What is classical conditioning?Classical condi4oning Who first describedrefers to a type of classical conditioninglearning that occurs through while conductingthe repeated associa4on of research into the digestivetwo (or more) diﬀerent system of dogs?s4muli. Learning is only said to have occurred when a par4cular s4mulus consistently produces a response that it did not previously produce.
Applica4ons of classical condi4oning Classical condi4oning has a number of ‘real-‐life’ applica4ons. Applications of classical conditioning Graduated Aversion exposure Flooding therapy Treatment method Presenting successive The inhibition or for fears/phobias by approximations of the discouragement of extinguishing the CS until the CS undesirable behaviour CR. itself does not by pairing it with an produce the CR. aversive stimulus.
Graduated exposureGraduated exposure involves It has been successfully usedgradually presenting to eliminate a range ofsuccessive approximations of problems involving fearthe CS until the CS itself and anxiety responses suchdoes not produce the CR. as a fear of flying.It is a process that involvesthe extinction of theassociation between the CSand the CR.It is also known as‘systematic desensitisation’. Source: Digital Vision
Graduated exposureThe steps in graduatedexposure are:• teach the person a relaxation strategy• break down the CS into a sequence arranged from least to most anxiety- producing (a fear hierarchy)• gradually begin to extinguish the CR by pairing items in the hierarchy with relaxation by working upward through items in the hierarchy.
Graduated exposureGraduated exposure can be doneby using:• visual imagery (imaginal exposure)• real-life exposure (in vivo exposure)• virtual reality technology.The best results appear to occurusing in vivo graduated exposures. Source: Macmillan Australia
Graduated exposureThe process of graduated exposure Before During After conditioning conditioning conditioning Relaxation training PLUSRelaxation Relaxation Successive Relaxation Phobic Relaxationtraining approximations stimulus of the Phobic stimulus UCS UCR UCS UCR CS CR
Graduated exposureDescribe the process by which someone with a fear ofenclosed spaces (e.g. using a lift) could overcome it usinggraduated exposure. Source: Image Source
What is aversion therapy?Aversion therapy inhibits(blocks) or discourages What kinds of aversiveundesirable behaviour by stimuli could be used inpairing it with an aversive aversion therapy? Liststimulus. three.It has been used successfullyto treat many differentbehaviours such asalcoholism, drugdependence, nail biting,gambling, inappropriatesexual behaviours. Source: Up the Resolution
Aversion therapy at the moviesAversion therapy was • de Large is given a drugused in Anthony Burgess‘s that induces extremebook A Clockwork nausea and anxietyOrange (1962), which was • he is strapped into a seatadapted as a ﬁlm by before a large screen andStanley Kubrick in 1971. his eyes are clamped open (so that he cannot closeAlex de Large is oﬀered them)freedom from a long jail sentence if he is prepared to • he is forced to watch anundergo aversion therapy unrelenting series offor his violence: graphically violent films whilst feeling increasingly sick and panicky.
Aversion therapy at the moviesUsing the case of Alex de Large, complete the following: Before During After conditioning conditioning conditioning Nausea &Nausea & anxiety Violenceanxiety Nausea & inducing Nausea & Nausea & (without anxietyinducing anxiety drug anxiety drug)drug PLUS violenceUCS UCR UCS UCR CS CR
FloodingFlooding involves bringing the client into direct contact with the CS and keeping them in contact with it un4l the CR is ex4nguished. The principle underlying this technique is that anxiety will be experienced at a very high level and then gradually diminish, thereby enabling the client to experience the CS in the absence of the CR. Source: Macmillan Australia
FloodingDescribe the process by which someone with a fear ofheights could overcome it using flooding. Source: Image Source
Quick quiz • Ques4on 1: What does graduated exposure involve? • Answer: Gradually presen4ng successive approxima4ons of the CS un4l the CS itself does not produce the CR. • Ques4on 2: The best results when using graduated exposure appear to occur via imaginal exposure. True or false? • Answer: False, best results are using in vivo graduated exposures. • Ques4on 3: What does aversion therapy involve? • Answer: Inhibi4ng or discouraging an undesirable behaviour by pairing it with an aversive s4mulus. • Ques4on 4: The idea behind aversion therapy is that the undesired behaviour becomes the CS. True or false? • Answer: True. • Ques4on 5: Name one behaviour that can be treated by aversion therapy. • Answer: Alcoholism, drug dependence, nail bi4ng, gambling, sexual behaviours. • Ques4on 6: Flooding involves bringing the client into direct contact with the CS in order to strengthen the associa4on with the CR. True or false? • Answer: False, it is designed to ex4nguish the associa4on with the CR. • Ques4on 7: What is the underlying principle of ﬂooding? • Answer: That anxiety will be experienced at a very high level and then gradually diminish.