Industrial Revolution Introduction


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A brief introduction to the Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution Introduction

  1. 1. Slide 1Introduction to theIndustrial Revolution
  2. 2. Slide 2Shift from the Agrarian World• Agricultural Revolution – Newfarming methods invented• Lord Townshend in Englandintroduced crop rotation – land couldnow be used year-round; certain cropsrevitalized soil• Enclosure movement had large landowners buying and then fencing publicland
  3. 3. Slide 3Shift from the Agrarian World• Smaller farmers pushed off of land towork as wage laborers for various landowners or to move to the growingcities• More food produced = populationincrease• In 1700 there were about 100 millionpeople in Europe, by 1800 thepopulation had grown to 190 million.
  4. 4. Slide 4Textile Industry Takes Off• Domestic system (cottage industry)had dominated the early 1700s• merchants dropped off raw materials atpeople’s homes, picked up finishedproducts later
  5. 5. Slide 5Textile Industry Takes Off• Series of inventionsmodernize textilemanufacturing,including:• 1733 - FlyingShuttle (John Kay)– Used to weaveclothThe Flying Shuttle
  6. 6. Slide 6Textile Industry Takes Off• 1760 – SpinningJenny (JamesHargreaves) –Allowed formultiple threads tobe woven together• 1769 – WaterFrame (RichardArkwright) – Usedwater to power thespinning frameThe Spinning Jenny
  7. 7. Slide 7Textile Industry Takes Off• 1785 – WaterLoom (EdmundCartwright) – Firstmachine that couldweave cloth• 1793 – Cotton Gin(Eli Whitney) –Machine thatseparated cottonseeds from thecottonPlans for the Cotton Gin
  8. 8. Slide 8Textile Industry Takes Off• Theseadvancementsresulted in themovement of workfrom the home tothe factoryPlans for the Cotton Gin
  9. 9. Slide 9Britain Industrializes First• 1715-1850• Many naturalresources availablein Britain,including largeamounts of coaland iron
  10. 10. Slide 10Britain Industrializes First• Geographicaladvantages include alarge river system forwater power and manynatural harbors foreasy trade• A strong, stablegovernment allowed astrong, stable economyto develop whichresulted in extramoney to invest
  11. 11. Slide 11Britain Industrializes First• Colonial empireprovided muchneeded rawmaterials andmarkets• Spreads tocontinental Europe,United States ofAmerica, and Japanbetween 1850 and1914
  12. 12. Slide 12Changes Brought by theIndustrial Revolution• Invention of the steam engine in 1763 byJames Watt shifts labor from humans andanimals to machines• Inventions continue to make life,manufacturing, and farming easier and better• Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel evengreater growth• Inventions in one area often led toinventions in others• Transportation and communication systemsare greatly enhanced
  13. 13. Slide 13Changes Brought by theIndustrial Revolution• Cities begin to dominate the western world• Creates a new social order with the rise of aninfluential middle class• Poor working conditions for lower classeseventually lead to new social and politicalmovements• Need for markets and resources forceEuropeans to take over foreign lands(imperialism)
  14. 14. Great Britain• By 1830, Great Britain was THEleading industrial power with apopulation of 21 million (less than10% of Europe’s population).• Britain was producing 2/3rd’s of theworld’s coal, ½ of the world’s iron,and ½ of the world’s cotton cloth.Slide 14