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1Toward a New Universe: ATransformation of Thought
Introduction2 Search for scientific truth – science became synonymous withthe idea of truth Increasing understanding of ...
New Questions about the BiologicalUniverse – Darwin3 Charles Darwin (1802 – 1882) saw change and development tobe the pat...
New Questions about the BiologicalUniverse – Darwin4 Those species that could adapt survived, while those without thephys...
Social Darwinism5 Malthus – nature was notbenign and progress was notinevitable because increase inpopulation would alway...
Religious Thought6 New Bible studies focused on the study of ancient languages asphilology (analysis of texts and languag...
Religious Thought7 The Atmosphere of Darwinism added additional challenges totraditional faith – if Darwin is right, life...
Positivism & Sociology8 Society itself became anappropriate subject for scientificanalysis. Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857)a...
The Challenge to the Rational Universe9 Thinkers, writers, artists began to challenge the positiveapproach to knowledge &...
Psychology & the Question of theIrrational10 Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)realized that some of hispatients’ symptoms were ...
Psychology & the Question of theIrrational11 Freud’s theories describedsexual desires &aggressions are oftenrepressed in ...
Psychology & the Question of theIrrational12 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900)rejected common humanity andstressed the im...
Toward an Uncertain Universe – The NewReality of 191413 Two types of culture in the West in 1914 Public Level – mass cul...
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New Ideologies of the 19th Century

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New Ideologies of the 19th Century

  1. 1. 1Toward a New Universe: ATransformation of Thought
  2. 2. Introduction2 Search for scientific truth – science became synonymous withthe idea of truth Increasing understanding of nature Social philosophers start to claim to have discovered“scientific” socialism Eventually developed social sciences – the study of individual& behaviour People could now use their intellect to raise from barbarism tocivilization Evidence was everywhere – railways, steamboats, telegraph &the light bulb. Faith in continuing progress through the application of science& reason
  3. 3. New Questions about the BiologicalUniverse – Darwin3 Charles Darwin (1802 – 1882) saw change and development tobe the pattern of nature. Published “On the Origin of Species” on Means of NaturalSelection. Widespread controversy spread throughout Europe as theoriesof evolution conflicted with creation theories. Darwin believed that humans & animals were not specialcreations from God, but evolved from common ancestorsthrough a long process of gradual change. People had generally thought that the age of the Earth wasrelatively young – Darwin’s theory meant the earth’s age wasmuch greater do to the slow development of evolutionarychange.
  4. 4. New Questions about the BiologicalUniverse – Darwin4 Those species that could adapt survived, while those without thephysical &/or mental characteristics could not adapt andtherefore not survive. Darwin spoke of favoured races, those that were more suited totheir environment. Change was from nature – not a deity If one accepted Darwin’s theories, peace & harmony were notnecessarily the natural way of the world. How does this relate to politics, ethics and economics? Class conflict now seemed necessary – Darwin’s theories, oftendistorted, were used by those that struggle by people andnations was essential for progress.
  5. 5. Social Darwinism5 Malthus – nature was notbenign and progress was notinevitable because increase inpopulation would always outrunpeople’s limited resources Social Darwinists believe thatsimple and uniform evolve tothe complex and specialized. Competition was necessary toallow those who were “fit” toemerge on top in the economic& social struggle – withoutgovernment interference. Typically hated socialism –some to the point where theydon’t like public education.
  6. 6. Religious Thought6 New Bible studies focused on the study of ancient languages asphilology (analysis of texts and language) grew Both the Old Testament and New Testament underwent analysisthat challenged its spiritual truth. Questions of Judaism & Christianity challenged the need forreligion – seen as a way for people to comprehend their place inthe universe.
  7. 7. Religious Thought7 The Atmosphere of Darwinism added additional challenges totraditional faith – if Darwin is right, life was a process of constantchange not an act of special creation, species emerged and weredestroyed. Many disagreed and adequately defended their faith, othersembraced new theories and accepted evolutions as part of God’splan and found beauty in how all living things could beinterrelated. Agnosticism maintained that ultimate truths about God were notknowable, therefore one should not waste time arguing them –Darwin belonged to this group.
  8. 8. Positivism & Sociology8 Society itself became anappropriate subject for scientificanalysis. Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857)affirmed “positive philosophy” touse scientific synthesis of allknowledge. Comte termed “Sociology” thatstudied both social stats andsocial dynamics. Through the study of history andsocieties one could count onprogression that led to a world ofpeace . Comte began a scientific religionthat would honour all those thatcontributed to the advancementsof civilization.
  9. 9. The Challenge to the Rational Universe9 Thinkers, writers, artists began to challenge the positiveapproach to knowledge & rational understanding of humannature. Wilhelm Dilthey (1833 – 1911) believed that its important touse imagination to understand history – use spontaneousexpressions of the past. Can’t just use historical documentsto get to the core of human reality. Benedetto Croce (1866 – 1952) believed that it is impossibleto be completely objective when investigating the past. Theresearcher picks the topic and can never fully escape theirown time. Max Weber (1864 – 1920) “if something is scientific, thisdoes not mean that it is desirable.” Science cannot tell ushow to act.
  10. 10. Psychology & the Question of theIrrational10 Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)realized that some of hispatients’ symptoms were notphysical, but had their origins inthe mind. Developed psychoanalysis –study mental history of patient Rejected view that people arerational creatures. Distinction between theconscious & the unconscious –thus resulting in rational & non-rational motive unexplainableby conventional ways. Childhood experiences ofteninfluenced the actions of amature person.
  11. 11. Psychology & the Question of theIrrational11 Freud’s theories describedsexual desires &aggressions are oftenrepressed in a civilizedworld. Id – one’s basic desires Super-Ego – conscienceacquired by people living insociety Ego – everyday face(constantly caught in-betweendesires of the super-ego andthe id) Challenged theenlightenment view thatpeople are guided byreason.
  12. 12. Psychology & the Question of theIrrational12 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 – 1900)rejected common humanity andstressed the importance for superiorindividuals to develop their owntalents in their own way. Christianity was a religion of theweak because it made peoplesubordinate themselves to myths &preached self-sacrifice. Democracy was self-defeatingbecause it put power to theweak, crushing genius Nationalism destroyed individualismbecause of the demands of thegroup. Noble man – one who determines isown destiny Common man – follows others Basically, wanted superior individualsto develop their full potential.
  13. 13. Toward an Uncertain Universe – The NewReality of 191413 Two types of culture in the West in 1914 Public Level – mass culture still using the old ideas of theuniverse, society, and human nature Intellectual Level – new ideas amongst intellectuals, howeverstill being questioned & even rejected Most people prior to 1914 believed that technology was creatinga better life for all, however the major ideological foundations ofWestern culture were slowly being eroded. Everything seemed to be challenged with no new standards onthe horizon. At the turn of the century, this was not a major problem as liberalideas seem to prevail – but major conflict was about to explode.

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