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Lesson 5 applications of classical conditioning 2013

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Lesson 5 applications of classical conditioning 2013

  1. 1. VCE Psychology Units 3 & 4Lesson  5:  Applica/ons  of  classical   condi/oning  
  2. 2. From  last  lesson………….  Outline the following for Pavlov’s experiments• Unconditioned Stimulus -• Unconditioned Response -• Conditioned Stimulus -• Conditioned Response -• Neutral stimulus -
  3. 3. Answer  • Unconditioned Stimulus – Meat Powder• Unconditioned Response - Salivation• Conditioned Stimulus - Bell• Conditioned Response - Salivation• Neutral stimulus - Bell
  4. 4. What is classical conditioning?Classical  condi4oning     Who first describedrefers  to  a  type  of     classical conditioninglearning  that  occurs  through     while conductingthe  repeated  associa4on  of     research into the digestivetwo  (or  more)  different     system of dogs?s4muli.  Learning  is  only  said  to    have  occurred  when  a    par4cular  s4mulus    consistently  produces  a  response  that  it  did  not  previously  produce.  
  5. 5. Applica4ons  of  classical  condi4oning  Classical  condi4oning  has  a  number  of  ‘real-­‐life’  applica4ons.     Applications of classical conditioning Graduated Aversion exposure Flooding therapy Treatment method Presenting successive The inhibition or for fears/phobias by approximations of the discouragement of extinguishing the CS until the CS undesirable behaviour CR. itself does not by pairing it with an produce the CR. aversive stimulus.
  6. 6. Graduated exposureGraduated exposure involves It has been successfully usedgradually presenting to eliminate a range ofsuccessive approximations of problems involving fearthe CS until the CS itself and anxiety responses suchdoes not produce the CR. as a fear of flying.It is a process that involvesthe extinction of theassociation between the CSand the CR.It is also known as‘systematic desensitisation’. Source: Digital Vision
  7. 7. Graduated exposureThe steps in graduatedexposure are:•  teach the person a relaxation strategy•  break down the CS into a sequence arranged from least to most anxiety- producing (a fear hierarchy)•  gradually begin to extinguish the CR by pairing items in the hierarchy with relaxation by working upward through items in the hierarchy.
  8. 8. Graduated exposureGraduated exposure can be doneby using:•  visual imagery (imaginal exposure)•  real-life exposure (in vivo exposure)•  virtual reality technology.The best results appear to occurusing in vivo graduated exposures. Source: Macmillan Australia
  9. 9. Graduated exposureThe  process  of  graduated  exposure   Before During After conditioning conditioning conditioning Relaxation training PLUSRelaxation Relaxation Successive Relaxation Phobic Relaxationtraining approximations stimulus of the Phobic stimulus UCS UCR UCS UCR CS CR
  10. 10. Graduated exposureDescribe the process by which someone with a fear ofenclosed spaces (e.g. using a lift) could overcome it usinggraduated exposure. Source: Image Source
  11. 11. What is aversion therapy?Aversion therapy inhibits(blocks) or discourages What kinds of aversiveundesirable behaviour by stimuli could be used inpairing it with an aversive aversion therapy? Liststimulus. three.It has been used successfullyto treat many differentbehaviours such asalcoholism, drugdependence, nail biting,gambling, inappropriatesexual behaviours. Source: Up the Resolution
  12. 12. Aversion therapy at the moviesAversion  therapy  was     •  de Large is given a drugused  in  Anthony  Burgess‘s     that induces extremebook  A  Clockwork     nausea and anxietyOrange  (1962),  which  was     •  he is strapped into a seatadapted  as  a  film  by     before a large screen andStanley  Kubrick  in  1971.     his eyes are clamped open (so that he cannot closeAlex  de  Large  is  offered     them)freedom  from  a  long  jail    sentence  if  he  is  prepared  to     •  he is forced to watch anundergo  aversion  therapy     unrelenting series offor  his  violence:     graphically violent films whilst feeling increasingly sick and panicky.
  13. 13. Aversion therapy at the moviesUsing  the  case  of  Alex  de  Large,  complete  the  following:   Before During After conditioning conditioning conditioning Nausea &Nausea & anxiety Violenceanxiety Nausea & inducing Nausea & Nausea & (without anxietyinducing anxiety drug anxiety drug)drug PLUS violenceUCS UCR UCS UCR CS CR
  14. 14. FloodingFlooding  involves  bringing    the  client  into  direct  contact    with  the  CS  and  keeping    them  in  contact  with  it  un4l    the  CR  is  ex4nguished.  The  principle  underlying  this    technique  is  that  anxiety    will  be  experienced  at  a    very  high  level  and  then    gradually  diminish,  thereby    enabling  the  client  to    experience  the  CS  in  the  absence  of  the  CR.     Source: Macmillan Australia
  15. 15. FloodingDescribe the process by which someone with a fear ofheights could overcome it using flooding. Source: Image Source
  16. 16. Quick  quiz  •  Ques4on  1:  What  does  graduated  exposure  involve?  •  Answer:  Gradually  presen4ng  successive  approxima4ons  of  the  CS  un4l  the  CS  itself   does  not  produce  the  CR.    •  Ques4on  2:  The  best  results  when  using  graduated  exposure  appear  to  occur  via   imaginal  exposure.  True  or  false?    •  Answer:  False,  best  results  are  using  in  vivo  graduated  exposures.    •  Ques4on  3:  What  does  aversion  therapy  involve?      •  Answer:  Inhibi4ng  or  discouraging  an  undesirable  behaviour  by  pairing  it  with  an   aversive  s4mulus.    •  Ques4on  4:  The  idea  behind  aversion  therapy  is  that  the  undesired  behaviour   becomes  the  CS.  True  or  false?  •  Answer:  True.      •  Ques4on  5:  Name  one  behaviour  that  can  be  treated  by  aversion  therapy.  •  Answer:  Alcoholism,  drug  dependence,  nail  bi4ng,  gambling,  sexual  behaviours.      •  Ques4on  6:  Flooding  involves  bringing  the  client  into  direct  contact  with  the  CS  in   order  to  strengthen  the  associa4on  with  the  CR.  True  or  false?  •  Answer:  False,  it  is  designed  to  ex4nguish  the  associa4on  with  the  CR.    •  Ques4on  7:  What  is  the  underlying  principle  of  flooding?    •  Answer:  That  anxiety  will  be  experienced  at  a  very     high  level  and  then  gradually  diminish.    

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