French revolution timeline


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French revolution timeline

  1. 1. Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité
  2. 2. One of the biggest turning points in European historyUnlike the Russian Revolution or The Chinese revolution, France was the most advanced country of the age
  3. 3.  Population growth and declining standard of living increased pressures on an inefficient economy Writings of the philosophes inspired criticism of the Royal Government and powerful Church Extravagances of the Court exhausted the treasury Efforts of the King’s ministers to reduce privileges, reform taxes, cut spending, and introduce free trade within France had all failed The Royal Government had proved its incompetence and the nobles saw their chance to seize control of the King’s powers and increase their own
  4. 4. 1. Church2. Nobility3. Third Estate
  5. 5. Church – 100 000 peopleDeeply involved in the prevailing social system in FranceThey owned between 5 and 10 percent of the landChurch was the greatest of all landownersChurch wealth concentrated in the hands of few
  6. 6. Nobility – 400 000They had enjoyed great resurgence since the death of Louis XIVArmy, parlements, government offices all monopolized by the nobilityHad blocked any plan at taxationMiddle class – bourgeoisie, not part of this estate, didn’t enjoy the same privelidgeMC taxed
  7. 7. Third Estate – disgruntledIn the 40 years prior to the rev, prices rose 65%, whereas wages rose 22%4/5 of the populationNot like serfdom in Russia – they worked for themselvesNoble still had rights – hunting, collected fees for mills, bakeshop, wine press
  8. 8. The manorial lord performed no economic functionHe lived not by managing his land, but by collecting a series of duesDuring the 18th century, lords were faced with rising living costs, and consequently, collected their dues more vigorouslyThey also revived the old ones that had previously been ignored
  9. 9. Leases and sharecropping also became less favourable to the peasantsAdditionally, peasants began to resent the feudal dues because they saw themselves as the true owners of the land
  10. 10. As we saw, France struggled with financial burdenUpkeep of army, and servicing debtRevenues falling short of expenditureNobility and church avoiding taxationLouis XVI, also had appointed Jacques Necker, a Swiss Banker – also dismissedHis successor, Calonne, proposed a general tax to replaced the taille - a tax on all landowners
  11. 11. He wanted to pass it by an Assembly of Notables, Louis wouldn’t allow itLouis dismissed himHe wanted to pass it in an Estates General, because he knew parliament wouldn’t accept itAdditionally, they tried to replace the parliamentsNobles were angered, wouldn’t do anything, like a strikeLouis called the Estates General and various classes were called to elect representatives
  12. 12. Estates General hadn’t met since 1614-1615It is an assembly of representatives elected from the three estatesEach estate voted separately on an issueThen the rep from estate would voteDangerous for Louis  Move to politics  Weakening absolutism  Everyone felt they could have a say
  13. 13. Rift between old and new nobility – reps for the EG had to be from long established noble linesAngered new nobility , and pushed them toward 3rd estate3rd estate thought the voting system was unfairLed by Abbe SieyesThey demanded that double the number of reps be given to the third estateLouis gave the 3rd more reps, but it was still rep by estate
  14. 14. Louis missed his chance to be a strong leader in the EGMain issue was the 3rd refused to do anything until there was a unicameral legislatureEven disgruntled parish priests left the first estate and joined the third17 June 1789 – Third Estate called itself the National Assembly – urged the other estates to join
  15. 15. “What is the Third Estate?”  Complied by Mirabeau and SieyesDemands of the estatesFairer tax systemEnd to feudal duesCame from everyone  Rich and poor  Rural and Urban
  16. 16. Palace of Versailles
  17. 17. Tennis Court OathTennis Court Oath – on June 20th the kings officials locked the 3rd out of the hallThe 3rd thought the EG was being dissolved, and met at a Tennis courtThey vowed to stay together even against the king’s will bc they were the nation, not the kingFirst assertion of power by the 3rdLouis called for a constitution shortly afterLed to the revolutionary myth, united people
  18. 18. Louis eventually gives in – June 27National Assembly formedWhy did Louis do it?  He was scaredUnicameral body- set out to provide the monarchy with a constitutionNational Assembly faced a series of obstacles
  19. 19. 11 July  Dismisses popular Finance Minister Jacques Necker  Calls troops to Versailles and ParisThe dismissal of Necker, who was a reformer, sparked outrage amongst the masses because he was seen as a reformer, and it was viewed as a conspiracy
  20. 20. Louis XVI’s actions convinced people that the King was about to dismiss the National Assembly and march on ParisIn Paris, rioters (bourgeois, store keepers, guilds, etc) stormed a prison – the high officials were lynched, and their heads paraded through the streets on a pikeHoped to arm and defend themselves in the event of an attack
  21. 21.  Bastille symbolized royal power and authority Fall of the prison prompted similar actions throughout the French countryside Expression of the power of the people to take politics into their own hands A century later, the French republic made it a national holiday Short term, it made Louis more receptive, but this angered the nobles
  22. 22. National Assembly took action to restore order by officially abolishing feudalism and the church tithe
  23. 23. Text Book  182-183Which points reflect those of:  Locke  Rousseau  Montisque
  24. 24. Demonstration led by 6000 Parisian women motivated by fear of bread shortagesDecapitated people who had insulted revolutionariesRoyal family forcibly moved to the Tuileries Palace in Paris
  25. 25. French Revolution VideoFor the video take notes on the following points:  Importance/Impact of the Revolution  Describe Robespierre Louis XVI Marie Antoinette  Describe Louis and Marie’s relationship  Who are the sans-culottes?
  26. 26. 2 November 1789  Confiscated property and wealth of the church  Sold it to members of the middle class and peasantry19 June 1790  Abolished hereditary nobility and noble titles12 July 1790  Civil Constitution of the Clergy Required priests and bishops to swear oath of loyalty to the constitution Provided for election of bishops and priests by the people
  27. 27. Attempted escape of Louis XVI and family from FranceLeft behind a letter condemning the Revolution, stating his belief in nobility and his right to absolute rule, and his hope to reestablish the Ancien Regime with the help of émigrés
  28. 28. Produced by the National Constituent Assembly (formerly National Assembly)Strictly limited power of the King, setting up a constitutional monarchyOriginal National Constituent Assembly dissolved and replaced by the National Legislative Assembly
  29. 29. Other European rulers were horrified by the example set by revolutionary France  Feared revolution would spread to their countriesDeclaration of Pillnitz by Emperor of Austria and King of Prussia
  30. 30. Royal Family wanted war to discredit and defeat the RevolutionFrench moderates wanted war to shift attention from economic problems and preserve the constitutional monarchyFrench radicals wanted war to free the people of Europe
  31. 31. 20 April 1792  France declared war on Austria  Prussia soon at Austria’s aid25 July 1792  Brunswick Manifesto issued by Austria and Prussia Threatened severe punishment for Parisians if anything happened to the royal family
  32. 32. Robespierre used the Manifesto to argue for the overthrow of the French monarchyMob anger intensified by conditions in France  Bread scarce  Rising prices  Severe unemployment  Paper money losing value  Fear of reinstatement of the Ancien Regime  Fear of émigré revenge
  33. 33.  Mob led by Robespierre, Marat, and Danton overthrew the Parisian municipal government and set up the Paris Commune  Representation to different sections of the city  Increased power of the radicals backed by the sans- culottes
  34. 34. Mob attack on royal palace leads to imprisonment of royal familyNational Legislative Assembly suspends the monarchyRadicals intimidate National Legislative Assembly and force its dissolutionExecutive Council rules France until a National Convention is elected
  35. 35. Public Panic  caused by King’s arrest and crumbling military that allowed Austrian and Prussian armies to advance toward ParisParis jails full of suspected royalists and “counter- revolutionaries” arrested for “aiding the enemies”Rumours of a royalist plot to stage a massive jail break
  36. 36. 1200 people murdered without trial
  37. 37. Jacobins  Members included Robespierre and Napoleon Bonaparte  Most famous political club  Radical, included sans-culottes  Advocated radical reform and harsh measures to bring about changeGirondins  Moderate, did not support extending political rights to the working class – sans- culottes
  38. 38. The Plain  Independent representatives opposed to King’s return and committed to the RevolutionThe Girondins  Led by Jacques-Pierre BrissotThe Jacobins  Radicals led by RobespierreAbolished the Monarchy by unanimous vote and created a Republic
  39. 39.  Disciple of Rousseau  Both considered the general will an absolute necessity  Realization of the general will would make the Republic of Virtue a reality Individual will not as important  Gained a following and knew how to manipulate it
  40. 40. Louis XVI brought to trial before the Convention, found guilty of treason, sentenced to execution  Guillotined on 21 January 1793
  41. 41. 1 February  France declared war on Britain, Holland, Spain23 February  Food riots in ParisMarch  Royalist revolt in the Vendée
  42. 42. National Convention set up committees:  General Defence  General Security  Public Safety  Revolutionary Tribunal To try enemies of the RevolutionRobespierre and Mountain supporters seize control when Girondins prove ineffective
  43. 43. 2 June  National Guardsmen and sans-culottes march on National Convention, demanding expulsion and arrest of Girondin members  Remaining members elect Robespierre to Committee of Public Safety Control National Convention and rule France from July 1793 to July 1794
  44. 44. New calendar  “Year One” = establishment of the Republic  12 months each with three 10-day weeks  5 left over days: patriotic holidays celebrating Virtue, Genius, Labour, Opinions, Rewards  Names of the week changed to reflect mathematical regularity  Primidi, duodi, tridi… decadi  Months renamed to reflect natural rhythms of seasons  January: Nivose (month of snow); Brumaire (fog), Frimaire (cold)
  45. 45. New national educational system to indoctrinate and educateNew flag – tricolour  Blue and red are the colours of France  White is an ancient French colourConformity on all levels  Clothes, books, songs
  46. 46. Churches renamed to reflect secularization  Church of Saint-Laurent = Temple of Marriage and Fidelity  Notre Dame = Temple of ReasonCult of the “worship of the supreme being”
  47. 47. Addressed military invasion, food shortages and inflation, and internal revolts
  48. 48. Used the press, theatre, and the arts to appeal to men, women, and children to defend the Republic23 August 1793 - Introduced levée of entire male population  Created an army of 850,000 soldiers by 1794Appointed commissioners to supervise the army and check on the loyalty of generals  Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte from major to brigadier
  49. 49. Death penalty for food hoarders17 September 1793 - “Maximum” law introduced to control prices, wages and profitsCommissioners appointed to collect food from the countryside for the army and cities
  50. 50. Surveillance committees staffed by local Jacobins report on leading citizens and local government officialsLaw of Suspects – 17 September 1793  Permitted arrest of any person suspected of speaking or acting against the Revolution  Death sentence for incompetent generals, food hoarders, speculators, and political critics
  51. 51. Some 40,000 people died during the Terror  6.5% priests, 8.5% nobles, remainder commoners1251 persons executed in Paris  March 1793 to 10 June 1794  16 October – Marie Antoinette  31 October – Girondists  24 March 1794 – Hébertists  6 April - Dantonists1376 executions  10 June to 27 July 1794  30 executions per day
  52. 52. National Convention members join together to overthrow Robespierre and vote for his arrestHe Alienated left and rightDefended France from foreign invasion but could not save democracy through terror28-30 July  Robespierre and 92 of his supporters are guillotined
  53. 53. National Convention drew up peace treaties with all European countries except AustriaNew moderate Constitution  Remove the power of the Paris mob  Protect middle class principles of liberty and property  Power reserved for educated property owners
  54. 54. Sans-Culottes marched on National Convention demanding “bread and the Constitution of 1793”  Efforts repulsed and Paris Commune dissolvedLouis XVI’s 10-year old son died on 8 JuneLouis XVI’s brother demanded complete return to Old Regime
  55. 55. New republican constitution proclaimed  Limited participation to property owners  Executive power to committee of 5 directorsThe Directory passed useful laws in education and justice but failed to control inflationOctober 1795  Pro-royalist riots suppressed in Paris by republican troops led by General Napoleon BonapartePerformed day-to-day dutiesBalanced middle path between royalists and insurrectionAchieved goals of a stable constitutional rule
  56. 56. Sovereign will of the people permanently replaced the monarch’s claim to divine right to ruleYet with democracy came tyrannyRepression of the terror revealed the pressures of external war and civil unrestSearch for conciliation, opportunism and stability by the peopleIronic they turn to a man of war and a dictator!
  57. 57. Movie QuestionsDescribe the logic behind the guillotineHow was the French Republic born officially?What lead to Robspierre’s demise?What state was France in after Robspierre’s death?What questions are raised from the French Revolution?