1500-1650
Fact #1: Large Land Reclamation
 Not since the Black Death had Europe transformed so
much
 Agriculture increased: more l...
Fact #2: Don’t Be a Peasant
 Manors, the church and the state gained their wealth
from peasants
 Peasant housing was raw...
Farming Life
Farmers Threshing Grain
Pig Killing and Baking
Fact #3: Huge Population Growth
 Population growth created change
 80 mil to 105 mil in Europe
 France and England doub...
Trading Port of Antwerp
Population Density in Europe: 1600
Fact #4: Inflation Anyone?
 By midcentury a limit was reached
 Guilds raised fees, limited one son per father
 Increase...
Fact #4: Inflation Anyone?
 Inflation disrupted whole societies
 99 year leases
 Lords could buy goods at set prices (e...
Moneylender and Wife
Fact #5: Gentry Anyone?
 European society was divided into two status groups:
nobles and commoners
 Nobility implied cer...
Fact #5: Gentry Anyone?
 Between the nobility and the commoners, a new group
without clear status was emerging
 Some of ...
Feeding the Hungry
Fact #6: Revolts All Around
 Social changes led to conflict between the orders
 Peasant revolts, although moderate and w...
Twelve Articles of the Peasants of
Swabia
 The First Article. First, it is our humble petition and desire,
as also our wi...
Fact #7: Gender Roles
 The economic role of women within the household
was varied
 Prepared food, kept domestic animals,...
Embroidery Depicting a Mother
with her Thirteen Daughters
BONUS: Festivals For Everyone!
 Village church was both a spiritual and social center, a focal point for
holidays and cel...
Wedding Feast at Bermondesy
BONUS: Ignorance Is Not Bliss
 Despite the print revolution, most Europeans remained illiterate
 The common man’s sense ...
# of Witchcraft Persecutions
What’s Next?
 Large changes in Europe
 Social, political, cultural and scientific revolutions are
brewing
 Conflict bet...
Sources
 Civilization in the West, Kishlansky, Geary, and
O’Brien, Longman, New York, 1998.
 http://thesocietypages.org/...
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Experiences of life in early modern europe

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Experiences of life in early modern europe

  1. 1. 1500-1650
  2. 2. Fact #1: Large Land Reclamation  Not since the Black Death had Europe transformed so much  Agriculture increased: more land cleared, crops grown, better tools  More irreplaceable resources lost: more trees felled, soil eroded, water polluted
  3. 3. Fact #2: Don’t Be a Peasant  Manors, the church and the state gained their wealth from peasants  Peasant housing was raw  single long hall with a fireplace for heat  single window to the outside world  housing was shared during bad weather with animals  property was limited—a chest, a table, a bedstead, some pots and utensils
  4. 4. Farming Life
  5. 5. Farmers Threshing Grain
  6. 6. Pig Killing and Baking
  7. 7. Fact #3: Huge Population Growth  Population growth created change  80 mil to 105 mil in Europe  France and England doubled  In 1500 4 cities had more than 100,000  In 1600 there were 8  15 large cities doubled their pop’n  London grew by 400%!
  8. 8. Trading Port of Antwerp
  9. 9. Population Density in Europe: 1600
  10. 10. Fact #4: Inflation Anyone?  By midcentury a limit was reached  Guilds raised fees, limited one son per father  Increased population in town = poorer wages  Purchasing power in England was halved  Large inflation (500% in agriculture)  Increased population and metals from the New World  Commodity prices increased along with State debt
  11. 11. Fact #4: Inflation Anyone?  Inflation disrupted whole societies  99 year leases  Lords could buy goods at set prices (even from 300 years ago!)  Push to create a surplus to sell, specialize  Many who had sold land to go to the city came back with no land
  12. 12. Moneylender and Wife
  13. 13. Fact #5: Gentry Anyone?  European society was divided into two status groups: nobles and commoners  Nobility implied certain rights  eligible for high office in the state  paid no taxes  In return they were expected to serve as military commanders  Expected to raise, equip, and lead troops  Professionalism of warfare limited this by 16th century
  14. 14. Fact #5: Gentry Anyone?  Between the nobility and the commoners, a new group without clear status was emerging  Some of the wealthiest and most powerful townsmen rose into the lower ranks of the nobility  In the countryside, landowners separated themselves from the labourers  This group is referred to as the gentry
  15. 15. Feeding the Hungry
  16. 16. Fact #6: Revolts All Around  Social changes led to conflict between the orders  Peasant revolts, although moderate and well organized, were brutally suppressed  Many were in response to changes in the agricultural system imposed by surges and recessions in the economy  Protection of woodlands and enclosure of open fields for commercial agriculture provoked strong peasant responses  Peasant revolts broke out in Hungary in 1514, England in 1549, and Germany in 1525.  German revolt saw peasants objecting to changes taking place in villages and demanded freedom from serfdom
  17. 17. Twelve Articles of the Peasants of Swabia  The First Article. First, it is our humble petition and desire, as also our will and resolution, that in the future we should have power and authority so that each community should choose and appoint a pastor, and that we should have the right to depose him should he conduct himself improperly. The pastor thus chosen should teach us the gospel pure and simple, without any addition, doctrine, or ordinance of man.  The Tenth Article. In the tenth place, we are aggrieved by the appropriation by individuals of meadows and fields which at one time belonged to a community. These we will take again into our own hands ...
  18. 18. Fact #7: Gender Roles  The economic role of women within the household was varied  Prepared food, kept domestic animals, educated children and provided primary child care, made clothing, and cleaned  In towns women might add the tasks of selling goods and directing domestics.  Men performed more public duties  the primary agricultural tasks, the construction of farm equipment, performance of owed labour services, and participation in the political life of the village
  19. 19. Embroidery Depicting a Mother with her Thirteen Daughters
  20. 20. BONUS: Festivals For Everyone!  Village church was both a spiritual and social center, a focal point for holidays and celebrations  Communities expressed their unity by ceremonial activities in which all members of the village participated  Weddings were significant ceremonies for the entire community  Marriages bound families—and often wealth—together  They marked the admission of a new household to the community  Because property and community approval were involved, weddings were public affairs  Other festivals were associated with the passage of stages of the agricultural cycle  Festivals released community members from labour and presented opportunities to resolve community squabbles  Festivals also offered the chance for the social hierarchy of the community to be placed on public display
  21. 21. Wedding Feast at Bermondesy
  22. 22. BONUS: Ignorance Is Not Bliss  Despite the print revolution, most Europeans remained illiterate  The common man’s sense of the world around him was individual and experiential, not scientific  16th century society was imbued with the magical  Magical solutions abounded for medical problems, changes in the weather, disastrous harvests, and for prediction of future events  Use of magical powers for evil was considered witchcraft  Consultation with the black powers of evil spirits and the devil, himself, brought the repressive powers of the churches into play  Prosecutions for witchcraft became common in the sixteenth century  Women were most often the objects of prosecutions for witchcraft
  23. 23. # of Witchcraft Persecutions
  24. 24. What’s Next?  Large changes in Europe  Social, political, cultural and scientific revolutions are brewing  Conflict between societies  Nobles vs. Peasants  Church vs. Peasants  Control vs. Freedom of Knowledge
  25. 25. Sources  Civilization in the West, Kishlansky, Geary, and O’Brien, Longman, New York, 1998.  http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/files/2008/06/r ace-history-great-chain-of-being.jpg

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