Pharaohs of Egypt
A Brief Overview of the Most
Famous Pharaohs of Ancient
• Founding King of the 1st Dynasty
• Ruled between 3100-2850 B.C.E
• First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt
into one Kingdom
• Ancient Egypt’s form of a civilization began
with King Menes.
• He created the city of Memphis because of
its location. It would be easy to defend
against any attacks.
• During his reign he expanded his kingdom
and developed commercial trade links.
• His chief wife was Queen Berenib, although
she wasn’t the mother of his heir: Djer.
• The mother of Djer was Neithotepe, Menes’
• He died at the age of 63.
• According to legend he was attacked by wild
dogs or Nile crocodiles at Faiyum.
• He died leaving behind the legacy of a
• His tomb lays at Saqqara, the famed area of
• Djoser reigned for about 19 years.
• His right hand man, Imhotep, was famous for his
• Imhotep came up with the idea of the step pyramid.
• The pyramids design consisted of six giant steps and
contained many chambers and secret tunnels.
• It is believed that during Djoser’s reign, he extended
the Egyptian Southern Border all the way to the
Nile’s First Cataract.
• He left behind the legacy of the step pyramid, which
was the basis of all other pyramids to come.
• First individual (non-ruler) whose life has
• Founded the Egyptian system of medicine
– Regarded as the best in the ancient world
• Created the first pyramid (step pyramid)
• Inside, he wrote every part of life within
the royal palace in stone (2650 BCE)
– Meant to capture the life of the Pharah, not
just hold his final remains
• His statue in the royal funeral complex
“The Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt,
the first after the King of Upper Egypt,
administrator of the great palace,
hereditary lord, the High Priest of
Helopolis, Imhotep the builder, the
sculptor, and the maker of stone vases.”
Pyramids of Giza
• 3 built by Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure
• Khufu’s is known as the ‘Great Pyramid’
• Khufu’s father Snefuru built the ‘Bent
• Khafre is Khufu’s son, some say he also
built the ‘Great Sphinx’
• Mekaure built a smaller pyramid with three
smaller pyramids for his queens.
Tuthmosis III & Hatshepsut • The son of Tuthmosis II and Isris
• When is father died his stepmother, Hatshepsut,
• She was Tuthmosis III’s co-regent and for 22 years
he was pushed into the background as she ruled
• When she died, or when she was deposed,
Tuthmosis III came to the throne.
• As an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed as
many of Hatshepsut's statues, monuments and
• One of 4 women to rule Egypt
• Declared herself female king of Egypt and
refused to hand the throne over to her son
• Statues and pictures have her wexearing a
beard to symbolize power
• Her reign has been described as: a period
of peace, stability, and stability
• She expanded trade, expanded building
• He was remembered for is successful military
campaigns, largest empire Egypt had seen
• He had numerous victories against Syria, Libya and
Nubia. Led to much spleandor from the tributes they
• In his lifetime he married several foreign princesses,
apparently for diplomatic reasons.
• His chief queen was Hatshepsut-Merytre.
• He established Egypt as a powerful military strength.
• He died in his 55th year of reigning and was buried in
the Valley of the Kings.
• Has been referred to as the ‘Napoleon of Egypt’
• Original name was Amonhotep IV.
• Reigned 1350-1334 B.C.E
• He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god
from Amon-Re to Aton.
• Therefore he changed his name to Akhenaton which
means “he who serves Aton”
• He also built a new city called Akhetaton.
• This was the first attempt at radically changing the
• He closed all temples of other gods and confiscated
• His wife was Nefertiti who was known for
• Today, Akhenaton is remembered for trying
to introduce monotheism to Egypt.
• It is not sure how Akhenaton died but the
text two kings, Smenkhkara and
Tutankhamen, were apparently son’s-in-law
• After his reign Egypt returned back to their
• His new religion was defined through
hymns like the following:
Splendid you rise in heaven’s lightland,
O living Aton, creator of life!
When you have dawned in eastern lightland,
You fill every land with your beauty.
• King Tutankhamen came to the throne at a
very young age.
• When his father died, believed to be
Akhenaton, he became King at age 10.
• King Tutankhamen helped restore Egypt's
old beliefs from when his father tried to
make Egypt a monotheism society.
• He died suddenly at the young age of 18
• Possibly by a blow to the back of his head,
an infection of his leg, or due to poor
genes because of many generations of
• Since his tomb had not yet been made,
he was laid in a tomb of a member of
• He is famous today because of his
tomb found by archaeologists.
• Some say it was the most important
archaeological find in history
• King Tut curse????
• Went to the throne at the age of 20 and
reigned for 66 years.
• Seen as the most powerful Pharaoh
• Ramses is remembered for constructing many
• Constructed more colossal statues than any
other Egyptian King.
• Two of his greatest monuments are the two
huge temples at Abu Simbel for him and his
• Ramses also had many military victories.
• Not long after the reign of Ramses II, Egypt
was invaded and eventually fell to the rule of
• Ramses not only excelled in architecture but
he also had a great number of wives.
• By the end of his life Ramses had over 100
• After his death Ramses son, Menataph,
became the heir to the throne.
• Take notes on the Battle of Kadesh
• Description of Battle
• Last Pharaoh of Egypt (51-30 BCE)
• Portrayed herself as the reincarnation of Isis
• Allied herself with Julius Caesar, disputably
had a child together, Caesarean.
• After Caesar died, she aligned with Mark
Antony in opposition to Caesar Agustus
• Had 3 children with Antony, lost Battle of
Actium, committed suicide by Asp
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Egypt. 1996. 18 Oct. 2006
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• THE ASTRA CORPORATION LIMITED . Egyptology Online:
Discovering Ancient Egypt. 2001. 18 Oct. 2006