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  1. 1. Estefania Quintero Cruz Criollo By
  2. 2. Structural Elements & Structural Systems
  3. 3. Vault Wall Beam Columns Cantilever Arch Structural Elements Is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below Is a structural element that carries load primarily in bending (flexure). Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads. A cantilever is a beam anchored at one end and projecting into space. This beam may be fixed at the support, or extend to another support as illustrated A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air In masonry, a curved structure that supports the weight of material over an open space, as in a bridge or doorway Vault- is a continuous arch of brick, stone, or concrete, forming a self-supporting roof over a building or part of a building. Dome A roof or vault, usually hemispherical in form and constructed over a circular, square, or octagonal space in a building . Truss A vertical mass of masonry that acts as a support or brace, projecting from the outer face of a wall at intervals. Its presence helps to resist the outward thrust of a vault . <ul><li>Hold up and give shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Are the parts that hold a building together. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot be removed without damaging the strength and shape of the building. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ARCUARTED WALL-BEARING FRAMED Structural Systems Refers to load-resisting sub-system of a structure. Structural system transfers loads to the foundation or supporting structure through interconnected structural components or members Colosseum, Rome Stoneheng , England Tuning Torso , Sweden TRABEATED Mandock, Chicago
  5. 5. Wall Bearing <ul><li>Wall bearing construction is one of the oldest and most common building methods used. </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior and interior masonry walls support structural members like beams and joists . </li></ul><ul><li>It is use in to low profile buildings up to several stories high. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, this type of construction was used to build some of the largest structures then know. </li></ul><ul><li>The materials most often used are stone, block, or brick . </li></ul> 
  6. 6. LINTEL TRABEATED An upright frame part: a vertical piece in a building frame that supports a beam. <ul><li>It is the simplest method to construct a building. Two vertical posts or supports could be spaced out to carry one horizontal. Refers to the use of horizontal beams or lintels which are borne up by columns or posts. Support limited wieght, The small distances required between the posts . </li></ul>A lintel is a beam used to span the opening in a wall left for a window or a doorway. The lintel supports the wall that goes above the opening. POST
  7. 7. Arcuarted <ul><li>The arcuarted system is the one use to create architectural forms that could cover larger spaces without too many supports, </li></ul><ul><li>A series of arches in a row is called an arcade and can be used to support the fabric of a wall. </li></ul><ul><li>In such a series, the weight of each arch is countered by the one next to it. </li></ul>  Colosseum, Rome
  8. 8. Framed <ul><li>Is one that is made stable by skeleton that is able to stand by itself as a rigid structure Without depending on floors or walls to resist deformation. </li></ul><ul><li>A framed structure in any material , made stable by a skeleton that is able to stand by itself as a rigid structure without depending on floors or walls to resist deformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials such as wood, steel, and reinforced concrete, which are strong in both, tension and compression, make the best members for framing. </li></ul>  Light Wood Frame- Ballon Frame Heavy Timber System Steel Frame Types
  9. 9. Heavy Timber System <ul><li>Based on Post and Lintel System. </li></ul><ul><li>Large post relatively far apart, support thick floors and roof beams. </li></ul><ul><li>Beams are strong enough to allow the upper story and roof, to project beyond the plane of the ground-floor post, increasing space and weather protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Members are exposed on the exterior. </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest type of construction developed in USA. </li></ul><ul><li>It is use for industrial and storage purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern heavy timber buildings are large in area and one story in height </li></ul> 
  10. 10. Light Wood- Ballon Frame <ul><li>Composed of many small and closely spaced members called studs. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be handled easily and assembled quickly by nailing. </li></ul><ul><li>Posts must rest on a base level, composed of masonry or concrete . </li></ul><ul><li>Each upper story is laid on crossbeams that are supported on the exterior wall by horizontal members. </li></ul><ul><li>Interior walls give additional beam support. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials most often use are wood or rectangular steel tubes. </li></ul> 
  11. 11. Steel Framing <ul><li>Similar to heavy Timber and Balloon Framing. </li></ul><ul><li>More simplified because of the strength of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides more rigidity with less members. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the best option to make high buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Column and beam are fused, both can be longer and lighter . </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton is either covered by curtain walls or surfaced in concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Is used also in single-story buildings where large spans are required. </li></ul> 
  12. 12. Glosary <ul><li>Timber: a beam made of wood, a post made of wood. Timber: a beam made of wood, a post made of wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Story -floor in building: a floor or level in a building. A set of rooms, or space, on a particular floor of a building. </li></ul><ul><li>Joist: beam used to support floors or roofs. </li></ul><ul><li>Loads: the amount of weight carried, especially by a vehicle, a structure such as a bridge, or an animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sill : continuous horizontal timber forming the lowest member of a framework or supporting structure . </li></ul><ul><li>6. Trabeated: not arcuate; having straight horizontal beams or lintels . </li></ul>
  13. 13. All Rights Reserved Directors: Estefania & Cruz Productor Creative: Cruz C Written: Estefania Graphics Design: Cruz Ejecutive Productor: Estefania Thanks: Microsoft Google Yahoo Wikipedia And Letty ☺ Marenita Productions ™