The Roman Empire was perhaps the most powerful Empire in the history of the world. It controlled almost all of Europe, Britain and Parts of Africa and Asia Rome ruled its empire with an iron fist (brutal), and had the most advanced and well trained army in the world. As Rome conquered more territory, it spread Christianity. However, Rome got too big and was forced to fight too many wars in too many places. By 500 AD, the Roman Empire is gone.
When Rome falls, most of Europe is Christian but has no leadership. Church becomes extremely powerful (educated, organized, only institution left, people gather around the church and become dependent on it) Disorder for years with wars, invasion and sons splitting Kingdoms Order restored with Feudalism
Lord granted Vassels (pieces of Land and the peasants who lived there) to Warrior Knights in exchange for loyalty, military protection A Knight was an Armored warrior, who dominated the battlefield (like tanks on horseback), very expensive to have armor, horses and weapons, very hard to equip and train a Knight (that’s why Knights were so important) Knights had very specific code of behavior called chivalry A peasant worked the land (farmer) and belonged to the Vassel
Primogeniture – land passed from father to oldest son, kept land intact, never split up Knights and Primogeniture made things very stable, feudalism lasted almost 1000 years Logic and Reason took a backseat to faith and superstition Trail by Ordeal or Trail by Combat for serious crimes Advances in Farming with the invention of the 3 field system, and new technology
Europe weakened by constant warfare (100 years war between England and France) Longbow allowed soldiers to kill knights at long ranges Gunpowder allowed the creation of Cannons that could destroy Castles Powerful Kings and Countries developed because Kings could build Armies without Knights Church grew weaker through infighting, tried to keep control through the Inquisition Ancient knowledge that was suppressed by the church was discovered in Spain in former Muslim land