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  1. 1. GENDER, RESILIENCE ANDPOSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Crystal Marie Perez Humboldt State University
  2. 2. THE PROBLEM*Most research that report genderdifferences actually report sexdifferences.*Biological and SociallyConstructed Ideologies.*File-Drawer Effect
  3. 3. WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?!*Well according to the Gender SimilarityHypothesis… not much (Hyde, 2005).*Women are more likely to seek helpBUT! Even when men and womenreport the same symptoms women aremore likely to be diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder.WHO 2012
  4. 4. RESEARCH AND HYPOTHESES*Zona (2011)found no differences in symptomology of external PTSD such as guilt and angerbetween men and women in the military.*Bem (1976) proposed that androgynous men and women were more adaptable psychologically.Androgynous individuals showed less discomfort and higher self esteem than sex-typed individuals.*Women perform better academically in a all girls schools in male dominated subjects (Sullivan 2009 )*Morrison found that men who conform to masculine norms reported greater PTSD symptomsHypothesis 1. In women, identification with masculine or androgynous traits will have a lowercorrelation with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.Hypothesis 2. In women, identification with feminine traits will have higher positive correlationswith posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.Hypothesis 3. In men, identification with feminine traits or androgynous gender identity will have alow correlation with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.Hypothesis 4. In men, identification with masculine traits will have a high positive correlation withposttraumatic stress disorder.Hypothesis 5. Individuals who endorse gender stereotypes will have higher positive relationshipwith posttraumatic stress disorder than those who do not.
  5. 5. METHODSEffect sizes have been shown in groups as little as 147but often researchers use hundreds of participants.The current study will aim for 200 adult participants, whohave experienced a traumatic life event in the past month. Just in case we forgot to mention themRecruitment will be from the Veterans Hall, Mental today….Health Services, Psychology studentsData can be collected in a group or lab setting.
  6. 6. METHODS CONTINUED INSTRUMENTATION The Conformity to Masculinity Norms Inventory a 22-item scale, which measures conformity to traditional American gender roles. Internal consistency of .94 test retest on different subscales range from .74 to .95. The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory may be used to assess conformity to traditional feminine gender roles. Internal consistency is reported a coefficient of .88. Alphas for subscales ranged from .77 to .92. Bem Sex-Role Inventory Short form: This instrument 40-item instrument will be used toassess gender-role perceptions. It correlates with the original at .90. The original inventory alpha coeffiecients indicated high internal and test re-test reliability (masculinity .86, femininity .82) Items are on a seven-point likert scale "How desirable is it in American society for a man/woman to possess each of these characteristics", (Bem, 1983). Holt (1998) claims this measure enables researchers to measure androgyny, high levels of masculinity, and femininity.Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screening form (to be found): Ideally a short form with high validity and reliability. Scoring would indicate if an individual experienced a traumatic event, if an individual would likley meet a full posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, a partial posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis or shows no symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.
  7. 7. FORMS OF CONSENT/ DEBRIEFINGDue to the sensitivity of the topics which may be brought up during researchit is important to let participants know that they are allowed to stop testing atany time.Participants will be given the opportunity to ask questions at the end of study.All individuals participating in the study will receive information and referralsto crisis hotlines or public health organizations.
  8. 8. DATA ANALYSISIndependent t-tests between sex and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.Pearson’s Correlation coefficient between gender conformity and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient between gender role perceptions and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
  9. 9. REFERENCESBem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 42, 155-162
Bem, S. L. & Lenney, E. (1976). Sex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex behavior Journalof Personality and Social Psychology. 33, 48-54Garmezy, N. and Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Hyde J. (2005). The Gender Similarities Hypothesis. American Psychology Association, 60, 581-592Mahalik, J. R., Locke, B. D., Ludlow, L. H., Diemer, M. A., Scott, R. P. J., Gottfried, M., & Freitas, G. (2003). Development of the conformity to masculine norms inventory, Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4, 3–25.Mahalik,J.R., Morray, E.B., Coonerty-Femiano, A., Ludlow,L. H., Slattery, S. M. & Smiler A. (2005). Development of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory Sex Roles, 52, 417-435. doi: 10.1007/s11199-005-3709-7Morrison, J. A. (2011). Masculinity Moderates the Relationship Between Symptoms of PTSD and Cardiac-Related Health Behaviors in Male Veterans. Psychology of Men & Masculinity. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0024186Sullivan A. (2009). Academic self-concept, gender and single-sex schooling. British Educational Research Journal Vol. 35. 259–288.Zona, K. Milan, S. (2011). Gender differences in the longitudinal impact of exposure to violence on mental health in urban youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescenc, 40, 1674-1690.