Designing Effective  Class Discussion  The Academy  Cluster 3  Communicating for Learning
 
Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Participants will be able to distinguish between discussion, conversation, and dialogue.
 </li...
Workshop Outline <ul><li>Intro  </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout - Individual work </li></ul><ul><li>B...
What is Discussion? <ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
Critical Discourse - Dispositions <ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness </li><...
<ul><li>Deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>
Why Discussion? Benefits <ul><li>Helps students explore diversity of perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Increases student awar...
<ul><li>Develops a new appreciation for continuing differences </li></ul><ul><li>Increases intellectual agility </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Helps students learn processes and habits of democratic process </li></ul><ul><li>Affirms students as cocreators o...
<ul><li>Increases breadth and make students more empathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students develop skills of synthesis a...
Discussion - Limitations <ul><li>Instructor’s unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Student unpreparedness </li></ul>...
Preparing for Discussion <ul><li>Ensure early, equal access to materials </li></ul><ul><li>Use lectures to model democrati...
Lecture as a model <ul><li>Begin each lecture with question(s) </li></ul><ul><li>End each lecture with questions raised or...
Lecture as a model (cont) <ul><li>Deliberately introduce alternative perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce periods of a...
Critical Incident Questionnaire CIQ <ul><li>At what moment in class this week were you most engaged as a learner? </li></u...
CIQ (cont) <ul><li>What action that anyone in the class took this week did you find most puzzling or confusing? </li></ul>...
Generating Ground Rules <ul><li>See attachment </li></ul>
Critical Prereading <ul><li>Epistemological questions </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential questions </li></ul><ul><li>Communica...
Critical Prereading <ul><li>See attachment </li></ul>
Get Discussion Going <ul><li>Mistakes to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be vague </li></ul>...
Get going (cont) <ul><li>Declare classroom speech policy early </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief preparatory work </li></ul><ul><l...
Debrief preparatory work <ul><li>Frame discussion around student questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to choose a conc...
Debrief (cont) <ul><li>Start and respond to contentious opening statements </li></ul><ul><li>Generate truth statements </l...
Discussion in the Round <ul><li>Two techniques to ensure good discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Circle of voices - ensures equa...
Keep Discussion Going <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul>
Types of Questions <ul><li>1. Questions that ask for more evidence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Questions that ask for clarificati...
Listening <ul><li>Paired listening </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Designated listener </li></ul>
Responding <ul><li>Responding without questions </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Responding with silence </...
Creative Grouping <ul><li>Relaxed and structured buzz groups </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selection or teacher-selection </li></...
Assuming different roles <ul><li>Critical debate </li></ul><ul><li>Types of conversational roles </li></ul><ul><li>Critica...
Conversational roles <ul><li>Problem, dilemma, or theme poser </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Scrou...
Critical conversation protocol <ul><li>Storyteller </li></ul><ul><li>Detectives </li></ul><ul><li>Umpire </li></ul>
Reporting back <ul><li>Newsprint dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating small group stations </li></ul><ul><li>Snowballing </...
Thank you <ul><li>Please complete the evaluation of this workshop. Your feedback is important. </li></ul>
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Designing Effective Class Discussions

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  • Designing Effective Class Discussions

    1. 1. Designing Effective Class Discussion The Academy Cluster 3 Communicating for Learning
    2. 3. Workshop Objectives <ul><li>Participants will be able to distinguish between discussion, conversation, and dialogue.
 </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to cite the elements of critical discussion.
 </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to identify the benefits of discussion in the classroom.
 </li></ul><ul><li>Participants will be able to identify techniques to begin discussion and to maintain the momentum of the discussion.
 </li></ul>
    3. 4. Workshop Outline <ul><li>Intro </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout - Individual work </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout - Peer review & discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up </li></ul>
    4. 5. What is Discussion? <ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    5. 6. Critical Discourse - Dispositions <ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Mutuality </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Deliberation </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>
    7. 8. Why Discussion? Benefits <ul><li>Helps students explore diversity of perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Increases student awareness of and tolerance for ambiguity or complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students recognize and investigate their assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages attentive, respectful listening </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Develops a new appreciation for continuing differences </li></ul><ul><li>Increases intellectual agility </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students become connected to a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Shows respect for student voices and experiences </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Helps students learn processes and habits of democratic process </li></ul><ul><li>Affirms students as cocreators of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Develops the capacity for clear communication of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Develops habits of collaborative learning </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Increases breadth and make students more empathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students develop skills of synthesis and integration </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to transformation </li></ul>
    11. 12. Discussion - Limitations <ul><li>Instructor’s unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Student unpreparedness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly integrated reward system </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to model participation </li></ul>
    12. 13. Preparing for Discussion <ul><li>Ensure early, equal access to materials </li></ul><ul><li>Use lectures to model democratic talk </li></ul><ul><li>Use critical incident questionnaires (CIQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Generate ground rules for discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Have students do structured, critical prereading </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify expectations and purposes </li></ul>
    13. 14. Lecture as a model <ul><li>Begin each lecture with question(s) </li></ul><ul><li>End each lecture with questions raised or unanswered by lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately introduce periods of silence </li></ul>
    14. 15. Lecture as a model (cont) <ul><li>Deliberately introduce alternative perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce periods of assumption hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce “buzz groups” into lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate own participation in and commitment to discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Evolve “ground rules” for conducting discussions </li></ul>
    15. 16. Critical Incident Questionnaire CIQ <ul><li>At what moment in class this week were you most engaged as a learner? </li></ul><ul><li>At what moment in class this week were you most distanced as a learner? </li></ul><ul><li>What action that anyone in the class took this week did you find most affirming or helpful? </li></ul>
    16. 17. CIQ (cont) <ul><li>What action that anyone in the class took this week did you find most puzzling or confusing? </li></ul><ul><li>What surprised most about the class this week? </li></ul>
    17. 18. Generating Ground Rules <ul><li>See attachment </li></ul>
    18. 19. Critical Prereading <ul><li>Epistemological questions </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential questions </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative questions </li></ul><ul><li>Political questions </li></ul>
    19. 20. Critical Prereading <ul><li>See attachment </li></ul>
    20. 21. Get Discussion Going <ul><li>Mistakes to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be vague </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t play favorites </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t fear silence </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t misinterpret silence </li></ul>
    21. 22. Get going (cont) <ul><li>Declare classroom speech policy early </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief preparatory work </li></ul><ul><li>Recall a memorable experience </li></ul><ul><li>Tell tales from the trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion in the round </li></ul><ul><li>Hatful of quotes </li></ul>
    22. 23. Debrief preparatory work <ul><li>Frame discussion around student questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to choose a concrete image </li></ul><ul><li>Debrief previous week’s CIQs </li></ul><ul><li>Start a sentence completion exercise </li></ul>
    23. 24. Debrief (cont) <ul><li>Start and respond to contentious opening statements </li></ul><ul><li>Generate truth statements </li></ul><ul><li>Find illustrative quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Use quotes to affirm and challenge </li></ul>
    24. 25. Discussion in the Round <ul><li>Two techniques to ensure good discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Circle of voices - ensures equal opportunity to talk </li></ul><ul><li>Circular response discussions - promotes attentive listening </li></ul>
    25. 26. Keep Discussion Going <ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul>
    26. 27. Types of Questions <ul><li>1. Questions that ask for more evidence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Questions that ask for clarification </li></ul><ul><li>3. Open questions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Linking or extension questions </li></ul><ul><li>5. Hypothetical questions </li></ul><ul><li>6. Cause and effect questions </li></ul><ul><li>7. Summary and synthesis questions </li></ul>
    27. 28. Listening <ul><li>Paired listening </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Designated listener </li></ul>
    28. 29. Responding <ul><li>Responding without questions </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Responding with silence </li></ul>
    29. 30. Creative Grouping <ul><li>Relaxed and structured buzz groups </li></ul><ul><li>Self-selection or teacher-selection </li></ul><ul><li>Keep assignments short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Assuming different roles <ul><li>Critical debate </li></ul><ul><li>Types of conversational roles </li></ul><ul><li>Critical conversation protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Stand where you stand </li></ul>
    31. 32. Conversational roles <ul><li>Problem, dilemma, or theme poser </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Scrounger </li></ul><ul><li>Devil’s advocate </li></ul><ul><li>Detective </li></ul><ul><li>Theme spotter </li></ul><ul><li>Umpire </li></ul>
    32. 33. Critical conversation protocol <ul><li>Storyteller </li></ul><ul><li>Detectives </li></ul><ul><li>Umpire </li></ul>
    33. 34. Reporting back <ul><li>Newsprint dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating small group stations </li></ul><ul><li>Snowballing </li></ul><ul><li>Cocktail party </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw </li></ul>
    34. 35. Thank you <ul><li>Please complete the evaluation of this workshop. Your feedback is important. </li></ul>

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