18.1 b chapter 18 powerpoint the industrial revolution (revised 10 13-13)

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18.1 b chapter 18 powerpoint the industrial revolution (revised 10 13-13)

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution A Brief Rundown
  2. 2. Section 1: Defining an American Culture
  3. 3. Creating a REAL American Culture! Realism was a new way of writing that tried to show adventure and excitement in the every day lives of Americans, as opposed to fantastic stories about adventures that most people would never have a chance of experiencing Authors, like Jack London, told tales of people who worked every day jobs, and were put into dangerous situations on a daily basis
  4. 4. Samuel Clemens This author wrote tales about life prior to the Civil War on the Mississippi River. Utilized regional speech patterns, and has been criticized for his use of harsh language, and controversial statements about American culture. You might know him as Mark Twain
  5. 5. Section 2: The Industrial Revolution Begins
  6. 6. A Wealth of Resources Fortunately for the United States, Iron Ore and Coal were relatively easy to find, and in high supply and demand. These resources would provide the basic building blocks for the industrial revolution.
  7. 7. A Major New Discovery Among the first develops that sparked this Industrial Revolution was Edwin Drake’s discovery of oil and a new process for pumping it out of the ground in Titusville, PA in 1858. Oil was important because it could be used for heating purposes, and as we would later find, for propulsion in combustion engines.
  8. 8. Titusvillian Colonel Edwin Drake: Some Things Don’t Change
  9. 9. The American Industrial Revolution Begins Companies began to realize that if they tried to produce goods in a big factory setting, they could make more money. They also began to realize that by using cheaper materials, they could make even more money. This became known as an Economy of Scale: More Goods Produced + Cheaper Materials = MORE PROFIT …
  10. 10. But we all know Mo’ Money, Mo’ Problems
  11. 11. Carnegie and the Industrial Revolution Andrew Carnegie applied the economy of scale method to the Steel industry here in Pittsburgh. Carnegie found that by finding a new way to make steel, he could make more money, with cheaper materials, do it faster, and make it stronger.
  12. 12. Mr. Carnegie You’re probably guessing I’m thinking something deep…but Burritos were a bad choice…
  13. 13. How He Did It Carnegie utilized the Bessemer Process, which provided a new method for converting raw materials into steel very quickly and efficiently.
  14. 14. Carnegie’s Problem… Carnegie used a process called Vertical Integration to control the companies he used to get and transport his raw materials from. This means he bought: – Coal, Iron, Nickel, and Limestone mines – Railroads and Riverboats that shipped materials – Steel Mills, Glass Factories, etc.
  15. 15. Carnegie’s Problem… Carnegie, and many others, eventually came to hold a Monopoly over these industries. This occurs when one company comes into control of an entire market. A monopoly makes it more and more difficult for competitors to enter the market.
  16. 16. Go To Jail!!!
  17. 17. As with anything new… People begin to abuse and exploit these resources to a ridiculous level. At first the government stuck to it’s Laissez-Faire policy in which there was little regulation by the government over trade. Americans would begin to realize that these policies were causing some real harm.
  18. 18. The End Result The government would decide that it needed to put tariffs on incoming goods to help make money, and to support American made goods. Was this a good idea?
  19. 19. Captains of Industry OR Robber Barons? Hundreds of companies compete for the government’s Land Grants to build railroads all across the country If you were shipping goods across the country, you would have to pay the owners of each individual line a different price to ship your goods
  20. 20. Captains of Industry OR Robber Barons? Cornelius Vanderbilt starts buying and combining a number of New York City rail lines, and within a few years would have control over a number of major lines. It’s True! All Great Men have GREAT Facial Hair! FACT!!!
  21. 21. Captains of Industry or Jay-Z ain’t got Robber Barons? nothin’ on me…He John D. Rockefeller – like Vanderbilt with the railroads, started with one oil refinery and then bought up many of his competitor’s oil refineries to create a company called the Standard Oil Trust, which controlled most of the oil production in America! just applied my ideas to the rap game!!!
  22. 22. Captains of Industry You got the or idea? I got the money! When Robber Barons? you fail, I think it’s funny! J.P. Morgan – started out as a banker, loaning money to businesses that were just starting out – As they began to struggle Morgan would buy the business, use his own money to fix their problems and make huge profits!
  23. 23. Land of the…Free Land Grants were provided by the government to railroad companies. This was money provided to railroad companies so they could build their lines.
  24. 24. The Credit Mobilier Construction company that decided to grossly overcharge for certain contracts dealing with railroad construction. After overcharging, investors pocketed the money, and almost bankrupted the railroad. The company then asked the government for more money and a scandal was uncovered.
  25. 25. Age of Inventors and Innovation Alexander Graham Bell was an inventor who toyed with electricity, and had the idea to use it as communication. Most revolutionary about this was that he was able to transmit actual human voices over electric cables to deliver a message with a device that we come to know as the Telephone!
  26. 26. Age of Inventors and Innovation Thomas Alva Edison was another of the famed inventors of this period who we can thank for giving us the lights above our heads. Among Edison’s creations are the phonograph, lightbulb, electric generator, and improved the battery and motion pictures.
  27. 27. Age of Inventors and Innovation People and small companies had been building their own automobiles since the mid 1880’s In 1908 Henry Ford used many Carnegie’s ideas including vertical integration to design an assembly line for production of automobiles Important because more people were performing more simple tasks over and over again, instead of building the whole car themselves, which makes the car much cheaper to make!
  28. 28. Ford’s Assembly Line
  29. 29. The Air Up There For years people wanted to get off the ground Finally, the Wright Brothers owners of bicycle store, built a plane which actually flew a short distance, making the idea of flight possible.
  30. 30. History In Progress!!!
  31. 31. Section 3: Urbanization and Immigration
  32. 32. Immigration in the Late 1800’s After 1865 immigration once again picked up heavily. Steady flow of immigrants continued from Northwestern Europe But the New Immigrants - arrived primarily from new places, Russia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Asia .
  33. 33. Changing the City When immigrants get to the cities, they settle in little neighborhoods close to people from similar countries or religions How would this affect the city’s feel do you think? Let’s play an application game!!!
  34. 34. Problems for Immigrants One of the biggest problems these people have is Assimilation or when a new group gives up their old characteristics and traditions to become part of the host culture Some tactics for assimilating immigrants included: – Citizenship Tests – Mandatory Schools – Social Clubs
  35. 35. Problems for Immigrants Immigrants will face plenty of Nativism, or the belief that only natural born Americans should be given opportunities, not immigrants. – Many Nativists are referred to as W.A.S.P.’s – White Anglo-Saxon Protestants This breeds racism, and leads to tension all throughout cities between various immigrant groups.
  36. 36. What do we say to this?
  37. 37. So how do immigrants become “Real Americans?” • Reformers like Jane Addams and her Hull House brought in immigrants and poor people to teach them how to function in society!
  38. 38. Section 4: Workers During the Industrial Revolution Click on the pic for a brief clip
  39. 39. And how did these people feel about it?
  40. 40. Union Power Unions began to rise in prominence in an attempt to provide solidarity among workers. Trade Unions were the earliest forms of these in which people who utilized the same specific skills – Ex. Carpenters, Iron Molders, etc.
  41. 41. Trade Unions Samuel Gompers is important because he was the first leader of the American Federation of Labor – This union united a number of different trade union’s under one banner to give them more strength and bargaining power. – Gompers preferred to negotiate through the process of Collective Bargaining with business owners rather than striking. – Tried to get owners to see the value in his skilled laborers expertise
  42. 42. Industrial Unions Eventually this concept would catch on in other industries. Industrial Unions brought all people together who worked within a particular industry, usually with NO specialized skills. It didn’t matter what they did, as long as they worked there. Big business owners hated these.
  43. 43. Industrial Unions The Knights of Labor united railroad, steel, oil, and other workers into one large organization that worked to increase the bargaining power of it’s non-skilled members – Among the things they wanted: An 8-Hour Workday Equal Pay for Women Abolishment of Child Labor Worker-Owned Factories or Co-operatives
  44. 44. Women in the Workplace Women were not treated with the same respect and awarded the same types of contracts as males. To battle this the Women’s Trade Union League was formed demanding better treatment and wages for all women in the workplace.
  45. 45. Major Union Moments pt. 1 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 – Begun when workers wages are cut, workers decide to strike, state militia won’t stop the strikes, President Hayes sends in National Army and breaks strike. – Set table for future strikes
  46. 46. Major Union Movements pt. 2 The Haymarket Riot - 1886 – Begun over the fight for 8 hour workday – Peaceful rally turns bloody when a small bomb hits cops, who open fire. – The outcome is May Day and a strike AGAINST union movements!
  47. 47. Major Union Movements pt. 3 The Pullman Strike - 1894 – Workers at the Pullman Sleeping Car company lived in a company town – decent conditions, as long as they paid. – Wages are cut, workers can’t afford expenses. – President Grover Cleveland sends in the Army to break the strike on grounds that it is stopping the mail. – How do you think these strikes would affect future labor questions?
  48. 48. Major Union Movements pt. 4 The Homestead Strike – 1892 – Let’s Act it Out!!!

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