The Persian Wars


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Adapted from another uploaded PPT, this is about the Persian Wars

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The Persian Wars

  1. 1. Persian Wars
  2. 2. The Timeline Battle of PlataeaIonian Battle of Battle ofRevolt Marathon Thermopylae,Begins Battle of Salamis Strait499 BCE 479 BCE War War Ends Begins 490 BCE 480 BCE
  3. 3. Information about Greeks Were not allies at beginning of the war Athens and Sparta most powerful city states of the many throughout the Mediterranean Athens Sparta excels at land Sparta combat Athens, while having many soldiers, has a very strong navy
  4. 4. Greek Warfare Naval Warfare  Greek Ships called Triremes- rowed ship with heavy Iron Ram on front Land Warfare  Uses Phalanx Tactics  metal shields  Spears and swords (close range weapons)
  5. 5. The Persians Began as a small tribe in Iran Expanded quickly into the largest empire in history King Darius allowed conquered nations to keep their religions and kings in exchange for tribute (money or goods) and troops for the army
  6. 6. Persian Empire
  7. 7. Persian Weapons Leather and wood shields Short Swords Depended on large number of archers Had larger navy than Athens
  8. 8. Event 1: Ionians Revolt The Persians had taken over Greek Settlements in Ionia- on the coast of Asia Minor The Greeks had moved there after the collapse of Mycenae and the beginning of the Greek Dark Ages They had to contribute soldiers and tribute to Persians in exchange for being a part of the empire- they had be conquered.
  9. 9. The Reaction Athens sends troops to Ionia as well as ships. The Persians are defeated in one battle The Athenians leave Persia comes back, burns city of Miletus to the ground People are sold into slavery- normal at the time Persia now mad at the Athenians
  10. 10. Event 2: Battle of MarathonDarius decides to invade the Greek mainland and take it over.Sends messengers to ask for surrenderGreeks- according to legend throw messengers into a pit
  11. 11. Video Take detailed notes on:  Lead up to the battle  Important military leaders  Details of the battle  Outcome of the battle  Significance/Importance of the battle
  12. 12. Reactions Darius is furious Sends troops to Marathon, a city outside of Athens (about 26.2 miles) Marathon myth/confusion Sparta is having a religious festival and can’t help until tomorrow Athenians meet them with their allies- led by Militades Sweep around the Persians, surround them and defeat them Greeks form an Alliance to protect against further Persian Aggression
  13. 13. Event 3: Battle of Thermopylae Darius has died Xerxes, his son decides that the time has come to try to invade again Marches on Greece with largest army and navy ever assembled Army marches across a man made bridge over the Hellespont toward Greece Navy sails through a man made canal to avoid storms
  14. 14. What Actually Happened The Greeks use their alliance Athens and Sparta lead army and fleet to fight against Persians- anyone who can possibly fight, even the poor of Athens are brought in Sparta makes a stand at Thermopylae Athens makes stand at Salamis- a strait (narrow point in water) Hold on, I lost my contact. Has anyone seen it? Seriously guys? Just one second and we can get back to it.
  15. 15. Video Take detailed notes on:  Lead up to the battle  Important military leaders  Details of the battle  Outcome of the battle  Significance/Importance of the battle
  16. 16. Thermopylae Small passage between mountains- makes it hard for Archers to shoot, hard for troops in come in large numbers- Xerxes loses his biggest advantage A traitor shows the way around The Spartans decide to stay and defend- “give us your arms” “Come and get them” About 1300 men (300 were Spartans- fought to the death to stop the Persians Athens panics and abandons the city- only women, children, elderly left while all others are off fighting Xerxes burns it to the ground
  17. 17. Event 4: Salamis Strait Athenian navy commander- Themistocles thought of way to defeat the larger Persian navy Used similar tactics to Spartans- Salamis strait was a small channel between two areas of land. Told Persians that he wanted to switch sides Persians came to join him, Greeks retreat, suddenly attack and ram 300 ships down before the Persians retreat
  18. 18. Athens is that waya few miles
  19. 19. Event 5: Battle of Plataea Xerxes retreats back to Asia Minor Bridges at Hellespont have been destroyed- weather is not a fan of Xerxes Leaves an army to attack in the Spring Greeks have to decide whether or not to continue their alliance
  20. 20. What Happened Greeks Continue their alliance Xerxes attacks in the Spring 80,000 allied Greek soldiers defeat the Persian Army Athens has been destroyed, but comes out as the city state that defeated the Persian Navy, and created the alliance. They are poised to become the most powerful city state in Athens- a Golden Age