Greatest between Great Britain and Germany German industry had become more efficient thanBritish A commercial war Germany more modern
Britain accepted the challenge and built theDreadnought, a super battle ship Neither power wanted to make the first move tofight, but neither would back down Naval race heightened the tension leading to war
Kaiser Wilhelmwanted Germanyamong the worldpowers◦ Challenge Britain’ssupremacy (economicand naval) By 1900 Germany’snavy was 2ndonly toGreat Britain Naval race had begun
Nationalism gaverise to a bullyingoutlook Amongst weakernations, itbecame an outletfor aggression,anxiety orinferiority
Alsace-Lorraine was a constant sense ofbitterness for French◦ Seized by Germany◦ Forbade speaking and teaching of French in schools Provided hatred towards Germany
Gaining Alsace-Lorraine added to national pride Pan-German League dreamed of a Germancontrolled Europe◦ Converted Hitler, had Nazi principles New railway promised further German political andcommercial domination
Conflict between Austrian and Hungarianmonarchies Too many different ethnic groups All want to separate Hard too because of the unity in the army Serbia gains independence Other ethnicities jealous
Serbians were aided by the Pan-Slavistmovement◦ Wanted to unite all peoples of Slavic blood under theleadership of Russia Russia wanted to unite all the Slovak states Wanted to control Austria
Read the article “Militarism: The PhilosophyBehind War” and answer the followingquestions:1) Why did Heinrich von Treitschke regard war asa far more desirable condition than peace?2) According to Treitschke, what is theindividual’s highest responsibility?3) According to Treitschke, what function doesthe hero serve in national life?
13 In 1914, European diplomats were unable or unwilling tofind diplomatic alternatives. Europeans believed that no state should dominateinternational affairs. States attempted to gain advantages, but the notion of areasonable balance of power always persisted. Since the victory of Germany over France in 1871, theGerman Empire became the most important state inEurope.
14 France yearned for revenge Russia & Austria-Hungry wanted to expand Italy aspired to become a major player England was not interested in European expansion, but onlyon its imperial efforts throughout the world In 1881, Bismarck created the Three Emperors League, inwhich German, Italy and Austria-Hungary agreed:◦ “In case one of the High Contracting Parties should find itself atwar with a fourth Great Power, the others shall maintain towards ita benevolent neutrality and shall devote their efforts to thelocalization of the conflict” This left France without allies so they aligned with Russia andGreat Britain
16 Decay of Ottoman Empire created instability in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary tried to create a multinational empire in a timeof nationalism, unsuccessful. Serbians (Slavs) turned to Russia, creating great tension. June 28th, 1914… Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir tothe throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a young Serbiannationalist, Gavrilo Princip. Germany declared war with Russia and France. Germany using the neutral Belgium forced Britain into the war. Events unfolded and on August 3rd, Germany invaded Belgiumand WWI began.