Lesson 1: Normality EXAM QUESTIONa) Deﬁne the ‘historical approach’ to deﬁning normalityb) Provide an example of this approach 1 + 1 = 2 marks
Lesson 1: Normality EXAM Answera) Deﬁne the ‘historical approach’ to deﬁning normalityWhat is considered normal or abnormal in a society depends onthe era/period of time when the judgement is madeb) Provide an example of this approachSchool students used to get hit on the knuckles with a cain whenthey misbehaved, now this would be considered abnormal orwrong! 1 + 1 = 2 marks
Outcomes (What you need to know and be able todo)• Explain the systems of classification (categorical - DSM-IV and ICD-10 and dimensional - graded and transitional) approaches to classification of mental disorders their underlying principles of classification• Explain the Strengths and Limitations of discrete categorical (DSM-IV and ICD-10) and dimensional (graded and transitional) approaches to classification of mental disorders
Classiﬁcation is the organisation of items into groups on the basis of their common properties. What are some ways in which you couldclassify potato chips? Rank them in order of importance. What are some ways in which you could classify shoes? Rank them in order of importance. What are some ways in which mentaldisorders could be classiﬁed? Rank them in order of importance.
There are two main approaches to classifying mental conditions and disorders: Categorical & Dimensional Both have their strengths and limitations
Categorical Approaches Yes or No approachFocus on deciding whether there is a presence or absence of a mental disorder Either have it or not Black or white - no grey areas
Categorical SystemsDiagnostic & Statistical Manual International Classiﬁcation of Mental Disorders (DSM) of Disease (ICD) American Psychiatric World Health Association (APA) Organisation (WHO)
Categorical approaches like the DMC and ICDorganise and describe mental conditions in terms of different categories and subcategories, each with symptoms and characteristics that are typical of speciﬁc mental conditions and disorders. Can you think of another example that adopts a categorical approach?
Can you think of any reasons why it could be helpful to classify mental disorders into categories?How might it be unhelpful?
Dimensional Approachesclassify based on how much a symptom is presenting ranges from very low to very highFocus on ranking or grading aperson’s symptoms on one or more continuos quantitative dimensions in terms of their severity or degree.
The table below simpliﬁes the approaches using Depression as an example
Which approach is most valid?Which approach is the most reliable? Why/Why not?
Essential Learning ActivitiesDMC review Questions 1 - 41. Explain the meaning of the phrase ‘categorical approach to the classiﬁcation of mental disorders’.2. What are the underlying assumptions and principles of the categorical approach? Explain withreference to examples.3. Why is it important that categorical approaches are valid and reliable?4. a) What is the DSM, who is it created for and what is it used for?b) How many major categories of mental disorders does the current DSM have?c) What is the common purpose of diagnostic, inclusion, exclusion and polythetic criteria?d) Explain the meaning of the terms course and prevalence in relation to a mental disorder.e) Name each of the ﬁve axes in the DSM and brieﬂy describe the type of information provided ineach axis for classiﬁcation and/or diagnostic purposes.f) What signiﬁcant information about mental disorders is not provided in the DSM?ICD review Questions 1 & 21. a) What is the ICD-10, who is it prepared for and what is it used for?b) Name the ICD chapter that speciﬁcally relates to mental disorders.c) Name the Australian version of the ICD.d) How many major categories of mental and behavioural disorders does the ICD-10 have? e What arediagnostic guidelines and what are they used for? 2. Construct a table in which you compare key similarities and differences of the DSM and ICD-10.