From the fall of rome to the crusades


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From the fall of rome to the crusades

  2. 2. THE DARK AGES • Describes the Early Middle Ages from 476-1000 • Started after Rome was destroyed by Barbarians • Refers to the lack of culture • Literature, written history, cultural advancements • Time of backwardness where the advancements of Rome were not apparent
  3. 3. THE DARK AGES • Historians assumed the period was a time of violence and idleness • Now used more as a way to describe the time period, more ‘silent’ than ‘dark’ • Justice: Ordeal, judgement before God • By fire: burn palm, if it healed in a matter of time you were innocent • Battle: fight accuser, winner is right • Water: Witch, float = guilty/burn, sink = innocent
  4. 4. THE FRANKS • Were a Germanic tribe who eventually became the French. • Inhabited the former wealthy Roman provinces of Gaul and became the most powerful of the Germanic tribes. • Created the strongest and most stable barbarian kingdom in the days after the Western Roman Empire had collapsed.
  5. 5. THE FRANKS • Childeric was the father of Clovis (481-511), the first ruler of the Merovingian dynasty. • Clovis was a ruthless warrior and he and his immediate successors destroyed all resistance within their empire. • He drove the Gallic Visigoths into Spain • Clovis converted to Orthodox Christianity, an act which made him king of the Franks in the eyes of the pope.
  6. 6. CHARLEMAGNE • Charlemagne (Charles the Great) inherited the Frankish throne in 768, ruled for 46 years • Rule brought civilization, order, and learning • Led many campaigns in Europe • People in conquered territories would be forced to convert to Christianity or they would be killed GkUNK8kmDw
  7. 7. CHARLEMAGNE • Crowed “Emperor of the Romans” by Pope Leo III • Legacy: • Government: area divided into regions ruled by Counts • Had appointed officials to keep the counts in line • Also heard complaints from the people, made laws • Education and Training: started schools taught by monks • Based on Roman teachings • Charlemagne’s grandsons fought over his land and finally signed the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three kingdoms • Trickle down effect, weak!
  8. 8. THE PROPHET MUHAMMED • Arabia was a divided and contested country. • In 570 C.E., Muhammed was born into the Quraysh tribe, which was very influential in Mecca. • At 40, he received a revelation from the Angel Jibril (Gabriel) • He was told he was a prophet of Allah, and that his mission was to bring the true Word of Allah to the Arab peoples.
  9. 9. THE PROPHET MUHAMMED • Muhammed began to preach the message he had been given: • there was only one God, Allah; • that no image or idol was acceptable to Allah; • that Allah was not born from another god, and He did not have any son or daughter; • that all who believed the Word of Allah were as brother or sister; • that all the prophets, from the time of Adam to the time of Jesus, had revealed the same message.
  10. 10. THE PROPHET MUHAMMED • The people of Mecca were not receptive to this strict new religion • Meeting considerable opposition, and fearing for the lives of his few followers, Muhammed moved to Medina – the City of the Prophet. • From this base Muhammed increased his efforts to convert the other tribes of Arabia
  11. 11. CRASH COURSE ISLAM PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=13
  12. 12. EXPANSION OF ISLAM • In 630 C.E., Muhammed and his armies captured Mecca. The Ka’ba was cleansed and the idols within it destroyed • Muhammed died in 632 C.E. and was succeeded by the first Caliph, Abu Bakr. • Under the second Caliph, Ummar, the Muslims began to expand out of Arabia. • In battles with the Persian Empire and the Byzantine Roman Empire, the armies of Islam proved to be stronger. • By 732 Dar ul Islam stretched from the Pyrennes mountains in Europe to the borders of India, and deep into central Asia.
  13. 13. CREATION OF GUNPOWDER • Discovered by accident in China (tried to create an elixir of life) • In about 850 CE it was mixed accidentally • mixed 75 parts saltpeter with 15 parts charcoal and 10 parts sulfur • According to a text from that era, "smoke and flames result, so that [the alchemists'] hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down.“ • The Chinese used it for fireworks but Europeans would ‘improve’ its usage for weaponry by the 14th century
  14. 14. THE VIKING AGE • Came from Denmark, Norway and Sweden • Mostly farmers, craftsmen or traders • Would sail and raid shorelines all over Europe • Took over most of England, Scotland and Wales • Were brilliant ship builders • Could come right up on the beach so they could jump out and start fighting • Were brave explorers, sailed west of Britain • Faeroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland • Leif Eriksson sailed to America in 1001 • First European to land in America
  15. 15. THE VIKING AGE • Vikings traded all over Europe and Central Asia • Traded in goods and also slaves • Men worked on farms or as craftsman or traders • Handled boats and fought to protect family or king • Women did all the household jobs • Milked cows, made cheese, spun, wove and sewed all the clothes • Children did not go to school, helped parents work • Learned about history, religion and law from stories • ‘Blood-feuds’ saw families fight each other • Settled by killing member of other family • Eventually ended with one paying ‘blood-money’
  16. 16. vikings/launch_gms_viking_quest.shtml
  17. 17. END OF THE VIKINGS • In the 9th Century, Alfred the Great of England forced the Vikings to leave Western England • 10th Century saw England reclaim many Viking areas • Early 11th century the whole of England was ruled by the Viking King Knut • In 1066 England was conquered by William, the Duke of Normandy • Vikings driven out but remained for another 300 years in Scandinavia
  18. 18. BATTLE OF HASTINGS (1066) • Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror • Most famous battle ever fought on English soil. • Marked the end of Anglo-Saxon England, the creation of new ties with Western Europe, and a more unified ruling class. • Society became bound by ties of feudal loyalty, leading to more power in royal hands • Also created common law, which had consequences that still affect our lives today
  19. 19. =oLy1LskT6Y8 ormans/ tml
  20. 20. FALL OF JERUSALEM • Jerusalem fell from the Byzantines to the Muslims in 634 CE • Muslim forces sieged the town for four months with multiple assaults on the city • The Christians surrendered but preserved their places of worship and were not forced to convert • As Jerusalem grew in importance to Muslims, the persecution of Christians grew • As news of their places of worship being destroyed filtered into Europe, support for a Holy Crusade grew in 1096
  21. 21. SOURCES • Franks.html • • /InventGunpowder.htm