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Global Security Playing Cards


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PLaying cards designed for the Global Security program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

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Global Security Playing Cards

  1. 1. Reducing Global Threats through Innovative Science and Technology
  2. 2. A Addressing Space Situational Awareness Addressing Space Situational Awareness Space situational awareness consists of integrating and analyzing space surveil- lance, reconnaissance, intelligence, and environmental monitoring information. Such integration and analysis enables scientists to understand manmade and natural threats to the nation’s space systems. Projects include distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic events and developing an agile strategy for tracking and characterizing objects in space. A
  3. 3. K Studying Rocks on Mars Designed for NASA’s 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, ChemCam shoots Studying Rocks on Mars powerful laser pulses at rocks to deter- mine their composition. The instrument combines laser-induced breakdown spec- troscopy with a remote micro-imager. The MSL rover’s primary mission is to assess if Mars ever was, or still is, an environment capable of supporting microbial life. K
  4. 4. Q Inventing Smart Software to Detect Gamma-Ray Bursts Inventing Smart Software to Detect Gamma-Ray Bursts Launched in 2004, the NASA satellite “Swift” was designed to detect gamma-ray bursts. Los Alamos scientists developed the software that enables this flying observatory to catch such bursts in the act. Scientists anticipate that Swift will be able to observe gamma-ray bursts back through time to the very first stars that formed after the Big Bang. Q
  5. 5. J Constructing a Sky Map of Our Solar System Constructing a Sky Map of Our Solar System Los Alamos researchers developed a High- Energy Neutral Atom Imager, which was placed aboard NASA’s IBEX (Interstellar Boundary Explorer) spacecraft. IBEX has made it possible for scientists to construct the first comprehensive sky map of our solar system and its location in the Milky Way. This map is changing how research- ers study the interaction between our galaxy and the sun. J
  6. 6. 2 Supercomputing Power for Space Applications Supercomputing Power for Space Applications TeraOps Software Radio moves the concept of software radio into space, where it can be used to extend dramati- cally the lifetimes of electronic systems aboard satellites and in space payloads. Constructed from commercial off-the-shelf products, this radio performs 40 billion operations per watt of power in a compact and lightweight (14 lb) system. 2
  7. 7. 3 Sending a Supercomputer into Space Launched in 2007, the Cibola Flight Sending a Supercomputer into Space Experiment was designed to test several revolutionary concepts for spaceborne computing. Cibola’s supercomputer was built from field-programmable gate arrays, chips that can be rewired at the touch of a software button. The Cibola payload system executes a science mission to study lighting, ionospheric disturbances, and other sources of radiofrequency atmospheric noise. 3
  8. 8. 4 Detecting Nuclear Explosions from Space Detecting Nuclear Explosions from Space Under the Space Nuclear Detonation Detection project, Los Alamos scientists are developing a new processing and communications architecture for instru- ments developed and deployed during the next 10 to 15 years. This breakthrough architecture will reduce instrument size, weight, and power while improving flex- ibility, capability, and scalability. 4
  9. 9. 5 Studying Saturn and Beyond Los Alamos researchers developed two sensors that are part of the Cassini Plasma Studying Saturn and Beyond Spectrometer, a microwave-oven-sized unit aboard the Cassini Spacecraft. The first sensor is an ion mass spectrom- eter designed to identify the different atomic species in Saturn’s magnetospheric plasma. The second sensor is an ion-beam spectrometer designed for solar-wind research missions. 5
  10. 10. 6 Answering a Tantalizing Question Answering a Tantalizing Question Los Alamos scientists are developing a next-generation space radiation model to better understand radiation-belt processes resulting from natural or manmade events. The goal in developing this predictive capability is to answer one of the most tantalizing questions in space physics: What accelerates electrons to relativistic energies in the Earth’s relatively weak magnetic field? 6
  11. 11. 7 Detecting and Characterizing Weapons Facilities from Space Detecting and Characterizing Weapons Facilities from Space In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Technol- ogy Center, Los Alamos developed the Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite, launched in March 2000. This project’s objective was to demonstrate advanced imaging systems that could be used to detect and characterize facilities that produce weapons of mass effect. 7
  12. 12. 8 Bolstering National Security thru Global Treaty Monitoring Bolstering National Security thru Global Treaty Monitoring Los Alamos scientists invented the V- Sensor, a next-generation electromagnetic pulse sensor that is also known as the Burst Detector Verification payload. The V-Sensor detects atmospheric nuclear detonations from space. A follow-on to the W-Sensor, the V-Sensor will perform global treaty monitoring, a critical component of national and global security. 8
  13. 13. 9 Countering Threats from Space Countering Threats from Space KARNAC (Knowledge, Assimilation, and Reasoning for National Awareness of Counterspace threats) is a project designed to improve space situational awareness by leveraging Los Alamos’ capabilities in high-performance comput- ing, modeling, simulation and knowledge tools, and underexploited sensors and information sources. 9
  14. 14. 10 Inventing a New Type of Transmitter Inventing a New Type of Transmitter Los Alamos scientists have invented a superluminal RF source that produces tightly focused packets of electromagnetic radiation that are fundamentally different from the emissions of conventional transmitters. This new type of antenna has applications in RADAR, astrophysics, oncology, directed-energy technologies, and deep-space communications. 10
  15. 15. A Enabling Renewable Electricity Enabling Renewable Electricity Los Alamos scientists are developing tech- nologies that will transform how electricity is generated, distributed, consumed, and exported. This effort’s principal goal is to develop smarter strategies for load control and efficient energy storage to integrate small- or medium-scale renewable power generation into the electrical grid. A
  16. 16. K Ensuring a Resilient Global Infrastructure Ensuring a Resilient Global Infrastructure Los Alamos is using its unique and powerful computational resources to better understand global infrastructure interdependencies. The Laboratory has extensive experience in modeling multiple characteristics of infrastructure, including energy, water, telecommunications, transportation, and public health systems. Researchers examine the interdependen- cies between these systems to prevent cascading failures from harming national security. K
  17. 17. Q Preparing for Natural Disasters Los Alamos scientists are developing technologies to predict the effects of Preparing for Natural Disasters natural disasters. One such technology is LogiSims, a software package that helps decision makers respond to infrastructure damage, such as electrical blackouts dur- ing a hurricane. Scientists are also work- ing on computer models that simulate the effects of all hazards. Decision makers will use such models to improve response times to hazards. Q
  18. 18. J Detecting Radiation Sources LANL scientists are working on a Standoff Detecting Radiation Sources Radiation Detection System (SORDS) that can determine the type and location of radiation sources at much greater distances than current technologies. Led by Raytheon, project collaborators include Los Alamos, Bubble Technology Industries, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. J
  19. 19. 2 Countering Weapons of Mass Effect Countering Weapons of Mass Effect Los Alamos has numerous small- and large-scale explosives facilities that enable scientists to conduct various physical experiments. Such experiments help validate computer models and bolster the confidence of developers who have created countermeasures against weapons of mass effect. 2
  20. 20. 3 Characterizing Explosives Explosives such as TNT and HMX have been around for years and scientists continue to discover details about their properties. Los Alamos researchers are Characterizing Explosives growing single crystals of explosives of interest and characterizing their funda- mental properties. These investigators will gain a better understanding of how explosives work and establish baseline properties critical for counterterrorism applications. 3
  21. 21. 4 Using Muons as Detectors Los Alamos scientists are developing technologies that use high-energy nega- Using Muons as Detectors tive muons and proton beams to remotely detect special nuclear materials in contain- ers. Far more sensitive than x-rays, muon radiography can see through lead or other heavy shielding in truck trailers or cargo containers. Materials of interest include uranium and plutonium. 4
  22. 22. 5 Providing Critical Support for Nuclear Emergencies Providing Critical Support for Nuclear Emergencies Los Alamos provides 24/7 support to first responders who submit nuclear-related data for analysis. LANL specializes in interpreting data from all types of radia- tion detectors and in accurately identifying illicit materials. Experts are typically online within 10 minutes and provide critical answers to first responders in as quickly as 30 minutes. 5
  23. 23. 6 Training Nuclear Response Teams Training Nuclear Response Teams Los Alamos provides standardized and custom training for multi-agency nuclear emergency response teams. Experts provide classroom and hands-on technical and operations training, either at LANL facilities or at the customer’s location. Fo- cus areas include nuclear basics, weapons design/engineering, weapon signatures and effects, and render-safe strategies. 6
  24. 24. 7 Protecting the Nation from Nuclear Weapon Emergencies Protecting the Nation from Nuclear Weapon Emergencies Los Alamos scientists, engineers, and tech- nicians serve as volunteers on the Nuclear Emergency Support Team (NEST). NEST is always on call as the nation’s shield against a nuclear weapons emergency. Two NEST branches are the Accident Re- sponse Group, which handles accidentally damaged U.S. nuclear weapons, and the Joint Technical Operations Team, which responds to threats of terrorist devices. 7
  25. 25. 8 Identifying Types and Yields of Underground Tests Identifying Types and Yields of Underground Tests Los Alamos researchers have developed computer models of laterally varying seismic wave attenuation. These models enable monitoring agencies to identify event types and estimate the yields of underground tests. Such models are not impeded by the effects of the Earth’s heterogeneous crust and upper manta. Models are verified by high-quality digital seismic data, which is internationally available. 8
  26. 26. 9 Creating an Event Classification Matrix Creating an Event Classification Matrix The Event Classification Matrix project is a next-generation mathematical framework that integrates teleseismic and regional identification features to produce a uni- fied view. The model has been validated using teleseismic measurements. Using this framework, scientists can determine if an event is an earthquake or an explosion. 9
  27. 27. 10 Monitoring Nuclear Explosions The fusion of seismic and acoustic data, seismo-acoustics is a new capability that Monitoring Nuclear Explosions is revolutionizing how the United States monitors nuclear explosions. Seismo- acoustics provides unique constraints for source characterization and enhances the detection and location of events. Researchers are presently exploring new solutions to monitor small explosions, identify vehicle signatures, and provide remote surveillance of facilities. 10
  28. 28. A Detecting and Responding in Real Time to Cyber Attacks Detecting and Responding in Real Time to Cyber Attacks In 2003, the Slammer Worm infected 75,000 machines in less than 10 minutes. To counter such rapid attacks, Los Alamos scientists have developed a suite of technologies to detect and respond automatically to cyber attacks in real time. Technologies range from a streaming query system to an advanced framework that responds to network security events. A
  29. 29. K Analyzing Malware Los Alamos scientists have developed a covert method to analyze malware and other executables. This method measures and analyzes executables with no detect- Analyzing Malware able impact to the executable. It monitors running programs via modifications to the Ether framework and is integrated with established reverse-engineering tools to speed analysis. K
  30. 30. Q Keeping Secrets Secret Secrets—diplomatic, military, and business—must be exchanged secretly. To achieve this task, Los Alamos researchers have developed Free-Space Quantum Cryptography, a system that distributes Keeping Secrets Secret random-number cryptographic “keys” used to encode and decode information. This technology ensures that such keys never succumb to computer attack and that attempts to steal or copy a key are easily foiled. Q
  31. 31. J Detecting Harmful Materials in Sealed Containers Detecting Harmful Materials in Sealed Containers Los Alamos scientists have developed MagViz using ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging to classify materials as safe, unknown, or dangerous. MagViz can be used at airports to determine if a bottle holds drinking water or a liquid explosive. The technology can make such a determination even if the container is sealed in a metallic foil. J
  32. 32. 2 Growing Inorganic Fibers and Tiny Electronics Growing Inorganic Fibers and Tiny Electronics Laser-Weave uses lasers to grow inorganic fibers and simultaneously weave them into finished cables, fabrics, and compos- ites with improved strength and elasticity. An offshoot of Laser-Weave, Lasonix uses lasers to grow micro- and nano-scale electronics. Applications include semicon- ductors, electronic switching systems, and optical transmitters. 2
  33. 33. 3 Achieving Persistent Surveillance Los Alamos continues to develop tech- Achieving Persistent Surveillance nologies that provide the warfighter with persistent surveillance of potential threats. For example, scientists are developing technologies designed to defeat hurtles such as darkness, camouflage, and other types of obstructions, including jungle canopies. Other technologies provide change-detection indicators for activities and high-confidence location and tracking of priority threats. 3
  34. 34. 4 Overcoming Organizational Complexity Overcoming Organizational Complexity Los Alamos scientists are developing a technology known as VCAT (Visual Cross- walk Analysis Tool), which views organiza- tions as networked activities. Looking at organizations in this way enables analysts to identify the underlying structure that connects activities spanning projects, programs, resources, and multiple organizations. 4
  35. 35. 5 Determining and Countering Terrorist Threats Determining and Countering Terrorist Threats Los Alamos has counter-weapons of mass effect and energetic materials training programs, as well as predictive and analy- sis tools (such as terrorist motivation and intent models) to effectively assess threat probability. The Laboratory also possesses a quick-response capability that provides operators with unique communication, tagging-tracking-locating, and other tools for special missions on short notice. 5
  36. 36. 6 Finding Needles in Haystacks Genie Pro is a general-purpose, interactive, and adaptive tool that can Finding Needles in Haystacks automatically label regions and find objects in large amounts of image data. The software runs on Windows and Linux platforms. Applications include conducting manhunts and surveillance; conduct- ing broad-area searches for personnel, vehicles, and buildings; and mapping terrain and crops. 6
  37. 37. 7 Countering Improvised Explosive Devices Countering Improvised Explosive Devices Los Alamos has a four-tiered approach toward countering improvised explosive devices: intelligence gathering and analysis (e.g., using computer simulations to analyze social and political instabil- ity), detection (e.g., locating unpowered electronics in explosive devices), active in- terrogation (e.g., using directed energy to penetrate urban structures and remotely stimulate explosives), and neutralizing (e.g., reversible barriers). 7
  38. 38. 8 Developing Directed-Energy Beams Los Alamos is developing a variety Developing Directed-Energy Beams of directed-energy beams. For example, scientists are working on proton beams designed to accurately locate shielded nuclear materials, scalable free-electron lasers to counter dispersed threats, and high-power microwave sources designed to stop target vehicles. The Laboratory is also developing millimeter-wave radiation technologies to interrogate shielded and camouflaged enclosures. 8
  39. 39. 9 Developing Training and Effective Conflict Strategies Developing Training and Effective Conflict Strategies Los Alamos is developing numerous training tools in proficiency and conflict strategies to enhance the skills of Ameri- can warfighters. Examples of such tools include developing preventative strategies and success-ensuring responses, modeling current and future battlefields to better understand critical decision points, and developing realistic training packages to better prepare the warfighter. 9
  40. 40. 10 Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Weapons Understanding the Effects of Nuclear Weapons Los Alamos continues to conduct research on determining the many effects of nuclear weapons on various structures and environments. Research includes determining the dynamic response of high-rise buildings to over-pressures, calculating blast effects and channeling in urban canyons, and determining how modern microcircuits respond to neutrons, gamma, and x-rays. 10
  41. 41. A Securing Nuclear Materials Under the MPC&A (Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting) Program, Los Securing Nuclear Materials Alamos staff members work with other countries to secure nuclear weapons- usable materials. Staff members helped complete all major upgrades identified by Presidents Bush and Putin under the Bratislava Agreement by leading com- prehensive upgrades to six plant sites at Tomsk and two sites at Mayak. A
  42. 42. K Improving International Nuclear Inspections Improving International Nuclear Inspections Los Alamos works directly with the U.S. Department of State to assist the Interna- tional Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Staff members have trained all IAEA safeguard inspectors, provided experts to support IAEA projects in Vienna, and developed new safeguards and nuclear-detection technologies. Acknowledged as a world leader in nondestructive assay, Los Alamos has trained more than 5,300 individuals. K
  43. 43. Q Securing International Borders Los Alamos works with other countries Securing International Borders under the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program to prevent the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials by securing international borders, seaports, and airports. SLD core staff work with 20 countries. SLD Megaports staff from Los Alamos have installed and maintained detection systems in 48 of the world’s largest ports. Q
  44. 44. J Converting Nuclear Weapons to Nuclear Power Converting Nuclear Weapons to Nuclear Power Under the 1993 U.S.-Russian Federation Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU) Purchase Agreement, Russia agreed to downblend 500 metric tons of HEU extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons for use as power reactor fuel in the United States. Los Alamos scientists developed and main- tain an enrichment monitor that oversees each step of Russia’s HEU to low-enriched uranium to minimize any risk of possible diversion. J
  45. 45. 2 Developing Instruments for International Safeguards Developing Instruments for International Safeguards The concept of international safeguards dates from Dwight Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” speech to the United Nations in 1953. Since then, the Laboratory has developed various technologies and meth- ods to help ensure that nuclear materials are not used improperly. Efforts include developing prototype instruments in more than 30 counties, next-generation treaty- verification instruments, and safeguards for large-throughput fuel-reprocessing plants. 2
  46. 46. 3 Providing Treaty Support Los Alamos has provided technical advisers for every U.S. nuclear treaty. In the coming months, the U.S. government will turn to Los Alamos experts for help Providing Treaty Support as it negotiates a new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with Russia, considers U.S. ratification of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty, pursues a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and participates in the next Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference. 3
  47. 47. 4 Recovering Offsite Sources During the 1950s and 1960s, tens of thousands of radioactive sources were Recovering Offsite Sources distributed to educational, government, and industrial users. Los Alamos operates a program that securely recovers high-risk sealed sources that are declared excess and unwanted by domestic licensees. In the past decade, Los Alamos staff mem- bers have safely recovered and disposed of more than 20,000 domestic sources. 4
  48. 48. 5 Developing Next-Generation Nuclear Detectors Developing Next-Generation Nuclear Detectors Los Alamos scientists are investigating new scintillator materials to develop next- generation nuclear detectors. New materi- als that exhibit better energy resolution, operate at ambient temperatures, and can be cast into a variety of shapes and sizes would dramatically advance radiation detection and imaging. 5
  49. 49. 6 Detecting Weaponized Uranium Metals Detecting Weaponized Uranium Metals Los Alamos scientists are developing meth- ods to detect impurity-driven signatures in uranium metal. Such methods can help diagnose and respond to weaponization processes, such as melting, rolling, and heat treatment. The effectiveness of detecting various impurities will support efforts in nonproliferation, safeguards, and counter-proliferation. 6
  50. 50. 7 Strengthening the Future of Nuclear Safeguards Strengthening the Future of Nuclear Safeguards Sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Next Genera- tion Safeguards Initiative promotes the strengthening of nuclear safeguards worldwide through extensive training. To achieve this goal, Los Alamos is working with other partners to develop model curricula, lecture materials, and laboratory exercises available to U.S. and international universities. 7
  51. 51. 8 Mo-99 Medical Isotope Production Mo-99 Medical Isotope Production Los Alamos has operated solution reactors since the 1940s. Los Alamos recently completed an upgrade of four critical assembly machines for the Criticality Ex- periments Facility at the Nevada Test Site. Given such expertise, Los Alamos Mo-99 medical isotope production is assisting NNSA to implement new technology for Mo-99 medical isotope production. 8
  52. 52. 9 Developing Accurate Methods to Identify Radioisotopes Developing Accurate Methods to Identify Radioisotopes RIIDs (Radiation Isotope Identification Devices) have difficulty identifying radioisotopes accurately. As a result, it often falls on human spectroscopists to interpret results from RIID gamma spectra. To improve RIID accuracy, Los Alamos scientists are developing a new automated algorithm that mimics a human spectroscopist’s approach in analyzing and identifying radioisotopes in a given gamma spectrum. 9
  53. 53. 10 Detecting Uranium-Conversion Activities Detecting Uranium-Conversion Activities Scientists at Los Alamos have found that cathodoluminescence, coupled with electron microscopy, can provide rapid visual and quantitative characterization of environmentally exposed uranium fluorides. This geology-based technique is independent of uranium isotopic composition. Scientists postulate that this technique may be useful for detect- ing uranium-ore-conversion activities upstream of enrichment. 10
  54. 54. J William S. Rees, Jr., PADGS o k e r William S. Rees, Jr., PADGS “Los Alamos has the people, tools, and r facilities to give national-level policymak- e ers the necessary deep technical insight into an uncertain future for which they k must prepare. LANL also has a reputation for delivering the technology necessary to o respond effectively to significant threats of broad scope.” J
  55. 55. LANL Global Security Focus Areas rging national secu r eme rity o th e cha ve llen Sol Space Systems, Intellig g em s, enc ys t es e- rS AIE e Cyb ,W U.S. ion, arfig Nonproliferat hter Support Nuclear Deterrent LANL Global Security Focus Areas Nuclear Nonproliferation Cyber Systems Space Systems Intelligence Analysis, Integration, and Exploitation Warfighter Support Countering Terrorist Tactics Countering Weapons of Mass Effect Event Response Resilient Global Infrastructure
  56. 56. National Security Missions National Nuclear Security Administration Strengthen national security through the military application of nuclear energy and by reducing the global threat from terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Los Alamos National Laboratory Develop and apply science and technology to— Ensure the safety, security and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent • Reduce global threats • Solve other emerging national security challenges National Security Missions Global Security To provide early identification, creative maturation and timely delivery of scientifically robust solutions to the most urgent and technically challenging security issues facing our Nation.