Lesson 5 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress

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  • Lesson 5 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress

    1. 1. Lesson 5: Physiological & psychological characteristics of responses to stress
    2. 2. Lesson 4 The biopsychosoical model exam question taken from - 2011 exam
    3. 3. Model response
    4. 4. Lesson 5: Physiological & psychological characteristics of responses to stress
    5. 5. Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do)Apply  a biopsychosocial framework tounderstanding the relationship betweenstress and physical and mental wellbeing: - Explain the physiological and psychological characteristics of responses to stress including fight-flight response, eustress and distress - Explain strengths and limitations of Selyes’ General Adaptation Syndrome
    6. 6. Stress and HealthExposure to stressful situations and events is a common humanexperience. From losing your locker key to losing your job – these eventscan produce stress.Stressor = any person, situation orevent that produces stress.Virtually anything can be a stressorand therefore a cause of stress to anindividual.Stress =A state of physiological andpsychological arousal produced byinternal or external stressors that areperceived by the individual aschallenging or exceeding their abilityto cope.
    7. 7. Biopsychosocial approach to stress
    8. 8. Responses to StressStress affects different people in differentways – depending on severity, durationand the individual.A Stress Response = physiological (bodily)and psychological (mental) changesexperienced when confronted by astressor.Stress&can&be&classified&as&MILD,&ACUTE&or&CHRONIC.&Mild&stress&&?&can&be&s@mula@ng&–&low&levels&of&arousal&can&enhance&performance.&Acute&–&sudden&high&arousal&level.&Chronic&–&long&term&–&can&be&damaging.&&
    9. 9. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress•  2"main"physiological"models"for"explaining"the"physiological"responses"to" stress."The"fight%flight(response(and"the(General(Adapta4on(Syndrome.! 1.!FightFlight!Response! FIGHTFLIGHT! RESPONSE!="an" involuntary"reac:on" resul:ng"in"a"state"of" physiological"readiness" to"deal"with"a"sudden" and"immediate"threat" by"either"confron:ng"it" (fight)"or"running"to" safety"(flight).""" Developed"by"Walter" Cannon."
    10. 10. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 1. Fight-Flight Response1.  Involves*sympathe1c*Nervous*System*and*Endocrine*(hormone)*system.!2.  Hypothalamus*is*ac1vated*–*s1mulates*pituitary*gland*which*releases* ACTH*(a*type*of*hormone)*which*then*s1mulates*the*adrenal*glands.**3.  This*chain*between*the*Hypothalamus,*the*Pituitary*Gland*and*the* Adrenal*Glands*is*called*the*HPA!Axis.**4.  When*the*adrenal*glands*are*s1mulated*they*release*stress*hormones*like* adrenaline*and*noradrenaline.*These*boost*the*sympathe1c*nervous* system.**5.  This!causes!Physiological!changes!to!occur*such*as:*increased*heart*rate,* increased*blood*flow*to*muscles*(from*skin*and*intes1nes),*increased* respira1on,*dila1on*of*pupils,*suppression*of*nonOessen1al*func1ons*to* conserve*energy.**6.  A*racing*heart*is*explained*by*the*surge*of*stress*hormones*in*the*body.**7.  Once*the*threat*has*passed,*the*parasympathe1c*Nervous*System*calms* and*restores*normal*func1oning,*usually*within*20O60*minutes.**
    11. 11. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 1. Fight-Flight Response•  The$surge$of$hormones$can$ensure$our$survival$when$faced$with$a$life$ threatening$situa5on$by$giving$us$great$strength$or$confidence.$$ $eg.$We$see$someone$with$a$knife$on$a$deserted$street$at$night.$•  If$the$exposure$to$the$threat$is$prolonged$–$the$physical$arousal$will$also$ be$prolonged.$This$is$believed$to$be$harmful$to$our$health.$$•  For$example,$if$stress$hormones$like$adrenaline,$noradrenaline$and$ cor5cal$remain$high$in$our$bloodstream,$then$our$body’s$func5oning$ deteriorates$and$our$immune$system$becomes$less$effec5ve$D$Open$to$ disease.$$$•  Other$bodily$reac5ons$to$prolonged$stress:$Dizziness,$aches$and$pains,$ muscle$tension,$heart$palpita5ons,$skin$rashes,$fa5gue,$cold$and$flue,$ stomach$ulcers,$indiges5on$issues$etc.$$
    12. 12. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress•  The$second$model$which$addresses$the$physiological$responses$to$stress$is$$ the$General$Adapta-on$Syndrome.! 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# GeneralAdapta,on Syndrome= A"three"stage" physiological"stress" response"that"occurs" regardless"of"the" stressor"that"is" encountered."There" are"three"stages"in"the" GAS"–"Alarm"Reac;on," Resistance"and" Exhaus;on."" Research"by"Hans" Selye.""
    13. 13. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# •  Cannon’sbeliefthatprolongedstressisharmfulwasconfirmedbySelye. •  MostofSelye’sstressstudiesusedratswhowereexposedtoavarietyof stressors.(eg.Tailpulling,electricshocksetc). •  Regardlessofthestressor,theresultswererelaDvelysimilar–enlarged adrenalglands,weightloss,stomachulcersanddepletedimmunesystem etc. •  HethenconcludedthatstressisnonGspecific. •  Humansreactedinmuchthesamewaytostress. •  Basedonhisstudies,Selyedevelopthethreestage •  GENERALADAPTATIONSYNDROME.
    14. 14. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%One:%Alarm%Reac6on:%! Occurs!when!the!person/animal!is!first!exposed!to!the!stressor.!!•  Body!goes!into!temporary!state!of!‘shock’!–!body!temp!and!blood!pressure! drop.!!•  The!body!then!quickly!rebounds!from!this!during!what!is!called! ‘countershock’.!•  SympatheCc!NS!is!acCvated!and!a!reacCon!like!that!of!the!flightGflight! response!occurs.!Arousal!is!produced!by!the!release!of!hormones!by!the! endocrine!system:!the!pituitary!glands!secrete!ACTH,!which!causes!a! heightened!release!of!adrenaline,!noradrenaline,!and!corCsol!by!the!adrenal! glands!into!the!bloodstream.!!•  Organism!is!alert!and!ready.!% The body cannot stay in this state for long without serious consequences. Some organisms in a continuous state of alarm have died within hours or days
    15. 15. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%Two:%Resistance:%%•  If#the#reac*on#con*nues#and#is#not#strong#enough#to#cause#death#the# physiological#reac*on#enters#the#stage#of#resistance.##•  The#body#tries#to#adapt#to#the#stressor.#Physiological#arousal#declines#but# remains#higher#than#normal#and#the#body#replenishes#the#hormones# released#by#the#adrenal#glands.##•  The#organism#may#show#few#outward#signs#of#stress.#However,#the#body# may#not#be#able#to#resist#new#stressors.##•  The#body#becomes#increasingly#vulnerable#to#health#problems.#These#health# problems#include#ulcers,#high#blood#pressure,#asthma,#and#illnesses#that# result#from#impaired#immune#func*on.#
    16. 16. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%Three:%Exhaus4on:%%•  Severe%long*term%or%repeated%stress%will%cause%the%organism%to%enter%the% third%stage,%the%stage%of%exhaus9on.%%•  The%immune%system%and%the%bodys%energy%reserves%are%weakened%un9l% resistance%is%very%limited.%%•  If%the%stress%con9nues,%disease%and%physiological%damage%become% increasingly%likely%and%death%may%result.%
    17. 17. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
    18. 18. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)# Strengths)and)Limita/ons)of)the)GAS.))+  Further(developed(awareness(and(understanding(of(links(between( stress(and(disease.(+  Has(helped(to(understand(detrimental(effects(of(stress.(–  Assumes(that(everyone(has(the(same,(predictable(physiological( responses(to(any(kind(of(stressor.((–  Overlooks(the(roles(of(the(other(bodily(systems(and(ignores( psychological(response(to(stressors.((Eg.(Individual(interpretaCons.(–  Not(all(people(respond(to(chronic(stress(in(the(same(way.(Eg.(Some(get( ulcers,(some(heart(disease(etc.((–  (CriCcism(that(Selye’s(research(focused(too(much(on(stress(within( animals((and(has(limited(relevance(to(humans.((

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