for hire, anonymous<br />Public domain – no copyright<br />95 years from date of publication or 120 years from date of creation, whichever is shorter<br />
    32. 32. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Kinko’s case” Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinko&apos;s Graphics Corporation, 758 F. Supp. 1522 (SDNY 1991)<br />Kinko’s had copied materials representing 5 – 24% of works<br />Did not prohibit coursepacks<br />Did prohibit unlawful reproduction and sale of coursepacks – without copyright permissions<br />
    33. 33. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Georgia State University case” – several publishers (2008)<br />GSU “pervasive, flagrant and ongoing” distribution of copyrighted materials in digital form<br />Electronic reserves, Blackboard/WebCT, online syllabi, servers<br />Seeking injunction to stop, but no money<br />
    34. 34. Copyright – Lawsuits almost<br />AAP (American Association of Publishers) – Cornell, Hofstra, Syracuse, Marquette Universities<br />Concern with manner of providing copyrighted materials in digital format (e-reserves, faculty webpages, CMS) <br />Resolved with jointly-drafted guidelines<br />Cornell’s Guidelines<br />
    35. 35. Fair Use – Four Factors<br />Purpose<br />Nature<br />Amount<br />Effect<br />Why are you using this work?<br />What is the nature of the work?<br />How much are you using?<br />What is the effect on the market?<br />
    36. 36. Fair Use - Purpose<br />Seek Permission<br />Commercial<br />Education<br />Non-profit<br />Personal<br />Criticism<br />Commentary<br />News reporting<br />Parody / satire<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    37. 37. Fair Use - Nature<br />Seek Permission<br />Creative<br />Unpublished<br />Consumable<br />Factual<br />Published<br />Mix of fact <br />and imaginative<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    38. 38. Fair Use - Amount<br />Seek Permission<br />Significant<br />Entire work<br />Small amount<br />Non-essential<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    39. 39. Fair Use - Effect<br />Seek Permission<br />Harms the sale<br />Are reasonably priced<br />No effect on market<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    40. 40. Copyright – Fair Use<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br />Integral part of class<br />Under supervision/control of instructor<br />In a manner analagous to performance/display in live, F2F classroom<br />
    41. 41. Classroom Copying - Guidelines<br />Multiple copies allowed (no more than per student) provided that copying:<br />Meets test of brevity and spontaneity<br />Meets test of cumulative effect<br />Contains copyright notice<br />Limits on amount copiable<br />Time requirements<br />Limits on instances of copying<br />
    42. 42. Copyright – Printed Materials<br />Reproducing printed materials for use inclass:<br />A book chapter <br />An article from periodical or newspaper<br />A short story, short essay, short poem<br />A graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture from a book, newspaper, periodical<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br /><ul><li> Integral part of class
    43. 43. Under supervision/control of instructor
    44. 44. In a manner analagous to performance/ display in live, F2F classroom</li></ul>Next 14 slides drawn from: Stanford University Copyright and Fair Use Overview<br />
    45. 45. BUT<br />Copyright notice must be attached (each item)<br />Copying must NOT replace textbook, workbook<br />Must not charge more than actual cost of copying<br />Must not exceed one copy per student<br />Cannot copy texts, workbooks, standardized tests, etc created for educational use (consumables)<br />1<br />
    46. 46. AND (Brevity test)<br />Restrictions:<br />Complete poem IF &lt; 250 words<br />Excerpt of no more than 250 (if longer poem)<br />Complete article, essay, story IF &lt; 2500 words<br />Excerpt from prose of no more than 1000 words or 10% of entire work, whichever is less<br />One (1) graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture per book, newspaper, periodical<br />
    47. 47. AND (Spontaneity test)<br />Idea for copying derives from teacher, not administration<br />Idea and copying must occur close in time – so close that no time for permission request and granting<br />
    48. 48. AND (Cumulative Effect test)<br />Per class term restrictions – all of above, plus<br />Per author<br />One story, short poem, article, essay<br />Two excepts<br />Per collective work, periodical volume<br />No more than three stories, short poems, articles, essays (or combination)<br />Only nine (9) instances per course<br />
    49. 49. Copyright – Music<br />Reproducing musicfor use inclass:<br />Excerpts of sheet music, printed works IF<br />Do NOT make a “performable unit” (entire song, section, movement, aria)<br />Do NOT exceed 10% of entire work<br />Do NOT exceed one copy per student<br />Purchased copies can be edited IF fundamental character of work NOT distorted or lyrics altered<br />Image from http://levysheetmusic.mse.jhu.edu/levy-browse.html<br />
    50. 50. AND<br />Recording of a performance<br />Single (1) recording for purposes of evaluation or rehearsal<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Sound recording owned by institution or teacher (tape, CD, cassette) <br />Single copy IF for aural exercises, exams<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Must include copyright notice<br />♫♫<br />
    51. 51. BUT<br />Instructor CANNOT copy:<br />Sheet music, recordings to make compilation<br />Sheet music, recordings for performances<br />From “consumables” (texts, workbooks, etc.)<br />
    52. 52. Copyright - Television<br />Recording network or cable shows:<br />Keep copy for 45 days BUT use for instruction only first 10 days<br />Played once by individual teacher for instruction<br />After 10 days, use only for teacher evaluation (should we use it in curriculum? Yes – MUST obtain permission)<br />After 45 days, recording MUST be erased<br />
    53. 53. AND<br />Recorded only at request of instructor<br />Used only by instructor<br />No standing requests; no anticipated requests<br />Copies only for individual instructor<br />NO compilation<br />Must include copyright notice<br />
    54. 54. Copyright – Digital Images <br />Can digitize an analog image IF digital image not available at fair price<br />Can display for lectures, scholarly presentations<br />Institution can compile digitized images on secure network for students enrolled in class for review or directed study.<br />Must include statement prohibiting: downloading, copying, retention, printing, sharing, modification<br />
    55. 55. Copyright – Digital <br />CANNOT reproduce or publish images in publications (incl. scholarly publications)<br />
    56. 56. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Students, instructors preparing MM works:<br />MM = combination of music, text, graphics, illustrations, photographs, images, video<br />For F2F instruction, directed self-study, remote instruction<br />Only systematic learning activities at no-profit educational institutions<br />Can use MM presentation up to 2 yrs after 1st use<br />♪<br />
    57. 57. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions:<br />10% or 1000 words (whichever is less)<br />No more than 3 poems by single author<br />No more than 5 poems by different poets in an anthology<br />Up to 10% or 3 minutes of motion media<br />One (1) photo/illustration by single artist<br />No more than 10% or 15 images (whichever is less) from collective work<br />
    58. 58. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions:<br />10% or 2,500 cell entries from database or data table<br />Other restrictions:<br />Only 2 copies of MM project, one of which can be on reserve<br />Additional 1 copy for preservation (used only to replace stolen, lost, damaged original)<br />
    59. 59. Copyright<br />Test your knowledge!<br />Work together and do questions 11 - 15 on the handout.<br />
    60. 60. Your Turn<br />In small groups, create at least 2 scenarios that you can use with your students to teach them about copyright and fair use.<br />
    61. 61. Copyright Resources<br />TEACH Act Toolkit(North Carolina State University)http://www.provost.ncsu.edu/copyright/toolkit/<br />UT System Crash Course in Copyright http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm#top<br />UT System Intellectual Property Policyhttp://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/2xii.htm<br />AAP (Association of American Publishers) Copyright - Rights and Permissions http://www.publishers.org/main/Copyright/copyPermission_01.htm?id=20<br />Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf<br />
    62. 62. FYI<br />Creative Commonshttp://www.creativecommons.org<br />PostYourTest.comhttp://postyourtest.com/<br />
    63. 63. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    64. 64. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    65. 65. Plagiarism and Cheating<br />Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    66. 66. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    67. 67. Let’s Talk …<br />What is academic integrity?<br />In small groups:<br />discuss this question <br />come up with a definition<br />discuss how you would react to an instance of academic dishonesty<br />
    68. 68. Some quotes<br />Integrity is telling myself the truth. And honesty is telling the truth to other people.<br />-- Spencer Johnson<br />Those who think it is permissible to tell white lies soon grow color--blind.<br />-- Austin O&apos;Malley<br />Integrity -- When you do the right thing even though no one is watching.<br />-- Anon<br />
    69. 69. One Definition<br />Academic integrity is a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility. From these values flow principles of behavior that enable academic communities to translate ideals to action. <br />Center for Academic Integrity<br />
    70. 70. What is Considered Academic Dishonesty?<br />Brainstorm as may specific examples or types of academic dishonesty as you can.<br />5 minutes!<br />http://www.utdallas.edu/judicialaffairs/UTDJudicialAffairs-maintainingintegrity.html<br />
    71. 71. What Does Academic Dishonesty Look Like?<br />UTD – Examples <br />http://www.utdallas.edu/judicialaffairs/UTDJudicialAffairs-Basicexamples.html<br />http://www.utdallas.edu/judicialaffairs/UTDJudicialAffairs-maintainingintegrity.html<br />
    72. 72. What is Considered Academic Dishonesty?<br />Cheating<br />Fabrication<br />Plagiarism<br />Facilitating academic dishonesty<br />Misrepresentation<br />Failure to contribute to a collaborative project<br />Sabotage<br />http://www.utdallas.edu/judicialaffairs/UTDJudicialAffairs-maintainingintegrity.html<br />
    73. 73. Plagiarism<br />Types of plagiarism – sources not cited<br />The Ghost Writer<br />The Photocopy<br />The Potluck Paper<br />The Poor Disguise<br />The Labor of Laziness<br />The Self Stealer<br />http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/types_of_plagiarism.html<br />
    74. 74. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    75. 75. Plagiarism<br />Types of plagiarism –cited but plagiarized<br />The Forgotten Footnote<br />The Misinformer<br />The Too Perfect Paraphrase<br />The Resourceful Citer<br />The Perfect Crime<br />http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/types_of_plagiarism.html<br />
    76. 76. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    77. 77. Penalties<br />Intention doesn’t matter<br />Academic consequences<br />Legal consequences<br />Economic consequences<br />
    78. 78. Penalties<br />UT-Pan American president accused, resigned<br />InsideHigherEd.com, January 29, 2009<br />Ohio University profs removed for failing to monitor students in plagiarism scandal<br />InsideHigherEd.com, January 9, 2009<br />Aide to Canadian PM, White House aide admits plagiarizing speech, resigns <br />CNN Wed, October 1, 2008<br />White House aide admits plagiarism, resigns<br />CNN Fri, February 29, 2008<br />
    79. 79. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    80. 80. The Numbers<br />2008 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth – Josephson Institute http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/index.html<br />64% HS students cheated on exams<br />35% HS students plagiarized<br />2006 survey of academic honesty in graduate business schools The Chronicle: Daily news: 09/19/2006<br />56% business students cheated<br />47% non-business students cheated<br />McCabe 2005 <br />40% students plagiarized (cut ‘n paste)<br />77% didn’t believe plagiarism was serious offenses<br />
    81. 81. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    82. 82. Why do students cheat?<br />&quot;The real world is terrible…People will take other people&apos;s materials and pass it on as theirs. I&apos;m numb to it already. I&apos;ll cheat to get by.&quot; <br />&quot;A lot of people think it&apos;s like you&apos;re not really there to learn anything. You&apos;re just learning to learn the system.&quot; <br />A Cheating Crisis in America’s Schools<br />http://abcnews.go.com/primetime/story?id=132376&page=1<br />
    83. 83. Why do students cheat?<br />&quot;There&apos;s other people getting better grades than me and they&apos;re cheating. Why am I not going to cheat? It&apos;s kind of almost stupid if you don’t…”<br />&quot;Everything is about the grade that you got in the class. Nobody looks at how you got it.”<br />&quot;You don&apos;t want to be a dork and study for eight hours a day. You want to go out and have fun.&quot; <br />A Cheating Crisis in America’s Schools<br />http://abcnews.go.com/primetime/story?id=132376&page=1<br />
    84. 84. Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    85. 85. Why do students commit academic plagiarism?<br />Intentionally:<br />Unintentionally:<br />Cultural understanding:<br /><ul><li> Searching v. Researching
    86. 86. “But their words are better”
    87. 87. Making the grade
    88. 88. “But everyone else is doing it”
    89. 89. Poor planning
    90. 90. Citation confusion
    91. 91. “I was just copying my notes”
    92. 92. “I couldn’t find the source”
    93. 93. I thought we didn’t have to quote facts”
    94. 94. Confusion about expectations</li></ul>http://www.plagiarism.org<br />
    95. 95. Our Response - Helping Students<br />Understand why students commit academic dishonesty<br />Discussion and education<br />Design assessments to reduce opportunity<br />Use tools<br />
    96. 96. Preventing Plagiarism<br />Explain what &quot;plagiarism&quot; means<br />Explain why plagiarism is wrong <br />Make the consequences clear<br />Start off with clear expectations<br />Assign specific questions or topics<br />Require students to submit thesis statements, introductions, outlines, or drafts<br />Discuss and educate<br />http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/preventing_guidlines.html<br />
    97. 97. Preventing Plagiarism<br />7. Have the students annotate their bibliography<br />8. Assign oral presentations<br />9. Require recent and printed sources<br />10. Assign a paragraph on the composition process<br />11. Encourage concision <br />Designing assignments<br />
    98. 98. Educate Students<br />Plagiarism Tutorial – University of South Florida<br />http://www.cte.usf.edu/plagiarism/plag.html<br />Plagiarism Court – You Be the Judge<br />http://www.fairfield.edu/documents/library/plagicourt.swf<br />writeyourowntermpaper.com(parody) – see especially the section on Humor<br />http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/writeyourowntermpaper/<br />
    99. 99. Consider….<br />Would you get on a plane if the pilot could work only half the controls?<br />Would you buy a computer if it only had ¼ of the keys?<br />Would you buy a textbook if it ended half-way through – in the middle of a sentence?<br />
    100. 100. Consequences<br />Can affect your grade<br />“Cheats” you of important skills<br />Destroys equal playing field<br />Affects reputation of school and institution<br />
    101. 101. Assessment/Activity Design <br />Source: www.cartoonstock.com<br />
    102. 102. Assessment/Activity Design <br />Use low stakes assessments (quizzes in place of or in addition to exams)<br />Use iterative process (do drafts of papers, etc.)<br />Use active learning assessments (problem-based learning; group activities)<br />Use inventive assessment (not just what can be found in a book – apply this concept to a movie, eg.)<br />
    103. 103. Electronic Tools<br />Turnitin.com (UTD license)http://www.turnitin.com<br />WriteCheck (Turnitin for Students) http://writecheck.turnitin.com/static/home.html<br />PlagiarismDetect.com (for students -free)http://www.plagiarismdetect.com/<br />List of plagiarism detection services (incl. for software plagiarism)http://www.lib.umich.edu/acadintegrity/instructors/violations/detection.htm<br />
    104. 104. Your Turn<br />In small groups, create at least 2 scenarios that you can use with your students to teach them about cheating and plagiarism.<br />
    105. 105. Resources<br />Plagiarism.orghttp://www.plagiarism.org<br />The Honest Truth About Cheating (NPR podcast about grad students) http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10033373<br />Center for Academic Integrity (Clemson Univ) http://www.academicintegrity.org/<br />Winning Hearts and Minds in War on Plagiarism http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/04/07/plagiarism<br />

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