Era writing


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Era writing

  1. 1. HOW TO WRITE AN ERA SAC 2 PREPARATIONTuesday, 1 May 2012
  2. 2. WHAT IS AN ERA An ERA is a Empirical Research Activity, which is a scientific report on an experiment or research study conducted by Psychologists. Note that it is a REPORT not an essay, and so involves a set structure that is adhered to by all psychologists, whether they be VCE psych students or 20 year experienced APA (Australian Psychology Association) accredited Psychologists. An experiment’s ERA is what is published in Psychology Journals.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  3. 3. SECTIONS OF ERA ERAs are separated into distinct sections Each section has set guidelines as to what information goes where and some sections have sub-sections within them. There are 5 sections of a report plus an addition Reference page. The 5 sections are; Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, and DiscussionTuesday, 1 May 2012
  4. 4. ABSTRACT The first page of an ERA and is on a page of its own titled in bold and centred Abstract. Although the abstract is at the beginning of the report, write it LAST! The abstract provides a concise summary of the study. It includes approximately two sentences from each section of the report and MUST state the sample, population, IV, DV, hypothesis, results and concluding statement. The abstract is a maximum of 150 words at VCE level.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  5. 5. Introduction The introduction is titled by the RESEARCH STUDY TITLE NOT introduction. The introduction must: *state the research aim *explain the main concepts involved in the research *define all terms used in the research *summarise previous relevant research *explain why the research was considered necessary *state the independent variable and the dependent variable and indicate how they are operationalised *state the experimental hypotheses it is testing.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  6. 6. Method The method begins immediately after the Introduction and is titled in bold and centred Method The method provides exact details of the participants and the procedures of the study. The method requires acute detail to enable replication of the study. The method is divided into three sub-sections each titled in italic left alignment in own paragraph, Participants, Measures, Procedure.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  7. 7. Participants Here is where you write all participant details including the population taken from, the sample, the age, gender and education/occupation of the participants. Remember NO personal identification details are to be reported due to ethical considerations (Privacy). Note, you do NOT list participant selection or allocation here!Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  8. 8. Measures Here is where all the materials used for the experiment are listed. This section is permitted to be in dot form. Every material used is to be listed - even pens and paper! Remember it is to allow a complete stranger to read your report and replicate it exactly!Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  9. 9. Procedure This is the most important sub-section of the method as it is where you detail STEP BY STEP the processes taken in the experiment. This is where you list how you selected the participants and how you allocated them to groups and what you actually did every step of the way!Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  10. 10. Results As the name suggests the results section reports the results of the study. It is followed immediately after the method and titled in bold and centred Results All tables, graphs and descriptive data is here, including any statistical tests conducted on the results, however NO interpretation of the results are revealed here.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  11. 11. Discussion The discussion is where you explain the results in relation to the hypothesis and previous research that was mentioned in the introduction. NEVER refer to any research in your discussion if you did not in the introduction! Here your hypothesis is supported or rejected. Any cases of rejected hypotheses, comment on a possible alternative hypothesis to maintain the validity of your study. Limitations of the study are also commented on in the discussion. Possible solutions to the limitations are provided. NOTE: Don’t highlight too many limitations or your study will not be considered worthwhile! At VCE level, two limitations are sufficient.Tuesday, 1 May 2012
  12. 12. Reference This the same as any reference page however be sure to start a new page and bold and centre title Reference In psychology the correct referencing style is very picky! At university a comma in the wrong place will lose marks!! For Year 11, all that is required are the following details of ANY source: Author, date of publication, Title of source (book/report/journal/web), and for internet sources the web address.Tuesday, 1 May 2012